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Full text of "Josef Soudek Collection 1885-1990"

BOX 12A, 
POLDERS 14 




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n.u«HiNa. N. Y. 

'OFFICE op THE REGI8TRAR Novembcr 6, 1944 

D^« Joseph Soud«k 
Queens College 
Plushing, New York 

Dear Josephs 

Thanks for ooming through in time of need and joining foroes "with 
me for our radio program on Tuesday, November I4th, 8tOO to 8^30 ?•!£• on 
Station TfNYC» As I pointed out, the topic of cur forum is **Germany and World 
Peace**, this belng program #1 of the ^^ueens College educational series called 
*^inning the Peace'*'» We are due at the Station studio in the Municipal 
Building at 7 P«M« It "»dll be helpful if all Speakers meet eaoh other before 
that time and get a line on eaoh other» s views» To that ind I should like 
you to be ny guests at dinner on the evening of the same day« Please meet 
me in the main lobby of the Munioipal Building at 6 PJi« and we shall repair 
to the nearby Caruso Restaurant* 

The Speakers ivill be Mlled as followss 

1« Mr» Oliver Eiester - of the Engineering Firm of Stevenson, 
Jordan, and Harrison - "The View of an American Management 
Engineer". 

2» Professor Ernest Brenneoke - of the Department of English, 
Columbia University - »"The View of a German -American"» 

3« Dr» Joseph Soudek - Department of Eoonomics, Queens College - 
"The View of a Former Financial ßditor of. the Frankfurter 
Zeitung «** 

They will speak in this order, after a brief introduction by yours truly» 
Eaoh Speaker is asked to tim« hig presentation at not more than 6 minutes » 
We shall then have ten minutes left for a brief free discussion of eaoh 
other *s views* Under separate cov-er, I am mailing to you a number of postal 
card announoements of the program, whioh you may wish to send to friends and 
other Potential listeners» 

Sinoe the time allotted to eaoh of us is very short« it will be 
neoossary to limit ourselves to a very few individual and central question« 
of t he fftiole prolhlem« Each Speaker will have his own favorite angle, his 
speoialty^ hie own view of what are the most crueial issues* You are invited 
and urged to present your individual views as personally, drastioally, and 
freely as you like* While doing this, however, may I suggest that you touoh 
upon some or all of the following issuest 

I* Is it possible and desirable to have both Germany and world peaoe;?' 

II« If not» then what should we do a%out Germany and the world? 

III* If so, then how should this possibility and desirability 



PLUSHINO. N. y. 



OFFICE OF THK RCGISTRAR 

Professor Soudek 



-2- 



November 6, 1944 



be reallzed? 

A* Viat are the faotors that made and may oontinua to mak« 
Germaxiy a menaoe to -world peaoa? 

B* How oan these faotors ba overoome? 

1. Politioally# 

a* Puniehnect of oriminals 

b. Radistribution of territory or population 

o» Form of government (national and International) 

2* Eoonomically 
a* Reparations 
b« German industry 
0* Make Germany an agrarian 6 täte 

3« Educationally 
a* Prussianism 
b« The "other Germany* 

o« Reeduoationt by United Nations, or by Germans, 
or how? 

In my introduotory^remarke I shall point outt 

!• niat all of US speak as AmerioanSf though with different 
baokgrounds« 

2« That Germany is Problem #1 in the matter of '^Winninf^ the Peace". 

3« That Germany is at the moment the big black sheep in the family 
of nations and ha s been oommitting mayhem and murder» 

4« That some advocate ohopping off its head • ii^ioh would deprive 
US of a oultural foroe that produced men like Goethe, Heine» 
Beethoven» Thomas ICann« 

5« That others advooate welcoming back the prodigal without ptn^lty 
after Nazism is defeated - which ivould in no Kay proteot us from 
future aggression» 

6« That we must lock for a realistio» produotive, and absei utely 
safe Solution between these extremes* 

lüsll, here*8 to a good program« I trust ire shall not be too pollte 
with eaoh other and shall not pull our punohes* In keen antioipation of 
November 14th9 I am 



Cordially yours. 




HLiMZ 



Harold Lens» Chairman Program ^1 
Fall Radio Series« 1944 



The New York Times 
Brooklyn-Queens E''ition 
November 
page 5 



12,1944 



Queens College professors will 
discuss Problems involved in "Win- 
ning the Peace" during a aeries of 
eight weekly programs to be 
broadcast over the municipal Sta- 
tion WNYC beginning Tuesday at 
8-30 P. M. The first discussion will 
deal with "Germany and World 
Peace" and will f eature Dr. Joseph 
Soudek, former financial editor of 
the Frankfurter Zeitung and ^ow 
attached to the coUege's Depart- 
ment of Economics; Prof. Ernest 
Brennecke of Columbia; Dr. Har- 
old Lenz of the Queens German 
Department and Oliver Heister. 



•"he Crown 
November 14,1944 



Winning Peace 
Radio Series 
Opens Tonight 

"Germany and World Peace" 
will be discussed on the opening 
program of the Queens College 
Radio Series "Winning the Peace," 
which will be broadcast tonight 
over WNYC at 8:30 p.m. 

Dr. Joseph Soudek, of the Econ- 
omics Dept. and former financial 
editor of the "Frankfurter Zeit- 
ung," Prof. Emest Brennecke of 
Columbia University s p e a k i n g 
from the viewpoint of a German- 
American, and Mr. Oliver Hiester, 
giving the views of an American 
Management Engineer, will par- 
ticipate in the panel discussion. 
Dr. Harold Lenz, of the German 
Dept, will preside. 

The topic for next week's pro- 
gram will be "Japan and World 
Peace" with Prof. John Meng as 
chairman, ^ , 



Ihe New York Times 
November 14,1944 



i ••«•-WKAF-Otnny Slmnu. Sonff, »»» 

chlld OrchMtra. Choru« 
WOR— Frank StnKlser, New« 
WJZ-New» Reports 
WABC-Sketch-Blg Town. Wlth 

Ed Pawley. Fran Carlon 
WMCA-N. Y. Tlmet Newi 
WNYC-Queens CoUefe Forumt Ger- 

many and World P"ce-Prof Har- 

old Lenz. Oliver Heister, Prof. 

Krnest Brenneke. Dr. Joteph 

Soudek 
WHN-Molly Plcon Show 
WNEW-Recorded Muilc 
WEVD— News In Tlddun 
. WQXR— Newi Report« _ _.. 



THE QUEENS COLLEGE FCHUM 

"WINIÜNG THE PEACE" 

A series of eight forum discus- 
sions Tuesday evenings, 8:00 - 8:30 

Hl lyj?9j^^ ^± ^^L 

CEEmNG PRO&HAM 

Nov. 14 GERIIAITY' MD WOELD PEACE 

Prof, Harold Lenz, DepH of 

German, Queens College, chai man 

Mr« Oliver Hiester, Engineer 
"The View of an American 
Management Engineer^ 

Prof. Ernest Brennecke, DepH 
of English, Columbia Univ. 
"The View of a German-Americanf' 

Dr. Joseph Soudek, Dep» t of 
Economics, Queens College "The 
View of a Former Financial Ed- 
itor of the F rankfurter Zeitung 

PROGRAIiS TG FOLLOW: ~~ 

Nov. 21 JAPAN AND TOHLD PEACE 
Prof. John Meng,chairman 
Nov. 28 IMPEHIALISM AND VJOHLD RBACE 
Dr. Josephine Pisani, chairman 

Write in your comments to Herbert 
Scshueler, Director of Radio Educar- 
tion, Qiaeens College, Flushin^^N.Y. 



TKE QUEENS COLLEGE FORUM 

"WINiaNG THE PEACE" 

A series of eight forum discus- 
sions Tuesday evenings, 8:00 - 8:30 

111 £»_Ö30_on the diaL^ 

CPENING PROORAM 

Nov. 14 G-ERIIANY" AND WORLD PEACE 
Prof. Harold Lenz, DepU of 
German, Queens College, chairman 

Mr. Oliver Hiester, Engineer 
"The View of an American 
Management Engineer^ 

Prof. Ernest Brennecke, DepH 
of English, Columbia Univ. 
"The View of a German-American** 

Dr, Joseph Soudek, Dep» t of 
Economics, Queens College "The 
View of a Former Financial Ed- 
itor of the F rankfurt er Zeitung 

PROGRAI,IS TG FOLLOW: ' 

Nov. 21 JAPAN AI^ID WORLD PEACE 
Prof. John Meng, chairman 
Nov. 28 IMPERIALISM AND VTORLD PEACE 
Dr, Josephine Pisani, chairman 

Write in your comments to Herbert 
Schueler, Director of Radio Educar- 
tion, Queens College, Flushing,N.y. 



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Aufbau 

November 17,1944 

page 6 



Aus den Studios der 
Sendestationen 

«•Winning the Peace" Diskussionen 

Prof. M:hoI(I I.( nt/. vom (icrmyn U«'- 
nartmiMit cl<-s gu.<iis U^Wt-ar Ist 'l«;'' '-.«'"- 
tci- ilfr Si-iie v<»ii l)i>;Wussion<'ii Wiii- 
niu« the IVace" iibt-r WNYC ipgclmassi« 
DtenstaB« 8-8 :n« p. m. Das Thema am 
ai. Nov«-!!!!)!-!- laulfl: "lapan and tUc 
NVorld IVai-c", am '^S. Novomber: • Iin- 
nciialisni mul World l'eace". An «len 
Aiisr.praihni iirlimtii u .h. teil: Präsi- 
dent Püul Khinixr und Joseph /.mideK, 
friiherfr Redakteur «n der "Franklur- 
trr Zeitunu". 



New York Post 
November 15,1944 
page 40 



Speakers Agree on What 
to Do With Germany 

A discussion of what to do with 
Germany, presented last night in 
the Queens College Series 
(WNYC, Tuesday, 8), found the 
Speakers largely in agreement on 
main points: complete military 
defeat of Germany; military oc- 
cupation; punishment of Nazis 
and Army leaders;-no dismem- 
berment of Germany and no de- 
struction of its industries but a 

redirection of its economy and 
industry under United Nations 
control; nullification of Nazi 
ideology through educational, cul- 
tural, governmental reorientation 
and reconstruction. Speakers 
were: Dr. Joseph Soudek, former 
financial editor of the Frank- 
furter Zeitung; Prof. Ernst Bren- 
neke of Columbia University, 
Prof. Harold Lenz of Queens Col- 
lege; Dr. Heister, an engineer. 



THE QUEENS COLLEGE FCRUM 

"WINIÜNG THE FE ACE" 

A series of eight forum discus- 

sions Tuesday evenings, 8:00 - 8:30 

1-1 £> J30__on the dial, 

CPENING PROGRAM 

Nov. 14 GERIIANT AN13 WORLD PEACE 
Prof. Harold Lenz, Dep« t of 
Gerraan, Queens College, chairmaii 

Mr. Oliver Hiester, Engineer 
"The View of an American 
Management Engineer^ 

Prof. Ernest Brennecke, Cep» t 
of English, Columbia Univ. 
"The View of a Germ an- American* 
Dr. Joseph Soudek, Lep» t of 
Economics, Queexxs College "lihe 
View of a Former Financial Bd- 
itor of the F rankf urter Zeitung 

PROGRAliS TG FOLLCWi ~ -—==^ 

Nov. 21 JAPAN ML TOHLL PEACE 
Prof. John Meng,chairman 
Nov. 28 IMPERIALISM AND 170HLD PEACE 
Dr. Josephine Pisani, chairman 

Write in your comments to Herbert 
Schueler, Director of Radio Educar- 
tion, Queens College, Flushing^N.Y, 



7 



II immwy 



1^ 



I 







Practically all people who are concerne'^ about Germany's future 
Position ir lhe Torl'^ agree that her economy will havc to uii'^er- 
go ''rastic changes if she is to be Irans former^ from a permanent 
-^isturbor of into a contributor to ^Yorl'' Fec.ce, This war more than 
any of Germany's previous aggressions has sufl'iciently ''emons trata-' 
how 3trongly her military s irength is base'' on her economic power 
er rather on the resourcefulness of her in^iiütry. It therefore 
appears but logical that even well informe'' economists shoul'^ jump 
to the conclusion that a thorough ''esiruction of her in^'ustrial 
machine woul'' prcvent Bermany from her ever buil'^ing up again mi- 
litary strength. "his Solution, however,besi^es being unrealistic 
misses the point : an agrarian Germany coul'' not support her pre- 
sent popiilation,woul-^ lose all contact with the family of nations 
into which she is Huppose^' to return an'' woul'' become a center of 
unrest. It is not Germany* s in'^us ry or economy as such which pro- 
''uces or at least Supports ag^^ression but the specific use to which 
-i-t was put by the rulers of Imperial Germany an'' the JTazis. Due to 
the limilation of her natural rescourses Gerraany has to exchange 
on the World market manufacture'' goc's gainst foo'^stuff an'' inf'u- 
strial raw '2^;/lerials. But instea'' of using her foreign tra''e ex- 
clusively to improve the con'^ition of her population, Gerraany ira- 
porter' mainly coiiimO''ities essential for -ar in'^ustries an'' tra^e»' 
preferably with nations whom she coul'' exploit at will. On this 
point, the issue of German economy becomes a problem of a more ge- 
neral characier : if the German people are to become a peaceful 
nation ^ii»ti they will have to chai.ge or are to be compelle'' to 
change their attitu^'e towar''s economy as towar'^s all other ways 
of life. Inr'ustrial pro-'uction an'' foreign tra''e,in the opinion 
of all r'ecent nations, are a means of increasing the mateiial 
wellbeing of a people. Only ''angerous perversion of all stan''ar''s 
of Value coul'' make ix''ustrial pro''uction an instrument of increas- 
ing mililary power, '^iiart has been ''one in Nazi Germany an'' it there- 
fore forms a part of the ree^'ucation of the German people to teach 
them the natural an'' ^'ecen' use of their economic means. ITobo^'y, 
howevei;will claim ihat the Allie'' nations coul'' or shoul'' solely 



- 2 - 



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'*epen'' on e'^ucation an'' on the change of heart however honest it 
m4ght be if thej,' wrnt lo bring about a correction of the German 
atlitu'^e ^ewsT'^s economy. Common sense an"" experience likewise sug- 
gest that effeclive control of the entire economy will be necessary 
if this goal is lo be accomplishe''. Bui what ^oes control mean 7 Is 
it a thorough supervision in TJazi ifashion of all stages of the future 
German prc'uc-tion ? Apan from all lechnical '^ifficulties ,such con- 
trol woul'' necessitate a permanent occupation of Germany ''esire'' by 
none of the Unite'' nations. Control therefore can only relate to the 
control of socalle^' s trategic ^ßosLÜions. Some will think of imports 
especially in face of the fact that Gerruany is ''evoi'' of so many »aw 
materials basic to war pro''uction lī copper,iron,manganese etc. 
But Germany will have to import iron,even if she inten''s to ''o no 
more that just keep her or'^iaary peace economy going, Shoul'' we then 
think of socalle'' key in^'ustries upon which the waging of war is vi- 
tally ''epen'^ent Äs e.g. iron an** steftl in''ustry or the prc'uction of 
machine tools ? iheir f'estruction woul'' amount to breaking up the 
basis of any mc'ern in^'ustrial prc'uction an'^ this woul'^ be beyon^' 
the aim. Yet there are certain in'^usiries Tfithout which Germany can 
easily go along an'' which are essential in meiern war fare, such as 
the prc'uction of almminimijSynthetic oil an'' above all of airplanes. 
Their suppression will no ''oubt ''eprive Germany of any commercial 
an'' military aviation an-^ thus eliminate one of the basic factors in 
moi'ern iÄÄ»fl-Hfia^l warfare. Such control of the most ''angerous Strate- 
gie positions in economy not only is feasible but less costly than 
any other an'' «»ry effeclive. It will have to be complemente'' by a 
shift in her agriculture from the artificial orientation towar^'s self- 
sufficiency to orien-iation on the worl'' market. A shift of this sort 
can be brought about by *- if necessary enforcc' - re-'uction of the 
tariffs on grain an'' it will be necessi^tAte*' by the loss of grain 
grirwing areas in the Säst. AtxxksxiKm« Simultaneously , this shift 
will un^'erDiine or even ''estroy the economic basis of the political/i ^ 
power of the Junkers ,who together with their frien^'s in the heavy ' 
in''ustry an'' their sons in the military caste have create'' tiatt-per- 
verte^ atti1u''e towar''s economy as a means of power poliiics. A Ger- 
many thus converte'' to a peaceful economy can be expecter' to become 
a country we Americans an*' the other nations can ''o business with. 



r / 



^^- 9 .-,T' 



/ 



Preotloally all p«ople who «r^ ©->ne^m«d ftbottt €M»f»efty*« 
futur g pooition In th # World a|fp ft » that hör •o^now y ^tlXl 
bft¥ > ^ tQ imd^rgo - drjkstlo oh^rni ^ftfl JJ^-jd^g-ii?.!^ 
f^r^m-^ P < >m i* nent xllitturl>ar^-Ag^ Into-^^ c on tr l butor 4^^ 
P4N^ee* Thiö '^i^r more than *itny >f aerrscny'o previoue k^^.^&C'fi^^ 

•Ions haa sufflolently de^sonntr^ted how strorgly her nlllt- 
ary f^trenjpjth Is baßed on Yif^v eoonoalo pow^^r or rtther on 
th# reöouroöfuln^^QS of h^r lndu8ti?y« It th«refore ^ppeÄra 
but loglo&l thfat ©von \/ell Infox^aed eo^ronilsts should Jtenp 
to the cunoluslon th^t u tl orough cieQtructl>n of tsMV 
Industrlal mttohlne vfould prevsnt Of^-nißny from ©ver rebuild- 
Ing hfr lillltiry strenijth« Thla fiolutlün, howov?*rp beeldes 
belng unreallatlo raisses the polnt: üh f*gr; rlan f/f-rn&ny 
oould not fsapport b<*p prf*f=^«int populatlon, -ould lose i 11 
cantf ot \/lth th*» feially of natl ns Into vhioh ßhe Is 
»upposed to return fnd ^^ould bec im« a oenter of unreif t. 
It Iß not öf^rsjftr^ö Industry ov econoray ^r^ such •'>ilch pro- 
dtio«^8 or at l«aet ««iipports < ggre??8lon but It le th« specific 
Uß« to whioh tfe«-a<h- p e «ourQ ' a ^4^^t^ put by the rulers of 
larerial Oensiiny isnd the f^azls. Due to the limlti*tl3n of 
\)^'.T nit^tur^l resouroes Gftinju«ny Ims to ezo^a*ng« manufc^otured 
(foodd for foodßtuff« i nd Indus tri al raw aat«»rlal8 on the 
vorld i3!f«rJtet. Bat Inste, d of unlng her forelgn tri de 
exoluslvely to lopvov« the o>ndltl m of her po ulatlon, 
Oertoany Iwported malnly ootsisodltlf?© f?s^ertlal for var 
Industrie»© and tradod preff^rably vith ^/ei k natlons -/hoE 
«he uld «xplolt at will. On thio roint» — th e Isoue of 

^WBian #^m >«y b^e-m»»^-^ i>roblesi of *^ »ore fgeneral - ohfirae %er t 



< 



^ t ^ 

»Hi ll htr v# t o a htoiH? < o^ l a *«» t o b i> o np » ll # d - t o o}ifc nr : #-UH»ir 

Induötrlftl produotl n and forelgn trt^de. In the oplnlon 
of all deccnt Htttl i^n«, ure a m8i«nfi of Increaßlng the 
rant^rlftl wellb«lng of a people. Only di^ngerous pf^rverßlon 
of ä11 üti^^ndard« of valu« could neJce Induötrlttl produotlon an 
Instmm^^t of Increaelng mllltary TX>wer. Thl« ^ifi3 been 
done In !?a2l (leyts. ny and It therofore »u«t #oorae an 
litTJortimt nart of th# r<»-<^(1uoiitlon of tho Oerrstin Peopl© 
to teach tham ü morm benefloial uöi» of th«lr ooonojsla jaeant 
Wo>^»ody, ho ♦eT'r, will ciain that tha Alllod natlons could 
or Rhould rely ffolely on *^öuo&tlon 4.nd m the cha ng« of 
hei*rt ho rnrnr hon^^nt It alght he If th«*y want to bring a^at 
a corraotlon of the Oernan outloolu Corsnon senne and 
exp?r lenoe llkmfine f5u:treflt that • ffictlve control of the 
entlre eoonoay vlll c>e n^ooßßary If thla noal Ig to b« 
aooo!9i>lli^hed« 3ut vhat d<)flp c 5ntrol meim7 It » 1 



8 t i? ^'f rvi -a4t>n Its Naxl fe ehion g»f frll et^>?«#~ef^ th*^ f «t ans 



f 



Ci^»!»*^»«* pz*odixotit>n7 



-is>?fr all t#eh{virOal dlffl^ultlesi 



auob^^oonti^ol :'<ould-iMi«i^a44rta^t^ a p«iSt.i*^4M«^ t>oo«i>teti'>n of 
CWamany da2lr«»d by nana .gf ^tha iMlted l^t^U>n8« Control 
thetuif ora o^Ä anly rtiX fe ta t o tha <wntrol 4>f «o«ä1 l ad s tPi^ t- 
a^l o po«l t4<mB, uo nt a will thlnX ^f" la?x»r% a^ »ap#ei<3clly^ 1^=» 
fao a of tha faat th4fct^ G a r a &ay la dffvold of «o «6jiy u*^ 
a^^t^rlal« ba«ia to-*#<*i« ?>poa«otloft »ucür^aa- aappap,n^n, 

IX-aiia lutaiiAa ta>~^U>^ Ro aK>p# than Ju«^ H##t> her ordinary 
pt&Oft fiODÄOiay ^ ^;alag. Therafore ßhould. -^a thlnli of socalled 
Kay Indaatrl eo upon »hit>h the^ ^^r^±npr rrt-rsT^ tn ^nturiy 




Certainly not a thorough supervision of all strges of prc'uciion 
nhich noul^ necessita^e a permanem occupaUon of Germany ''e.ire'' 
by non of ihe ünite-' NaUons. Nor .'oes conirol mern a SEgSjJJÜJgg 
of Imports of commo-6ties such as copper ,iron,manganese which k. 
nill h.ve to go on for normal purposes or the breaking up of key 
in^usirirs such as steel pro-uction ^hich forms the basis of any 
mo''«rn in''us rial struc^ure. 



• ö • 

c Upe n g ^Rt J>^ ^ȣ* Iron und ateil imlustry of the produotlon 
of-A&chln« taoXs? Tl^eir der-truotlon wo «Id «ifsount to break Ing 

•j^ttld go b#yond th« f.l«. Yet ther« i^n^ c rtaln Induetrle« 
whioh C^f^natny oan do wlthout and whtoh are esaentlal in 
modern ^farfam, such aß the prodtaxtlon of altURlnum, synth^tl« 
oll and sxbovm all^ of airplanes« Thelr ??uppresßlon will 
deprlvft 0«many of &ny ooanorolttl i-nd ialllt«ry övl&tlon 
and ellclnate on» of the moat fundiiisental f&otors In oiodom 
warfare« ^^«oh ct>tvtge l of th » aQat - dfang f*r att a atr^ t^gl^ 
.p^^^ tion»^ not only l# f#ft»lbl^ but lf^«s ooit^lrly ^hÄfr-isny 
-o^IvfH^-fefiä ^»t th# «mm^ tlMÄ ^ill j^rov« 1 l«0l^ v e ry -e f f f> o %4ry^^-- 
it"^ylll hftre to b e-eerypl efa e nt e d by-i^-^s^'^ lX t l yv h«r agrloulture 
/Trbn the örtlflolal orlentßtlon to«#^ rd eelf-^uf flclency to 
orlent&tlon on the '/opld mar^cet» iL-»l:j4,iit~-af -tJi4*~-«ojp-t- ean 
b« brouitjht &bout or If neoec? ary '^ven be enforoed by the 
reductlon of the turlffe on graln and will be neoessltated 
by the looe of gr^^ln i^ro'^ing area-n in the r.Äf5t» nimultcne )U9- 
ly, thl8 aMft will undf?rrnlne or even destroy the economlo 
b&c^le of the polltlCÄl pover of th« Jun -ero, vho together 
wlth thelr frlends engai^ed In hoevy Industry end thelr sona 
In the »llltary cente hive fo8t*^red that p?^rv rted attitude 
tovards f^oonoiay aß a aean^ <^f j>ower polltlce« A öftmany 
thuB oonverted to a peaceful **oonof5y can be exp*>cted to 
beoorae a oountry we Aiaerlcane and the oths^r na t Ions oan 
do bueln^se wlth« 



Praotloally all people who are oonoerned about öermany'B 
future Position In the World agree that her eoonomy will 
have to undergo draetlo ohenges If ehe Ifl to be tranflforraed 
from a permanent dlsturber of Into a oontrlbutor to World 
Peaoe. Thia war more than any of CJerraany's prevloua aggreg- 

elons has sufflolently demonstrated how strongly her mlllt- 
ary ßtrength Is based on her eoonoralc power or rather on 
the resouroefuln^ss of her Industry. It therefore appears 
but logloal that even ^^ell Inforraed eoonoralsts should Jump 
to the conoluslon that a thorough deetructlon of her 
Industrlal machlne would prevent Oermany from ever rebuild- 
Ing her milltary ßtrength. Thla Solution, however, besides 
belng unreallstlo mlsses the polnt: an agr&rian Germany 
oould not Support her preßent populatlon, would lose all 
contect wlth the family of nations Into whloh she Is 
supposed to return and would become a center of unrest. 
It Is not G-erman^s Industry or econoray as suoh i^rhloh pro- 
ducefl or at least Supports Eggresslon but It is the specific 
use to whlch these resouro^s were put by the rulers of 
Imperial Gerraany and the Nazis. Due to the 1 Imitat Ion of 
her natural resources Germany has to exchange raanufactured 
gooda for foodstuffs and industrial raw materlals on the 
World marlcet. But instead of using her forelgn trade 
exolusively to impirov« the oonditlon of her population, 
Germany Iraported mainly commodities essential for war 
Industries and traded preferably with weak nations whom 
she oould explolt at will. On this polnt, the issue of 

German economy become s a problera of a more general charaoter: 



- 2 - 

If the Öerman people are to beoome a peaoeful natlon they 
will have to change or are to be o unpelled to changa thelr 
attltude towardß econoray as towardß all other waya of llfe. 
Induetrlal produotl m and forelgn trade, in the oplnlon 
of all decent nations, are a means of increaslng the 
materlal wellbeing of a people. Only dangerous perversion 
of all Standards of value could make Industrial produotlon an 
Instrument of Increaslng rallitary power, Thls has been 
done In Nazi Öerm^ny and it therefore must " eoome an 
important part of the re-eduoation of the Oerman People 
to teach them a aore beneflclal use of thelr eoonoraie means 
Nobody, ho^^erer, will clalra that the Allled nations could 
or flhould rely solely on educatlon and on the change of 
heart ho rever honest it raight be if they want to bring about 
a correotlon of the G-erman outlook. Common sence and 
experienoe llkewlse sucgest that effictive control of the 
entlre eoonomy will be neoessary If thls goal Is to be 
accoraplished« But what doee control mean? It is a thorough 
supervlslon in Nazi fashion of all stages of the future 
Q-erman produotlon? Apart frora all technlcal dlff loulties, 
such control would neceseitate a permanent occupatlon of 
ßermany deslred by none of the United Nations, Control 
therefore oan only relate to the oontrol of sooalled Strat- 
egie positions. Some will thlnk of iniDorte eapecially in 
faoe of the fact that Q^ermany is devold of so many war 
meterlals basio to war produotlon »^oh as oopper, Iron, 
manganese eto. But aermany will have to Import Iron, even 
if she Int ende to do no more than Just keep her ordlnary 
pe&oe eoonomy going. Therefore should we thlnk of sooalled 
key Industries upon which the waglng of rar is vltally 



- 3 - 

dependent ae e.g, Iron and steil Induatry of the produotlon 
of maohlne tools? Thelr deßtruotlon wonld araount to breaklng 
up the basls of any reodern Industrlal structure and thls 
would go beyond the alm. Yet there are c^rtaln Industries 
whioh Oermany can do wlthout and whloh are essentlal In 
modern warfare, such as the produotlon of alumlnum, synthetia 
oll and above all, of airplanes. Thelr suppreselon will 
deprlve Oermany of any oommerolal and mllltary avlatlon 
and ellmlnate one of the most fundamental factors In modern 
warfare, 3uoh control of the most dangerous Strategie 
pOFltlons not only Is faaslble but less costly than any 
other and at the same tlrae will prove Itself very effectlve. 
It will have to be complemented by a shlft In her agrloulture 
from the artlflclal orlentatlon toward self-eufflclency to 
orlentatlon on the world market« A shlft of thls sort ean 
be brought about or If necespary even be enforced by the 
reductlon of the tarlffs on graln and will be neoef3sltated 
by the loss of graln growlng areas In the East. Slmultaneous- 
ly, thls shlft will underraine or even destroy the economic 
basls of the polltloal power of the Junkers, who together 
wlth thelr frlends engaged In heavy Industry and thelr sons 
In the mllltary caste have fostered that perverted attltude 
towards eoonomy as a means of power polltlos. A Gerraany 
thus converted to a peaoeful eoonomy can be expected to 
beoorae a oountry we Amerlcans and the other natlons can 
do bualness wlth» 



J^^ 



! 1 



i 



This war more than any of Germany^s previous aggressions has suffi- 
ciently ''emonstrate»' how strongly her military strength is base^ on 
her economic power or rather on the resourcefulness of her in^'ustry. 
It therefore appears but logical that even well informe'' economists 
shoul'' jump to the conclusion that a thorough ^estruction of her 
in'^ustrial machine woul«' prevent Germany firom ever rebuil'^ing her 
military strength, This Solution, howeverjbesi^'es being unrealistic 
misses the point : an agrarian Germany coul'^ not support her present 
Population, woul'* lose all contact with the family of nations into 
which she is suppose** to return an'' woul'' become a center of unrest. 
It is not Germany* s in'*U3 try or economy as such which pro-'uces or 
at least Supports aggression but ii is the specific use to which her 
pro'^uction was put by the rulers of Imperial Germany an^ the Nazis. 
Z)ue to the limitation of her natural resources Germany has to exchange 
manufactured goo^^s for foc^stuff an^^ in<^ustrial raw materials on the 
worl'' market. But instea<^ of using her foreign tra'^e exclusively to 
improve the con^ition of her population, Nazi Germany Importen' mainly 
commc'ities essential for war inf'ustries an'' tra'^e*' preferably with 
weak nations whom she coul-' exploit at will. In'^ustrial prc'uction 
an'' foreign tra''e,in the opinion of all ''ecent nations, are a means 
of increasing the material wellbeing of a people. Only '^angerous per- 
version of all stan'^ar^'s of value coul'' make in''u3trial prc'uction 
an Instrument of increasing iqiiilitary power. This has been ''one in 
Nazi Germany an'' it therefore must become an Import ant part of re- 
e^'ucation of the German people to teach them a more beneficial use 
of their economic means. Nobc'y ,however,will claim that the Allie'' 
nations coul'' or shouli' rely solely on e'^ucation an«' on the change 
of heart however honest it might be if they want to bring about a 
correction of the German outlook. Common sense an'' experience like- 
wise suggest that effective control of the entire economy will be 
necessary if this goal is to be accomplishe''. But what «'oes control 
mean ? Certainly not a thorough supervision of all stages of prc'uction 
in Nazi fashion which woul** necessita^e a permanent occupation of 
Germany ''esire'' by none of the ünite'' Nations. Nor ''oes control mean 
a Prohibition of Imports of commo''ities such as iron,copper,manganese 
which will have to go on for normal purposes or the breaking up of 



- 2 - 



key in''ii3tries such as steel pro'^uction which forms the basis of 
any mo''ern in^^ustrial s rudure. Yet there are certain in''ustries 
which Germany can ''o without an'' which are essential in meiern war 
fare, such as the pro''uction of aluminum,3ynthetic oil an'' above all, 
of airplanes. Their suppression will ''eprive (rermany of any commercial 
an'' military avia-tion an^ eliminate one of tiie most fun^'amental factors 
in mo''ern warfare. In a''''ition to this,her agriculture will havo to 
be shifte*^ from ^he artificial orientation towarr* self-sufficiency 
to orientation on the worl(' market. A shift of this sort can be brought 
about or if necessary even be enforce*' by the re''uction of the tariffs 
on grain an'' will be necessitate'' by the loss of grain grwwing areas 
in the East. Simultaneously, this shift will un^'ermine or even f'estroy 
the economic basis of the political power of the Junkers, who together 
with their frien^'s engagc' in heavy in^^us^ry an^' their sons in the 
military caste have festere'' that perverte^' attitu''e towar^'s economy 
as a means of power politics. A Germany thus converte^' to a peaceful 
economy can be expecte'' to become a country we Americans anf' the other 
nations can ''o business with. 



PLUSHINO, N. Y. 



OFFICE OF THB REGISTRAR 



NoTomber 21 ^ 1944 



Dr« Joseph Soudek 
Queens College 
Flushing« New York 

Dear Dr« Soudek t 

Permi t me to follour up my informal expresslon of 
thanks to you the other day ivith an official recognition of 
your wlllingness to help me in tine of need^ and the exoellent 
quality of your help» I have reoeived many oominents regard- 
ing our program irtiich astonished me someirtiat« Judging f rom 
these comments^ I find I inust revise my opinion of our programi 
We thought we were fairly good« Actually we were exoellent - 
or we have a body of biased listeners* 

It will interest you to know that some twenty-three 
high scheel» of New York City have asked for oopies of our 
Script with a view to putting it to use in the classroon. 
I have no Information as yet as to what use, if any, will be 
made of the OHI reoordingi in any case, 1 shall notify you if 
I hear of anything interestisg« 

Thanks again, and I trust we shall meet more often 
than at radio programs* 

Vary sincerely yours^ 




Barold Lens 
HLtMZ Assistant Professor of German 



415 West 118 Street 
New York 27, N.Y. 
15. NoTember 1944 



Lieber Herr Doktor: 



Muttel und ich hörten nttiirlich mit ^rösster Spannung 
Ihren Vortrag und ich möchte Sie ▼or allem zu der Vollkommenheit 
Ihrer englischen Aussprache beglackw'Jnschen. Es ist keine Ueber- 
treibung,\^enn ich Ihnen sage, dass ich noch keinen Mitteleurop'aer, 
der ungefähr um dieselbe Zeit nach Amerika kam i»ie Sie, so akzent- 
frei sprechen hörte, ob es nun Einstein, Werfel, Thomas Mann, 
oder ein weniger berühmter Emigrant nar. Wenn meinem Affidarit- 
geber gegenüber Neid nicht automAtisch ausschalten nürde , hätte 
ich mich wohl einer neidischen Regung kaum erwehren können, denn 
eine gute englische Aussprache ist ein unerfüllbarer Ehrgeiz, der 
mich ständig quält, 

aber 

Der Inhalt Ihres Vortrages interessierte mich/natürlich 
noch mehr als seine Wiedergabe und so lanpe Sie sprachen, er- 
schien mir die Lösung, die Sie Torschlupen, so einleuchtend, ein- 
fach und gleichzeitig überraschend, wie das Ei des Columbus. Ich 
muss Ihnen aber eingestehen, dass mir die Einwände, die in der 
nachfolgenden Diskussion Ton Prof. Brennecke erhoben wurden, auch 
einleuchteten und dass er wahrscheinlich leider recht hat. Die 
Deutschen würden sich natürlich einen Ersatz für die Materialien 
Terschaffen, die Sie ihnen entziehen wollen und es würde sich 
in den allierten Ländern immer wieder ein Chamberlain und ein 
Senator Wheeler finden, die ein Eingreifen so lange Terhindern 
würden, bis e« zm spät ist. Der einzige Ausweg liefet wahrschein- 
lich in einer Kombination Ihres Vorschlap:es mit eini^^en anderen, 
die Ton den Herren Brennecke und Hiester gemacht wurden. Aber es 
liegt wirklich nicht bei mir, das zu entscheiden. 

Leider v^ar das Programm zeitweise durch eine Nebenstation 
gestört und da ich nicht will, dass mir das gerinrste daron ent- 
geht, habe ich an das Q,ueens Colleere geschrieben und gebeten, mir 
eine co^y zukommen zu lassen. 

Ich danke Ihnen nochmals herzlichst für die freundliche 
Verständigung, es hätte mir sehr leid getan, wenn ich erst nach- 
träglich Ton Ihrem Radio-Debut gehört hätte. 

Ich habe mich sehr gefreut zu hören, dass es Ihrer lieben 
Frau besser peht und koffe ron ganzem Herzen, dass ihre Genesung 
jetzt rasche Fortschritte machen wird. Bitte j?rüssen Sie Frau 
Heiman und Fr^u Gretel herzlichst von mir. 



Ich soll Ihnen ron meiner Mutter auch die herzlichsten 
Glfjckwünsche zu Ihrem Vortrag übermi+teln. 
Mit rielen Grüssen von uns beiden, 

Ihre 



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OECONOMICA commentary by Albert of Saxony 



d 



BRUGES, Blbliotheque de la Ville, cod.496,f .262 r^- 266 r 

Cat.Gen.Belg., 11,577 

Cfr. A Pelzer, 'Le nouveau catalogue des menuscrits 

de la vllle de Bruges * , Revue neo-scolasticue de 
Philosophie, XXXVIII (1935) 344-351 

A.De Poorter, ^iManuscrits de Philosophie aristo- 
telicienne h la Bibliothc.ue de Bruges*, Revue 
N^EOscolartioue de Philosophie, XXXiV (1933), 
56-95 

FULDA, Landesbibliothek, cod. C. 14 b. [Weingarten K.55] 

K.Loeffler, Die Handschriften des Kloster? Y/eingerten. 
Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen. Beiheft XLI (1912) 



O 



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3 



OECOITOMICA commentary by Albert of Saxony 

BRUGES, Biblioth^que de la Villa 

496 Parchment 300 ff [Parts A- E from differ- 

ent centuries; E (f. 225-267) s.XIV] 

E. 2 (262 r^ - 266 r ) Expositio Yconomice 

Fol. 262 r^t Yconomica. Iste est liber Yconomicor- 
um quem fecit AriJ=toteles, in ouo determinatur öe 
hiis . . • 

Fol. 266 r^! ... perducat Ille qui cuncta dispen- 
sat ,etc • • . 

L'auteur est encore Albert de Saxe. Cxfr. Ciancia 
Tomista,1933 [±n fact 1932] ,pp. 299-329 



O 



Catalogue gen^ral des manuscrits des bibliothenues de 
Belgique. II (1934). A De Poorter,Cstalogue des manuscrits 
de la ville de Bruges. p.577 






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OECONOMICA commentary by Dionysius Burgensis 



- 2 - 



Leipzig,Universitaetsbibliothek,cod.lat.l445 

f.l54r - l67r: Albertus de Saxonia super duos libros 

yconomicorum 

Linc.j] Yconomica et pollitica. Iste est über yconomico- 
riiin Aristotelisjin quo determinatur de hiis,quae pertinent ad re- 
gimen plurium in domo • • • 

L De sunt 5 ] ... Sic enim ... juste dispensat. Et sie sit 
finis sententiae yconomicae etc. 



Der Kodex ist identisch mit dem bei J .Feller, Catalogus codicum 
manuscriptorum bibliothecae Paulinae in Academia Lipsiensi. Leip- 
zig 1686,p«370,Nr.7 genannten Ms. Albertus de Saxonia super libros 
X ethidoruHi. 

Georg Heidingsfelder, Albert von Sachsen. Sein 
Lebensgang und sein Kommentar zur Nikomachipchen Ethik des Aristo- 
teles. Beitraege zur Geschichte der Philosophie des Mittelalters- 
Bd. XXII, Heft 3i-4 (Münster, 1921) ,65 



** 



In cod.Amplonianus lat. Fol. 365 (also Q 322 and Q 319) the 
Incipt readst ••• Iste est liber yconomicorum, quem fecit aristo- 
teles 



o 



OECONOMICA commentary by Dionysius Burgensis 

Iste est über economice quem composuit aristoteles et in eo 
determinat de hiis que pertinent ad regiminem multorum in domo. 
Postquam in libro ethicorum determinalrit de hiis que pertinent ad 
regiminem unius. Et dividitur 4ste über in duos libros partiales. 
In quorum primo determinatmc de partibus economice 



• • • 



Biblioteca Nacional,Madrid,cod,7804,f • ? - 136r! 

Incipit expositio librorum yconomicorum Aristotelis secundum 

Albertum Magnum. 

fecit 
[inc.t] Yconomica et politica differunt. Iste über auem Aris- 
toteles in quo determinatur de hiis que pertinent ad regimen plu- 
rium postquam in libro ethicorum determinavit de hiis que perti- 
nent ad regimen unius, divitur in duos libros particulsres ••• 

[Expl.sJ ••• Expücit expositio librorum yconomicorum Aristo- 
teüs secundum Albertum Magnum. 

Source: Martin Grabmann, Mittelalterliche lateinische Aristote- 
lesübersetzungen und Aristoteleskommentare in Handschriften spani- 
scher Bibliotheken. Sitzungsberichte der Bayerischen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften. Philos.-philol. Klasse, Jahrgang 1928,no.5,p.42 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, lat. 16 089,f •ll6r-134r 
Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosifna, R 36 Sup. ,f .lr-39r 

[Inc.: ?] Conservationum anlmae est eruditio. Haec propositio 
scribitur a philosopho,in epistola ad Alexandum ... 

Source: M.B.Haur^au, 'Notice sur le num^ro 16 089 des manuscrits 
latins de la Bibliotheque Nationale', Notices et Extrpits des Manu- 
scrits de,lä Bibliotheque Nationale et autres Bibliothenues. T.35 

(ß [Par±s7l896J, 226-227 

[Economics commentary by Albert of Saxony - see next pagej 



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Bartholemev/ of Bruges - Cominentrry pnd Questiones 

on the OECONOMICA 



itäiL. 







Bartholomew of Bruges - Mss. of the Que!=^tiones and Cominentrry 

A, Questiones 

PARIS, BilDliotheque Nationale 

lat. 16 089, f .116-134 (see L.Delisle, ' Inventaire des 

Fanuscrits latins de la Sor- 
bonne .. * jBibliotherue de 1*E- 
cole des Chartes,XXII (1870), 
l-50;ir>5-61) 



lat. 14 704 



(see ibid. , * Inventsire .. de 
Saint-Victor',Ibid. XXX (1369), 
1-79) 



VENICE, Biblioteca Nazionale LTarciana 

Marc. lat. VI 82, ff. 105-130: quaestiones (anon^mous) 

Valentinelli, V (1872), 11 

B. Corrjnentary 

F-PiRIS, BiLÜotheque Nationale 

lat. 16 089,f. 116-134 : quaestiones 
lat. 14 764 

ERFURT, Wissenschaftliche Bibliothek der Stadt 

Q 188 ff. 57-67 (commentary) ; 67-76^: quaestiones 

MILAI^, Biblioteca Ambrosiana 

R 36 Sup.,f.l-39 



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Bartholomew of Bruges - OECOWOMICA commentary 

M,B.Haur§au, * Notice sur le num6ro 16089 des manuscrits latins 
de la Biblioth^que Nationale' , Notlces et Extraits des Manuscrits 
de la Biblioth^que Nationale et autres Biblioth^ques. T, 35 (Paris 
lÖ96),p.226: 

•• ... Ce Barthfelemy de Bruges,entr6 ,dit-on,d la Sorbonne entre 
les ann6es 1299 et 1315 ,fut d'abord maitre ds arts,puis docteur 
en m ^dicineM ..." 

^ Franklin, La Sorbonne ,p. 224 

A. Pelzer , Bar thelemy de Bruges, philosophe et medicin du XIV® 
siecle {d.l356). Hommage a Maurice de Wulf. Revue neoscolastique 
de Philosophie, vol. 36 (1934), 459-474; on p.461 

he States only tjiat B. wrote a commentary on the Economics ±h 
1309 and refers to mss. Bibl.Nat.lat. 160ö9,ff. 133^, 151^,154"^ 
(versions commentar6s) ; Leipzig, üniversitaetsbibl. 1426,f.ll4^« 



t 



Bartholomew of Bruges - Commentary and Quaestiones on Economics 

Venice, Marc. lat. VI 82; Erfurt,Cod.Ampl-r 
Q 188 



O 



A. Commentary 

I. Dedicatory epistle: Magnae sapientiae ac nobili viro dorn, 
dom. Abaldo de Tectano,atrebatensi canonico ( Er f ur t : Hant- 
"baldo de Ceccano Attrabatensi, canonico - Paris, B.N. lat. 
I6O89: Annibalde de Cealino) ac rev. ( vener andi) in Chris- 
to patris dom. dom. lacobi Gaietani cardinalis nepoti tValen- 
tinelli: lacobus Tomasi Caietani de Anagnia,nepos pontifi- 
cus Bonifacii VIII,presbyter cardin. s.Clementi,obiit a. 
1300] (^.B.d.B.): 

(Inc.:) Cognoscens (quidem bonorum humanorum sapiencia) ,. 
nil fore divinus ac melius, nee vobis ac praedecessoribus 
vestris praeclaris sapientiae dono ... duo volumina,unum 
expositionis libelli perutilis et difficilis yconomicae 
Aristotelis,alterum quaestionum propriarum eidem libro, 
quae,de praecepto vestro,amore permanentiae philosophiae , 
nee non propter communem studiosorum utilitatem,eum non 
non modico compilavi labore . . . 



t 



II. Text of commentary 

(Inc.:) Conservativxim animae est eruditio. Haec propositio 
scribitur a philosopho in epistola ad Alexandrum, et decla- 
ratur tripliciter ... 

(Expl. C Erfurt] :) ... philosophicae dicta sunt - omne com- 
pletum,sit benedictus et laudatus. Expl. script. sup. lib- 
rum yconomiae Arist. editum a magistro Barth.de Bru^xis A. 
D. M^ CCC° none et sequuntur quaestiones ab eodem disputate 



B. Quaetiones 

I. Title: Quaestiones in libros duos oeconomicae Aristotelis. 



Bartholomew of Bruges - Commentary and Quaetiones 



- 2 -r 







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II. Text 



(Inc.:) Circa librum yconomicae Aristotelis ,quem,Deo adiu- 
vante (annuente iam) exposuimus,Quaerenda sunt primo ali- 
quo in comuni,et primo de corpore 



• • • 



(Expl. CEr für t!^ : ) ... quod naturale dicitur yconomicae. Ex- 
pl. hec quest. yconomicae Arist. reportate a mag. Barth- 
de Brugia. 



i 



(") 



Bartholomew of Bruges - Incipits ^c explicits of the Queetiones 

and Commentriiry (nuoted by Haurerru) 



A. Questiones 

[Inc.:] Circa lihriim Yconoraicorum Arip.totelis,^'uem,Deo ad- 
juvante, j am exposuimus,quaerend'? sunt primo ali^:ua 
in communi • . • 

[Des.:] ... Et in hoc sit consummatio secundi volurainis, 

scilicet Quaestionum r=uper librum Yconomicae Aristo- 
telis,quod una cum volumine expositiones ejusdem 
lib3i,ob reverentiam vestram,dorpine Annibaldffi de 
— > Cealino,compilavi, 






( 



B. Commentarius 

[Inc.:] Con-^^ervativurn animae ept eruditio. Haec propositio 
scribitur a Philo sopho, in epi.^tola r^d Alexandrum 



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on the Economic s 



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;.Haure^7^., Notices et Extraits des manuscri|its de la Bibl 
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Buridanus, torsilius von Inghen, John of Jandiin, 
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C.Michalski, 'Les couxrants critirues ...*, Extr^it du Bulle 
tin de l'Acadeirie PolonaiBe des Sciences et Lettres .... 
Cracovie,1927 (pp. 11-18 derling vith Buridan's Questiones 
supra Oeconomicam) . I^olska A\K^^^Mi\ ^«^^^.^ u^t^z^^ 



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A. Lang, Heinrich Totting von Oyta. H-Iünchen, 193^7 (pp. 123-135 
dealing with Inghen *s Lectura zur Oelvonomik and Politics) 

John of Jandun «-^^^ /W jvxxmi ^^j"] [^^-fK ^IC 

A.Gewirtb, 'John of Jandun and the Defensor Pacis ' , Speculum 

(1948) 
,]^:arsilius of Padua. Vol.l (Nev; York, 19 51) 

Walter Burley 

^S.H. Thomson, 'Walter Burley's Coirmentary on the Politics of 
\ Aristotle', M^langes Augu-te Pelzer (Louvain, 1947) , 557-78 

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Oxford, Bodleian Library 

US. Auct.F. infra 1.1. Written at St.Alt)ans,1430-40 

Madan , Summary Cat alogue , II , 1 , p . 364 , no . 24 39 



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Vergilius Wellendorf er 

Handwritten copies of treatises probably not printed 

M.Virgilii Wellendorfferi de Salzburg Tractatus Astronomici 

propria autoris manu scr. 

L.J .Feller, Catalogus codicum menuscriptorum biblio- 
thecae Paulinae in Academia Lipsiensi. Leipzig 
1686, p.366, no.73 



M.Virgilii 7/ellendorff eri de Salzburg Astrolabii compositio 
Ejusdem canones asfetrolabii 
Instrumenti ciim omnium planetarum motu compositio. 

Feller, ibid. ,p. 371, no.lO 



9 



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0--v> lv 'l-v>^\./-*-Ktv t'AoYlv y>-^^ »n-^ » v.i,. W\^'->'><X'V^H'-k ^ ">- >'*' V -v-vVtyt. <\» ^Vvw^ JvV( ^^ 



,i, ■ ^ ' tiCoL , L-L?.>t-vgy^^>f^l^ Cnk^W>5ao^->-w g-VT^i 4>- t^-^»a^r«^.? V?. ^ 



■* V6^il<x6a wvy^ < V.A^ tX^ <^^ i> -v> »■w ^ t . ■ • Xv A-t-vnl- ^ < 6 sf ^ 



(iM>i itiiti I .m ■ 



p^\^> 



Leonardo Bruni and His Public - Appendix II 

(List of extant mss.) - A. LOST - Old item 21Ö reinstated 



r '..*. N 



rf. 



" d^v^-vw. 



PLORENCE, Biblioteca di Santo Spirito (^«ariied 1471) 



218 



O 



Banco III, no. 4 



A miscellaneous codex containing 
writings by Bruni, the first one 
being his Economics Version; list- 
ed in an inventnry of 1451 of the 
convent library (now FLÜKENCE, Bib- 
lioteca Laurenziana,cod.Ashburnham 

I897,ff .37V-41); on f.39 rathe 
codex is described thus: 



O 



Plura opuscula Leonrjrdi Aretini ligatus et semicoper- 
tus corio viridi cuius principium est Pretiosa sunt 
interdum . . . 



1 iS - zC t-'r 



A.Goldmann, *Drei italienische Handschriftenkataloge 
s.XIII-XV', Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, IV 
(1887), 147; D.Guti6rrez, • La bibliotecaäx di Santo 
Spirito in Pirenze nella metä del secolo XV* , Analec- 
ta Au.^stiniana, XXV (1962 ) ,'^ 5-88] . 



L 



Leonardo Bruni and bis Public - Appendix II 

[List of es^tant mss.J - A. LOST - Old item 218 reinstated 
FLOBENCE, Biblioteca di Santo Spirito 



218 



7 

Ü 



/-^^ V 



^ ■« - : 



■'■■\ ) 



Banco III, no. 4 



A misoellaneou? codex contrining 
|ir®fexfeiy vriti^ gs "by Bruni t> e 
firrt one being Ibis Economics ver- 
sionji listed in an inventary of 145^ 
llJfx±iiF thusJ 



Plura opuscula Leonardi Aretini ligr tus et semicoper- 
tu£ coro viridi, cuius principiuir est [pars ?] Pre- 
tiosa sunt interduni ••• f — rzT 



(Florence,Biblioteca Laurenzirna,cod.Laur,As}iburnhainy 
\ f. 59 ra) — - ■ ---' 

A.Goldniann, 'Drei italieniscbe Handschriftenkataloge 
s.XIII-XV»,Centralblf tt für Bibliotheksv/eren, IV (1PP7): 
[15^-55]; D.Gutierrez, »La biblioteca di Srnto Spirito 
(ii)) Firenze nella meta del secolo XV*,Analecta Augusti- 
niana, XXV (1962), [5-^'8]; Antonia lYrzza [it^lia medi- 
evale e umanisticaj 



C]..(39 



t 






ii~t-^ >-v\? 



O 



— 4__ 



/TX 






'^^ >r4-t^<^ Vi/^2»^' ,>^ 



tjt>— w 



.^ 






■■-. ...^-.-..^.rr-.^lg.^ ■ 



i-K^U „-^-»^-^v ^ \l^,(^ ' (^^»(U-wn^t^x rix ^fe-uirwe^^^-.^v-rTt. 



-L- 



i ) 












^f-^r t^ 



X^v-w 



Jll 






f^\ 






H '^^ 






■^•7 



o 



I- 



3 _. 

- "■ * ^ 



r~ 



c^ 



Data to be checked (1/10/66) 



VENICE, Biblioteca S. Antonio 



^. 



V-W^ 



'^"''^ ^-a<uj.* ~*^*^ 



'•'■^■^ ♦^CVVA/^ 






'i U^^, X l«l 



J .Ph.TomasinuSjBibliothecae Venetae m^nuscriptae ., 
Udine,1650,p. 'S" ^ ^^ . i> j ^'^wtu^ )^\K\ ^— j-. n i^ 






Libri Politicorum cum Oeconomia Arip-totelis trans- 



xcripti Romae 1494 -^ wv '\, 



> **.^ jj-v^.. 



ROliTE, Biblioteca Casanatense (printed catalogue) < ' y^"^'^ 
294 [d V 15],f.90-96v 
656,f.l09v-126v 

1 549, f. 111-119 
4 265,f.2-llv 



3i^ 



PARIS, Universite de Paris 

Catalogue General des Manuscrits des Bibliotheques Pub- 
liques de France . ■DepartementsTl (Octavo Series), I: 
Universite de Paris et universites des departements 
(Paris, 11886)), 139-140 [cod. 570 - Ethics,etc. written for 
Odon CharlierJ 



V-s 



o 












t-n»- 



^ i 0-v- 



\PvV/>-. *w 












^•v _■ ^' 



iw > w , ii «l. i m i m i ifyy^^i j, J | ^^» | ^ N il , I i i . ,. » , «u i i^ n p m »ii , b»i, i i jnn 



V. 



«#r. 



CRACOW,Bibliot^ka Polsk^j AkPdemii Nauk 
1717,f.l99v- 7 : Excerpts,book II 



^~^ 



GDANS 



SK 
iCä»fM]ic,Biblioteka Gdanska PoIskl»j Akademli Nauk 

2369, f. 1-24 : (ftneAoC3P3^iöWixixi?])x Preface,books I and II 
Catalogue of Danzig, Stadtbibliothek, 111,274 



WROCLAW,Biblioteka Uniwersytecka 

IV F 29, f. : Preface,books I and II lost 

WROCLAW,Biblioteka üniwersyt^cka 

IV F 67,f,52-55v: book II (followed by unid^entifiea comm. ) 



POZNAN, Archiwum Archidiecezjalne 

196, f. 40-54: Books I and II (marginal and interlinear notes on 

f.40-45) 






■,^ 



kkäiAm-rrnu,, 



J 



■ »iii M »I ■— —»r»f»-—^pp 



I I latnim I I ■ i> 



m i I I I II m .t ^^ 



^ 



o 



NN - Data to be checked 




j 



\--. '■^' 



Bechi*s Economics coramentary 

B.Laur. - cod.Ed.LFlor.Eccl. J ,152,f .42 - 
Bandini, Suppl. I, 453 (?) 

DJronysius de Burgo S.Se^pulchri 



N Kl y A q- 



J.Kürzinger,Alfonsus Vargas Toletanus •• Beitraege zur 
Geschichte der Philosophie des MA,vol.22 (1930) ^2.. r^^ 



i\Ji\) 



Petrus Tartaretus 

.fi^^" . Grabman Article 'Tartaretus Petrus ' ,Lexicon für Theologie 
:^^ß> und Kirche, herausg« von Michael Buchberger,IX (1937). »<^>^ 

Dietrich T.Tiedemann 

Handbuch der Psychologie, herausg» mit einer Biographie 
des Verfassers von L. Wachler. Leipzig 1804 

Alfonso of Aragon ^ qiMEKl^a S^^ue^ »A^i^^i^es (««?6^ M33<?J 
iV\k1 >y\/ Itinerario del rey Don Alsonso de Aragon / (i»l age ,d&te) 

179,185 (correspondence with Bruni) jy :i>g:MA?ouac 

Lacombe, Aristoteles Latinus \^^^n«c^o x^ (^0^ 2 

Supplements I,II 
Manetti mss. 




iMi\l i '^E'Ä 



iit^ 



r 




Annali della S.Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. Lettere, 
Storia e Filosofia. Ser.II,vol.vIII (1939) ,382-94 
(Luisa Banti) 

Studi in onore di ügo Enrico Paoli (Florence, 1955) .61-70 
re cod. Ottob.lat. 1353, f-272v-285v 



Archivum Romanicum 



O 



M N . X<^TA 



Ludwig Bertalot, 'Forschungen über Leonardo Bruni Aretino', 
Archivum Romanicum. Vol.XV ^3Mir,no.2 (1931) ,284-323 

y^ w-<»->»-^- c^ -^-^ t^ \ 



! • « ■ »i j ■ i>i M i r~ »-i{iw^,. 



ääüSE&SiSBVü" " 



NN - Data to be checked 



- 2 - 



^ ) 







\^r 




>'^ -i» 


\.^ 



Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 

H.Baron, 'Studien über Leonardo Bruni Aretino', Archiv 
für Kulturgeschichte, vol. XXII (1932), 
esp. 368-73 (Answer to Bertslot *s review) 

Sribes & calligraphers 

C.BonacinijBibliografia delle artiscrittorie e della 
Calligrafia, Roma 1954 416 pp. 

Oeconomica latina 



R.A.Gauthier, *Deux t^moignages sur la date de la pre- 
mi^re traduction latine des Economirues' , Revue philo- 
sophique de Louvain, vol. 50 (1952) ,273-283 

Lyons OPERA editions (esp.Martinus) 



los' 



Kj |sj ^ . 



L 09 3 » ^'J^tx 



G.Tricou , Tables de la Bibliographie Lyonnaise de 
Baudrier, Travaux d'Humanipme et Renaissance, no.l 
Genfeve 19 



7 ^ OtO 



o 



Bruni 's OECONOMICA Version 
^abricius - Oeconomica mss. 



E.Garin,LnoteJ, Rinascimento,II (1951), 326 



J .A.Frabricius ,Bibliotheca- fLäÜnaL madiae— e4^4n#ifliae) 
ra»ta;tis^e4n.J-r JD7"MGnci"^"T"j^^^ Padov a, 1 7-^ j ~ ' 




r^ 



^^- 



>wu^,.y»> {^Ux/^ ^^'6^ rU^l^ 



l 



.*^ i:' , -- in . ' , . avÄ'ä^it 'a'n*.tif^lK.^ Ji'mi f ■ 



NN - Data to be checked 



- 3 - 



Avicenna,Liber de regimine familiaris 



C> 



Avicennae compendium de anima,tr. Andreas Alpagus Bellu- 
nensis. Venice, 1546, f .140 b 

Gaultier Donaldson C^^^ ^^vt ^r^^^.. 



♦^>V<. Vv, 



> l' 



Synopsis Oeconomica. Paris 1620; Rostock 1624 (2nd ed.) 

Pierre Bayle,Dictionnaire historinue,vol.5 (Paris, 1820) 
^-> pp. 559-561 j 

Bruni's OECONOMICA - 1537 Cracow print ^^, \> /^2 

Oeconomicorum Aristotelis libri ... Cracovi8e,M. Scharf fen- 
berg, III die Martii, MDXXXVII in 4 

Brunet 3846 (vol. 1,670): Le plus ancient grec imprim^ en 
Pologne, Selon Dav.Cl^ment, 11,91. L'^dition de Paris 
(N^obar) 1541 se trouve quelcuequois avec le trait^ 

German Humanism 

Studi Italiani,hrsg. vom Istituto italiano di cultura in 
Verbindung mit dem Petrarca- Institut an der Universitaet 
Koeln. Bd. 3 (1959): Studien zur deutrch-italienischen 
Geistesgeschichte 

Austrian studies on Bruni 

Classische Philologie (« Stein* s Zeitschrif t) , I,4,pp.534- 
554 quoted by Wotke 



O' 



Janitschek,Die Gesellschaft der Renaissance in Italian und 
die Kunst. Stuttgart 1879 (quoted by Wotke) 

N . Scyllacius , Cyrographus 

(A.Valerie, La corte de Ludovico il KorOjPavia) 



I ■ r rifiiiiiM.riW' 



Bruni's OECONOMICA Version in Biblioteca Ambrosiana 

in Codices reviewed by Francheschini in 

Miscellanea Galbiati ^'^.^ "^ *-->^^ ^>^--^ t*.^,v^^ 



v^ 



H 184 inf.,f.l06v-113v 

J 33 inf.,f.70-82v 

71 sup.,f.6-14v 

Sussidio 

B 166 (G S VI l),f.269-277v 



ü^, p.242 

JF, P.243^>& 246 



iii 



p. 242-243 



MODENA, Biblioteca Estense ■ A^^Q tUc J^-^t^ij^'" -w^ ^W^W 

Est.lat.2 (Alpha Q 9,16) ''^''^ " .^=Kv^ f^^ 4^ a 

I Codici Petrarcheschi (1874) ,127-128, n. 247 



!> 



yr">w->-/«' 



JLa^.v^ 



^ (' •- I To i ^ 



MAHTOVA, Biblioteca Comunale 
^.^ CtUxj.--^^^^ ^.,^.^ ^^ 16, f. 65-87 

.^ A-t^^^'r^e,,^ (&iornale7lII (1869), 31, n.llO 






tjU-^ 



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i *»• f «^ 



p c; 



XJLX. 



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(/i 



^^^Jd- :^'tv^ -U4^^^ 



1^' 



>^ yi^ 



O 



Biblioteca Ambrosiana, cod. I 33 inf . : v-^ y, / 

H-)« Dominus Petrus de Bugonibus filius Arasmi Porte Nove paro chie 

S.D. ad (Mediolanijf jii^ 

' — - 1474: ^Dona^Bon a Maria Vesconti & daughter ^ ua, ^J^.'^"^-,'. 



^9 



C 






V *'^^*^" v-V V »^ 



^.'vo^va 






C/ 



'^^ i^ P-O-v^ 



^* ^> 



V-w^^. 



'^^'^^^'-vn t/,^w^^ w^ i/Vr^V-vx »^-V- 



'^Ji 



! 



Items to be checked 



VALENCIA »Cathedral 



Cod. 70 F s.XV OECONOMIGA whose Version ? 



l^"^^ , PAMPLONA , Cathedral 

Aristoteles, Opera varia, 8 

A.S.Hunt, The Library of the Cathedral of Pamplona. Zentral- 
blatt für Bibliothekswesen, U (1897) ,283-90 

TORTOS A , Cathedral 

Aristoteles, Opera (p. or nc?) 107,142,24 

P.H.S.Denifle & E.Chatelain,Inventarium codicum mss. capituli 
Dertusiensis (= Tortosa) , Paris, 1896 



O' 



V. 



'i 



■-m 



O' 



Check 

Guido Kisch,Erasmus iind die Jurisprudenz seiner Zeit 

for Petrus Tartaretus (VI »Anhang III);Buridanus 
(Anhang III) ;Acciaiolus (Anhang l) 

Hans Baron, Leonardo Bruni Aretino 

for various translations (Incipits-Explicits) 

Gar in »Humanismus , et c. 
(\^i^- for Acciaiolus 





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Tu '^iTM-'»'T^o >.? z^A^T'^r''^ :d*^*'''.*^ L^i-i ^w^l»*-»«^. ^^i^ 



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II 



Martin Conor,*The Vulgate Text of Thomas Aquinas' Commentary 

on Aristotle*s Politics' , Domlnlcan Studies , 
V (1952), 35-65 

L.W.Keeler, *The Vulgate Text of St. Thomas* Commentary on 

the Ethlcs* , Gre^orianum ,XVII (1936; ,413-36 

S.Harrison Thomson, The Writings of Hobert Grosseteste, 

Cambridge 1940 

Markus Kutter, Celio Secundo Curione, Basler Beitraege 54 U955) 

L.Minio-Paluello,*Note sull' Aristotele Latino* , Rivlsta d ^ 

filosofia neo-scholastica ,XLII 

E. Franceschini, 'Le versioni latine medievali di Aristotele e 

dei sui commentatori nelle biblioteche delle 
Tre Venezia' » Miscellanea Ferrari (Florence, 
1952), 313-326 

Donato Acciaiolo,Et}iicorum ad Nicomachum libri 10. .commentarii 

(ed. Antonio Francino) Venice 1535 

Hermoralo Barbaro,Ad Nicomachum filium d- moribus, • .Aristotelis 

librorura compendium per H.B, (Ed.Daniello 
Barbaro) Basel lOporin (1540) 



ri 



V H.irdt> 



On Accifliuoli check 

Eggenio Garin, La giovanezza di Donato Acciaiuoli,RinP3cimento,I (l950), 

43-70 

Mpdioevo e RinascimentOjBsr i 1954 ,pp. 211-287 



■^ \ 



On Ü'aber' s Ars Moral ja 

BMC VIII, 47 - lost edition 

GW 9640 - Paris :Cp illaut i.e. Hain 6837 



O 



Data to be checked 

Pedro de Castrovol (Fr. Petrus de Castrovole) 

Biobibliography of Franciscans ,esp. in Spaln 

Vergil Wellendorfer 

Lexikon für Theologie; Dominican ? (Quetif-Echard) 

Dr^Marian Pelscar of Gdankk library PAN 

Insert his name in list of people to be thanked- 

Giovanni Piero Paolo of Ancona,disciple of Ciriaco of Ancona 
To be inserted among the scribes or scholar-scribes 

Boccaccio family at Rome 

Owned MS. Holkham Hall 379 
Sylvester de Datiariis Venetus 

Scribe of Economics text in Vat.lat.ll 453 to be ineert- 
ed an among the scribes 



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_>> C^tV^Ciu. ö^^'^^ -^^V*^ K^-v-^ »^.^r"^ >*^-*^ l^ fc»*^.*^_j ••_ 



1^ h^V-^~4^ ^>A^^^WL:*^yr^^ l~ (^^C^^f f% 16I C^ cy . 



(') 



(') 



Philip Melanchthon 

J^W. Richard, Philip Melanchthon, Protestant preceptor 
of German^, 1497-1560. (?), 1902 

Charles Schmidt (1812-95), Philipp Melanchthon, Leben 
und ausgewaehlte Schriften. (Leben und ausgewaehlte Schrif- 
ten der Vaeter und Begründer der lutherischen Kirche. Vol. 
3). Elberfeld, 1861 



(") 



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^' 



( ) 



OeconoiDicarum dispensationum exempla ._ _— 

_ 1. Heroldt (J.) Basilius, Exempla virtutum et vitiorum,etc. 



Basel, 1555 



BM 612.1.9 



- ( ' ) 



2. Hanapis, Nicolaus de, Virtutum vitior^nue exempla, etc. 



Paris, 1576 



Salloch with reference to 
Quetif-Echfrd, I, 426 _ . 



Check 



Heroldt with either BM or Basel (p.658 according 
to false description of Bodleian) 

Hanapis printed since 1477 - lock up Goof 



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Genesii Malfantii ... Civilis philosophiae compendium. 

.__ In quo quidcuid in libris Ethicorum, Politicorum, _- 

Oeconomicorum disseruit •.. Pataviit P. Meietus,1587 
BE - two copies _ . 



Check 



Genesius Malfantius 



Copies in U.S. (Library of Congress Catalogue) 
Summary or paraphrase of Oeconomica . 



( ) 



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I art». * K^ fcfKK^ 



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Philosophy of the Renaissance 



August Rickel, Die Philosophie der Renaissance. Mimich 
1925 (Oeschichte der Philosophie in Einzeldarstellungen). 



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.* - *^..,.i H M <» . i I <, nm,i.,^..m».^>^.^.m^^M»Kä^i,^^ - ■■ .^.. ^^^,.. ■ ■ ,n^ n^-y li>lrilfc r<>f IT iWlttlffWf ■"' 



C) 



Catholic Reformation 



C) 



Joseph Scheuber (and others), Kirche und Reformation. 
Aufbluehendes Katholisches Leben im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. 
5th ed. Bonn 1928. 



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(') 



Emanuele Tesauro (Emmanuel Thesaiirus) (1592-1675) 



(") 



from Torino, man of letters and historian, was famous for 
his tragedies and for his historical works on Piedmont. His 
greatest success he gained with his works on the principles 
of art and st^le; he is regarded the foxinder of *Concettismo* 
and one of the leading theoreticians of the art of the emblem. 

Tesauro wrote two treatises, on the conceits and on emblems, 
*'and separately compiled a volume of Inscriptions, that is 
•epigrams* according to the original meaning of the word ... 
Emblems are therefore things which illustrate a conceit; epi- 
grams are words which illustrate objects (such as a work of 
art). The two are therefore complementary ..." (Praz, 2nd ed., 

P.22) 

Salloch, Catalogue 235 (Spring 1966), 71 



o 



La filosofia morale derivata dall alto fönte del grande 
Aristotele. Thick small 8vo, Bologna n.d. 

- - - -, s.l. , 1689 16mo vellum 



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Check Cranz Checklist 

Paulus Barbus from Soncino (d.l494) 

Paulus Soncinas, Quaestiones in libros Metaphysicae Aristo- 
telis. 197 leaves. Venice: Simon Bevilqua,1498 

Ammember of the Dominican Order, taught philosophy and 
theology in Perrara and Bologna. He left this very detailed 
and comprehensive commentary in which the medieval commenta- 
tors are incorporated. His presentation is in the manner of 
the Bcholastic philosophers, arranged into Quaestiones, Disr^ 
tiones, etc. Pico to Paulus: "I received your book gratefully 
and read it with pieasure , finding both a discriminating spirit 
nnd the passion to search for the truth 



tTi^^C. 



... . 



Hain-Copinger 12495 ; Polain 3014; Klebs 731,1; Groff P 208; 
Schwab , Bibliographie 



( ) 



Salloch, Catalogue 246 ( July ,1967) ,40,no.l71 



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Philosophy (Bobbs-Merrill - The Liberal Arts Press - Reprints) 

Christian Wolff , Preliminary Discourse on Philosophy in 
General. Tr. by Richard Blackwell 
(Division of the Sciences) Paperback 

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics. Tr. with notes,glossary 
by Martin Ostwald (Sivarthmore College) 
316 pp. Paperback ^1.45 

John Calvin, On God and Political Duty (2nd ed.) Includes 
'On Civil Government'. Introduced by John T. McNeiH.. 
128 pp. Paperback ^ .75 

Cicero, On the Commonwealth. Tr. by George H. Sabine & 
Stanley B. Smith. (Reprint of 19^9 ed.) 
286 pp. Paperback ^1.25 

ChRrles W. Hendel (ed.), David Hume's POlitical Essays. 
235 pp. Paperback 1.23 

Antoine Arnauld , The Port-Ro;yal Logic (La logique cur 
l'art de penser). Tr. & annotated by James Dickoff 
& Patricia James. Paperback 

Jason Lewis Sa,unders, Justus Lipsius. The Philosophy of 
Renaissance Stoicism. 
246 pp. (Recommended by Ch. Trinkaus) ^ 4.50 

Herbert Spiegelberg & Baj^ard Quincy Morgan, The Socratic 
Enigma. (Opinions regarding the thought of Socrates) 
LLA 192 Paperback 



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* 



<'*m(iiuä MMtimUmämim ■ 



OECONOMICA - Printed editions - Pu"blishers - Estiennes 



O 



(Maittaire,M.) Stephanorum historia,vitas ipsorum ac lilDros 

complectens. Two vols, in 1. London 1709 

(The first published work of the eminent London 
"bibliographer and editor Michael Maittaire (d.l747). 

Vol.I: Biographies of Robert Estienne,his sons , 

Henri' s nephews and heirs. II: Bibliography of 

Estienne's editions ,1503-1675, first in chronological 

Order and then by suhject. - Bigmore «Sb Wyman 11,14) 



o 



MSS Catalognes, etc. (Letter - N.Hochstein, 9/12/65) 

J. Autenrieth, Die Hss. der ehemaligen koenigl. Hof. 
blbliothek Stuttgart. Vol.III (Wiesbaden, 1963) - P.O.K. 
Latin Mss-Books,p.277 

Otto Glauning [MSS in Munich,catalogued by W.Meyer], 
Zentralblatt für Bibliothekswesen, Nr. 34 (1917) 

Inizienverzeichnisse. Zeitschrift für Bibliotheks- 
wesen, Sonderheft 1963. 

Relocation of Marburg and Tübingen deposists of Deut- 
sche Staatsbibliothek in West-Berlin, expected in 1965. (?) 



(') 



( ) 



Leonardo Bnmi and His Public 

p. 185 {=App.II,43),lines 8-10 ^M^Uiy^ /u^^ir^i^i^ 

Codices Vatlcanl Latlnl, 11414-11709 by (E.Caru55i and) 
J. Ruysschaert (Vatlcan City, 1959) ,80-82 

_ P.O.K., Latin Manuscript Books, p. 211 



p. 228, note 32 [not 3 as in my letter of 8/28 to W.M.B.] 
« 111,32 



\l (Ejamanuel Bekker J?^ _ ._ T wv -vn/vu?./ua^^ (TV^M^?^' ('"^^r-i^VO 



( ) 



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p, 242, note 14 [not 4 as in my letter J 

Wellendoerffer's Oecologiiun 
_ Greorg Panzer, Annales typographici aö anno MDI ad anniun 
„ Mdixivi. 6 vols. Nuremberg, 1798-1803 
_ Cranz: Panzer, VII, p. 171, no. 338 



V "^ ^-^ , 1^ 



_X - £-».^iAi ci 'U^ , _ I I i *Z 'v '^ ) r 4 ^- f • 



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p. 233, note 1 » IV,1 



Grabmann, Methoden ••• Heft 5 (not 3 as in ms.) 



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p. 233, note 3 » IV, 3 



Lacombe, no. 732 = A.L., I,p.592 :._v_.'fe,M.'vvvj^_ 
Lacombe, no. 669 = A.L., I,p.56l t^ivx^ Vv=wa^ 



p. 241, note 13 = IV,13 

Grab 's Ethics commentary? ed.princeps ParistH.Estienne 
February 5^1914 see Biblio/^raphig Aberdonensis 



fc?. K 



^ii^X y /U / C^l .^«>'><» U> ^i>«^ « v^ ^ ^«^v<^->>»->^ ^ P 7- 



Leonardo Brunl and Hls Public 



( ) 



- 2 - 



p. 209,note 7 (« 1,4) _ 

»•Uno zibuldone poetico umani?ticho del Quattrocento a 



i-i I 



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Praga" » • • . . ^. 



Xv ' #iJ?^l^ 



also p. 145 (Appendix II):correct , ^. 

also p. 191 (Appendix III): 1,7 (instead 1,6) 









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Joaohia Caa«rarias (th* Sld«r), 1500-1574 - Biography 



V ) 



/ 237 



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** ••• 3tiB IfolanohthoBt näohstar Fr«aiid and OailBiiaiigiganosstfJ» 
Caatrarintihat trst in Tfibing«B,daBn in Ltipiig das artittiioha Stadium 
im Sinna MalanohthOBa aau gaordaat. 

D^r 3i*g bai Lauff«n brachte Harsog Ulrioh ins Land surüok und mit 
ihn di« Reformation. Bint dar arstan Ragitrangssorgen war dia Raforaa- 
tiOB dar UniYtfrsitAt Tübingen. Dia arstan hsrsoglichan Kommissärs, A. 
Blarsr,aiB YaraittlaBgsthsologa swisohsB Lathar UBd Zwingli,and S.Ory- 
Baans 9 arOff BS t9B Booh im Herbst 1534 YorhsBdluBgeB mit dar UBirersitAt, 
dia aber^da die Körperschaft der NeueroBg widerstrebte, su keiBsm Ziel 
führteB. Bs wurde daher eiBa Beue Ordaung ktroyiert (30. Januar 1535) 
UBd die Widers trebenden,BameBtl ich TheologeB UBd JuristeB,eBtferBt. Im 
Sommer 1535 kam Camera rius UBd trat mit Joh.BreBS|eiBem abeBfalls vob 
UalanohthoB einpfohleBeB TheologeB, aB dia Stelle der b'^^ideB frührreB Re-/ 
formatoroB dar UBiTersität. Im Herbst 1536 war MelaBohthon auf Ersuchen 
das Fürsten ein paar Wochen in Tübingen, um sich der Unirersitfttsreform 
aniunehman; wiederholte dringende Aufforderungen, nach der schwäbischen 
Heimat surüokiukehren, lehnte er ab. Gagen Bnde des Jahres erfolgte eine 
neue, im wesentlichen sdt der ersten übereinstimmende Ordnung. Camerarius 
▼erfafite auf Orund derselben neue Statuten dar Unirersität und der phi- 
losophischen Fakultät ... i)as Pädagogium nimmt die Jüngeren auf, welchen 
sohulmäßige Unterweisung in der lateinischen Sprache nottut, das Kontu- 
barBium[ Kollegium oder Burse*^ dia Älteren, welche den philosophischen 
Kursus durchmachen und die Orade erwerbeB woIIob. Für die KsBdiaaten 
des Bakkalariats siBd obligatorisch die VoriasuBgSB über Dialektik, Rhe- 
torik, Buklides, aristotelische Philosophie, über die latenischen und grie- 
ohisoheB AutoreB UBd die heiligea SchrifteB. für die KsBdidaten des Ma- 
gistariuas kommen Physik UBd Bthik hinsu« 

EiBe bemarkeBswarte l^igeBtümliohkeit der Tübiager UBd ... der Leip- 
ligar ReformatiOB ist die starke BetoBung des Griechischen; Camerarius 
war, wie auch MelanohthoB,vorsugswaise Gräsist. Schon die erste hersogli- 
che Or^BUBg will, daß sowohl im Pädagogium als im KoBtuberaium auch die 
griechische Sprache gelerBt werde, für die philosophisohsB UBd theolegi- 



Caa^rariui -> Biography (Paulsan) 



- £ - 



lohtB Torl»8ting9B w»rd«B iwar,a»int9 ■ia,iaiiäohit noch latainisoha Tazta 
gabrnaoht warden aüB^n, Jooh toll dtr Lahrar dtn gritohischaB T«zt sar 
VarglaioliaBg h^raaiiahaB UBd riall^iobt aag alt dar Zait dl« KaantBls 
dar gritohlsohtn Spracht so iunlüuioB,daß bbb joBa DitsipllnsB **iB ihror 
• IgBBOB Spracht** lettB kaBB f UrkUBdtabuoh dar JBiTartität TübiagaB (S. 
176)1« Di9 Statutan UBd tBtsprtohtBd dit iwaltt OrdauBg tob Jährt 1536 
•uchtB auf aBdtra Wtisa das Zitl tu trrtiohaB,daB dtn StudtattB dit Phl- 
loBOphit Ib ihrtr tigtatB Spracht btkaBBt warda« Bg wird BtbtB den Pro- 
ftsturtB fVLT dit philosophischtB DisiipliBta aoch tint btsoadtre für dit 
arit total isoha Philotophit arrichttt uad dtr Bttuch ditstr Ltktioa,fflit 
dtr keiaa aadara kollidiarta darf , obligatorisch gtaacht« Zugltich avhata 
dit ProaotioBiordauagta dit Btstiaranag aaf,daB sowohl baia Bakkalariats- 
als btim Magistarazaaaa ia dar griaohischta Spracht gtprüft wird.** 

F«Paulsaa,Oaschiohta das galthrtta Uattrrichts ^I (1919), 

pp. 236-237 

••• Caaararias TtrlitB Tübiagta 1541 ,ub apch Ltipsig su gthta •., 

p.238 



( ; 



/ 240 



CaatrariuSfdem ia Tübingaa naachts aicht aach dtm Siaa giag^kam im 
Htrbst 1541 '. aach Ltipzigl uad war bti dtr Rt forma tioa dtr IJaivtrsität 
tAtig. Im Frühjahr 1542 arf olgtt dit Ttrlaagte Dotatioa mit Xlosttrgütorai 
dit UaiTersitüt erhitlt lu ihrta bishtrigta Eiaküaftta 2000 fl. jährlich 
aus zw(?i tiagtsogtaea KlOstera ••• Voa dta 2000 fl.solltta besadtlt wtr- 
dta: aia Proftssor utriusqut liaguat mit 300 fl. ; Camararius war dtr tr-> 
stt; aia philosophus ßraaous mit 150 fl.; ... aia Moralist ...(jiatar 6 
Speiialistaa mit jt 50 fl.'^ ... (Urkuadta bai Stübal,645 ff.) 

Dia TOB Camtrarins TtrfaBtta Statutta dar philosophisohta Fakult&t 
▼om Jahra 1543 liad aicht mahr Torhaadaa,wohl abar diajaaigaa,walcha tr 
im Jährt 1558 radigiartt (bti ZarBCkt,StatuttBbüchtr»S.517 ff.), ümr phi- 
losophischt Kursus hat hitraaoh folgtadt Gtstalt« i^tr uattrt Kursus ist 
1 1/2 j&hrig. Er schlitBt mit dtm Bakkalariat ... Dtr Kursus der Magi^t- 
raadta ist swtij&hrig; sit hOrta währtad dtr btidta Jährt ohat UattrlaB 






™r™ T" 



CaatrariTxt -> Biogrflphy (Paulten) 



- » - 



C 



d«B philosophus Gra^eutfdtr btsond^rt dl« 3ohrift*n d*s Organon lltit 
und den Professor b«id«r 3praoh»n«dAiu in •rstan und iwvitan S^aaitar 
dl* Physik und Ethik d«a AristotalaSfia dritten und riarten dia Matha- 
■Btik (S,533) ••• 

Jas ProftssoraBk«llagiaa saigt ainiga Abwaiohungan tob dar obigan 
PttndatiOBsnrkUBda. 8s sind nur naun Profassoran statt dar draisabn; dia 
Moralphilosopbia hat Caatrarias aooh übamosHiaii ••• 

pp.239^2«0 



o 



*» 



j 



Check Studi Iteliani di Filologi« Clessica 



i )• 



■ •. y 



Bologna 



Pisa 



Lucca 



\/ XVI (1908) ,371 Cod. 856 Frati,L. »Indice. . . 
\/XVI (1908), 382 Cod. 889 
•XVII (1909), 114 cod. 1512 



(for content of 
Codices) 



3<?l -3qi . 
^VIII (l900)3^W«=-5«e cod. 136 

V X (1902), 29 coa.680 



Vitelli,C. ,Indice. .. 

(noted in Mazzatinti XXIV, 58) 
Letture sopra. .Economici 



v/ VIII (l90C),213/m Cod.1436 Mancini,A. , Index. . . 



Brescia 



V/ XIV (1906), 49 cod. 15 



Beltrami,A, , Index. . . 



^ ^^*-^^-c.-«^ h cccc x;{ IUI " 






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täMMÜMiHAiHiMMIlMMAlMaMMMMM^Ma 



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AcciPiuoli DonPtus 

(a) Sthics co'^entery 1478 (GW 240); edited by Antonio Francino > 

(b) Spntini,i)ellfl Torre,Segni on life 



Vv«^ 



. l. qi|'n-^>^ i^ CCVu* . 9: 



V 



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^ C^\A »^o (^Kl 1 ,e.ri+) 



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' l^-wv^ , ^«^ v^Cv-,^ , V^, 






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On Antonio Francini (Antonius Francinus) 

check NNC 850.9 - N 312 - F 

Giulio Negri, S.J., Istoria degli scrittori fiorentini 
... Ferrara: B. Pomatelli, 1722 



;i 



July 18,1962 



[ » 



U^ '( 



Moral Philosophy - Footnotes to be checked 

10 Buridanus: Magister Martinus (Martin Lemaistre): BN, BM concerning 

Morales questiones.ParisiJ. Granjon 1510:V,15 (Renaudet 
refers to BM nos.3833 CC^ (l); 474 C 8 (l) ). Edited by 
Devid Cranston (or Grans toun) - cf.Enc. Brittenics 

Gilbertus (William) Crßb - John Major, A History of Greater 
^' "^ V^ Britain .. (l5Sj),tr.& ed.by A. ConstkUle. Scottish Histori- 

cal Society X (Edinburgh, 1 892 )p. ? (Cranston, pp. 412-13) 



\\ 



11 Walter Burleigh : C.Michalski,' La physique nouvelle ...'.Extrait du 
Bulletin de l'Acad^mie Polonaise aes Sciences et des Lettres. 
Clesse d'histoire et de philosophie - ann^e 1927 (Cracow,1928) 
2-8 (ms. tradition; perhaps prints ?) 

Venicp editim of Expositio in 1521 7 (Panzer ?) 

S.H.Thomson, 'Walter Burley' s Commentary on the Politics of 
Aristotle' ,M^langes Auguste Pelzer, Louvain 1947, pp. 557-78. 

12 Tartaretus : Grabmann, Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, II ? 

Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, vol. IV, 204 

Bulaeus (C.E.du Boulay) »Historie Universitaria parisiensis, 
(evols) ir.65-*S3; V,923 

13 4iri«i^?°^.Heiss,Der Aristotelismas in der Artistenfakultät der 

alten Universität Köln, in Festschrift zur Erinnerung an 
die Gründung der alten Universität Köln im Jahre 1388, 
Köln 1938, pp. 288-315 

Albertism: De Wulf ,Histoire, III ,pp. 



/ ) 



14 Versor : Heiss,p.310; also Prantl,IV,220 

15 Wallendorffer : Histories of Leipzig University 

17 Universities of Spa in : E.Esperab^ Art»?a^7a, Historie de la Universi- 
dad de S^tSmanca,I (Salamanca ,1914) ,135 ff. 

F.Watson,Luis Vives, Oxford 1922; Bonina,Luis Vives y la filo- 
sofia del re na cimi'?nto, Madrid 1903 (with bibüjgraphy) 



Moral Philosophy - Footnotes 

3 Aristotle bibliographies; Hoffman (Riley »Preface) 






V^f 






5 St. Albert the Great: 

a, detes of Ethlc3 and Polltics commentcries: P.Pelster, Kritische Stu- 
dien zum Leben und zu den Schriften Alberts des Grossen, Freiburg 1920 

b, unppinted Ethics commentary: Grabmenn, Mittelalterliches Geistesleben 

8 Pedro de Castrovol: Title of Ethics commentary ;bibliography 

9 Buridenus: Magister Martinus - Grabmann, iJie Geschichte der scholastisch- 

en Methode II,524-5.'54 ? 

10 Walter Burley: Ethics comm^ntery - Yenice edition lfS21 (Panzer ?) 
13 G.Meersseman, Geschichte des Albertismus 

17 Thomism in Spain (Salemanca) 

22 Ayerroes Ethi cs commentary: see Gorce in i)ictionnaire 

28 Bruni's Economic s commf>ntary: on Bruni see 

25 Acciaiuoli*s Politics commentary: Venice 15 '6: Vincentius Valgrisius 

(i.e. ?) 

^ Barbaro's Compendium Ethicorum : Cuthbert Tunstall - Encyclopaedia ßrit- 

tanica^/ (Tunstall' s compenaium on Barbaro's compendium, Basel 
1555, Heidelberg 1562) C , ^.>i^^ ^ U^^U^T^-^.^Z^UX . 

30 Faber: U-^h*^ ^^$2 



a, Artificialis introductio per modum epitomis in decem libros Ethicorum 
Aristotelis: editions outiide the tres conversiones after 1520 

(tres conversiones: 1527-28,1535,1542,1541) 

b. Tres conversiones: 1497,1505,1510,1516, 



' 1 



c. In Politica Aristotelis Introductio 

31 Perion, Joachim: litercture (Michaud J) 

32 Denis Lambin: literature 

34 Melanchthon: Philos »phiae moralis epitome iäfi 1538 (rev. :Ethicae doctri- 
nae elementa 1550) 



"1 



Moral Philosophy - Footnotes - 2 - 

38 Le Roy in Baron' s »The Querelle. . .JHI XX (1969), 

39 Marc Antoine Muret - ßibliography 

40 Pietro (?) Vettori - Knciclopedia Italiana; also the earlier Vettori, 

friend of MAchiavelli 

41 Juan Gines de Sepulveda (149^-1573) - Enciclopedia Italiana 
45 Michaud,new ed. XII (Paris ? ) 



46 Sylvester Maurus 

38a Louis Le Roy (Regius, 



ü'oT 



\i:^i 






V. . .,<,,..,,. 



i 4 - I A 



(f^' 



^W 1^ 



^ 1 



MorPl Fhilüsophy - Footnotes 

^ St.ThomPs AquinPs - Hpin-Copirger on editions of the Ethics Pnd Poli- 

tics cornroentsries j e4-ao check GrW- 3r vj . ^ o-<^ r; i. 

Johflnnes Krosbein - Ha in-Copin/?er on Ethics conmentfry (Hein^l758) 

Petrus de Cpstrovol - Hp in-Copinger | ^n t^t h ics commentPri (not in BN), 

Politics pndn^Fonölaics conroentery 







\^ 



h-6SV . 



u1> 



IH 



-V^evv^e^ I,U6i^.l fwn^MJ^^,,^^ t. 



V jp,v-<^^^ 






' / mentioned in JictionnPire de Theologie CPtholique 

y*. S^ \ M Ok^ ^^r^l^ o Sberelea, Supplementum et cpstigptio ad scriptores o^.minorum, 

Rorne 1806 



/fecheck Hfiin no. 4648-4656, Copinger (L. 1898) ,no. 1480-1482 

for Co'^Tnentum super libros eddt ethicorun),Lerid8 1489 ,• 



R 



/ 



John ßuridPn 



r^ 



Johannes Versor - ü*-i«-Copin>:^er j 0#'' ^-'^vx. r».! 



10 



Pe^ro de OsmP 



^^ Ferdinand de Roa 



^') 



12 



Wellendorfer - 
V 






r ■ 



/-tv-^fwCL, ^^ 



■p ' 







l__ 



MorPl Philosophy - Footnotes 



- 2 - 



20 Pedro de Osme : Ethics commentBry,1496 - Nicolas Antonius, ß.üiisp. 

21 Greek commenteries : G.Mernati, ' Fra i commentatori greci di Aristo- 

tele',Opere minori, t. III, Studi e testi 78 (Rome, 193?) ,458-64 

Vpnice and Basel ©ditions of 1536 of Greek oommentrries - 
BM.ßN or DK listings (see Aspasius) 

page (i?) Zacarius Zenarus : Enciclopedia Italiflne; 

24 Leonardo Bruni : Biography by 

Separate eaitions of Economics 



( ) 



25 Isagogicon : editions 



27 



Acciaiuoli : Literrtire on Poliziano's Ethics commentPry 

(Panemisticon) ? 
^ faber : Giorgio Valla' s Magna Moral ie - chock GW for first 

edition (Heiberg (checktitle) ,says Venice -.Gregorius de 
Grep-oriis 1496 witn reference to Poggiali,Memorie per 
la ^tor.lett.ai Piacenza , 11,140 ff.); Hain 1761 is Paris 
1497 

Literaturf;» on faber: esp. Grafs earlier Frentfh publication 
Pannier(Jaccues)tJn humaniste du XVI siecle : J.Lef evre d' Etap- 
les, Carriprps-sous-Poissy,1038 - Carri-rp (V),Lefevre d'E. 
a 1' Univers itd de Paris 1475-1^20 . Etud-s historiqu^s de- 
di^ a la memoire d<^ M.Roger Rodiere (Arras ,1947) ,107-20 

34 Peliciano: Biography in Enciclopedia Italiana , Renan, etc. Ethics 

Version 



35 Perion 



Literatur© on Nicolas de Grouchy see Grouchy,Vicomte de 
& TraverSjE. , Etüde sur Nicolas de Grouchy (Nicolas Gruch- 
ius Rothomagensis) er son fils,Timothee de Grouchy, sieur 



de La Riviere. 1878 



vJM a 



^ 



Ethics and Politics : correct that Politic s commpntrry 
are in fact argumenta 



Moral Philosophy - Footnotes 



- 3 - 



SO 
37 Melanchthon : 



see fifr notes on Ch.E.Luthardt, Melanchthon3 Arbeiten 

im Gebiet der Moral 

check Petersen, Geschichte der ari3t.|^hil03ophie95-89 



36 Gryneeus : Theophil ius Golius (who ?), Epitome dcAtrinae moralis 

38a Melanchthon; Vita Aristotelis 

39 Rafaello Maffei: Commentarii Jrbani - Paris eaitions after 1511 end 

Lyons editions 
4dk X x3c«rittg«^ x x x x?c x /•Rhe-ordoTT rdminageoBr xumrot xscerimrer vZcecirtx^fxnKXscsceax;? xöscaceclc xlööa 

42 Vettori : cneck Prose Fiorentine IV, 28 (Vettori to Sirl^tus,! : 5:79) 

Ep. Victor. VII, 7 (Vettori to card. Guido Ferrarius,II,4 :69) 

43 Lambin : check (BN,ßM) on D.L.de philosophiae moralis laudibus oratio 

(Ppris,1565) and Oratio habita in gymnasio Carainalitio (l567) 



40 Greek Ethics & Politics texts: check on 



\/ 



(a) Andrien Turnebp: Michaud and Ethic s ed.& Version (l555 ff.) 

(b) Juan Luis Vives: Ethics eaition (NNC cords on Vives) 

(c) Jpkob Bedrott: Politics eaition 

(d) Jacques Toussaint: Economic s s-d. (notes in OECOL'OmICA file) 

also Michaud 



'Vv-'"\ 



D 



41 Zwinger : 

^ (a) Johannes Karcher, Theodor Zwinger und s'?ine Zeitgeno3Sf?n. 

(Basel, 1956) 

(b) Guilplmus Ganter, transla tor of Pythagorean Ethics frr^m nts 

r ' ,^^^ (c) Claudius Auberius ^Claude Aubery) , translat^^r of Theophrasts 

Characters 

(d) Johannes Spondanus, translator of PytiiPgor^^an political frag- 

monts 

(e) Robert Estienne, Greek N.T. ,1551 (Ency lopaeaia of Theology) 



V 



Moral Philosophy - Footnotes 



- 4 - 



o 



^ 45 Strebees ^thics commpntflry : check on Petrus Martyrius Vermilius 

ancL his 3 books commentnry in Kutter, Bietenholz 

^ 47 Strebre : find literPture on him in Micheud,etc. (Cioranesco) 

y/ 49 Jacques Toussain : literPture on him 

50 Camerarius : ßiography in Al)B and special literature on his Aristotle 

versions in Petersen 

51 Sepulvede : recheck Spanish encyclopedia with literPture on his 

Politics Version and paraphrrse 

52 Acciauoli Politics coiiiinentary : see on Giovanni üfttista Baserio 

Ppduan Scholar and tr^nslator ^ri<i editor of this comxxientary 

Publisher: Vincentius Valgrisius in 
54 Strozzi : bicraphy by his nephew (who is he ?) 



56 



57 Duval 



Neo-Scholasticism: at German universities see Petersen 

Pt Jesuit institutions check Monumenta Germanica Paedegdgica 
II (Berlin, 1«P7), 25, 58; also other literature 

check Guillaume du Vair (Guillaame ?) and literature (K.Hadou- 
ant,Guillaume du Vair , Paris ,c.l900) ; 

Kgidius (Gilles ?) Morel ,publ isher of Synopsis (l638) 

Goujet (LI ebbe) »Memoire historique et litt^raire sur le 

College royal de Frence, II (Paris, 1758) ,234 

Guido Guidi (Vido Viai),Paduan surgeon, Chirurgie e Graeco 

conversa .. (Paris, 1544 j 



58 Muret 



59 Mauro 



Charles De.ion, Marc-Antoine Muret ...(NNC),on Ethics commen- 
taries,also notes on Economic s commentary and 1602 edition 

loannes Nicod^mus 3piiimaritarium,ed. of Muret* s comm. (Paris, 1576 

S.Tommaso dall Pallavicino (Enc. Ca ttolica) 
Schuster ed. of commentary on Ethics V (KaC) 



. jiä^^'i^'* <"-'**»^~~ -^^ 



( ) 



Hispanic Society of America 

Broadway between 155 th & 156 th Street 

New York, N.Y. 10032 



U^ 



Catalogue of the Library at HueFca,1949 

Library of Saragossa, 1943 

Quoted by T. Besterinan,Ec:.rly Printed Books,nos. 2311; 2320 

Concerning Palau ^,1 (1948) ,480, no. 16. 666 (■ETHICA,FOLITICA, 
OECOlTOiaCA) - copy in Biblioteca Provincial de Iluesca 
(ZaragozatEnrinue Botel, hacia 1477 = GW 2371) Romfin letters 
no.16.668 (OSCOrTOIviICA,POLITICA) - copy In Univ.Librrry at 
Cambridge) 
(ZaragozatEnri4ue Botel, hacia 1478) Gothic letters 

GW 2371 = Copinger 627 = Haeblcr 34 (T.2,3) = Pellechet 1254 

* 
(T.2.3) refers to B^N. S 60 = Serrano y 3anz,p.l0 



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SCHOOL FILLER 



5 HOLES-PLAIN 



56 Sheets 



25/ 



Made To Fit 2 or 3 Hole Binders 



No. 25-5P 



(•^ 



DTsf. Mv C P. a B. 
I08 ClOMARD St.. N. Y. 



( ) 



Greek OPERA OMNIA editions 



( ) 



1495-1498 

1531 
1539 
1550 

1551, 1552 

1587 

1590 

1646 
1597 
1619 

1654 



Venice: Aldina princeps 

Basel edited by Erasmus 

Basel (with ?) Simon Grynaeus 

Basel with addition by Johann Behel and 

Mitfehael Isingrinius 

Venice Aldina minor 

Frankfurt edited by Friedrich Sylburg 

Geneva edited by Isaak Casaubon 

5th ed. 

Geneva (Graeco -Latin) edited by Pacius 

Paris (Graeco -Latin) edited by Guillaume 

du Val 

4th ed. 



( 



P. Petersen, Die aristotelische Philosophie 
pp. 144-146 with reference to Buhle, Opera 
Omnia, I (1791), p. 210 ff.; Fabricius,Bibl. 
Graeca, III,6,p«l69 



n 



( ) 



Greek OPERA OMIA edltlons 



' ) 



1495-1498 

1531 

1539 

1550 

1551, 1552 

1587 

1590 

1646 
1597 
1619 

1654 



Venice: Aldina prlnceps 

Basel edited by Srasmus 

Basel (with ?) Simon Grynaeus 

Basel with addition by Johann Bebel and 

IbJiichael Isingrinius 

Venice Aldina minor 

Frankfurt edited by Friedrich Sylburg 

Geneva edited by Isnak Casaubon 

5th ed. 
Geneva (Graeco-Latin) edited by Pacius 
Paris (Gr-eco-Latin) edited by Guillauine 



du Val 



4th ed. 



( 



P. Petersen, Die aristotelische Philosophie 
pp. 144-146 with reference to Buhle, Opera 
Omnia, I (1791), p. 210 ff.; Fabricius,Eibl 
Graeca, III, 6, p. 169 



r^ 



( ) 



Humanism in Konstanz, Wibllngeiit Ottobeuren 

Friedrich Zoepfl, * Kloster Ottobeuren und der Humanismus*, 
Ottobeuren; Festschrift zur 1200-Jahrfeier der Abtei , 
ikBgxkaxgxiSfiJlqp edited by Aegidius Kolb OSB and Hermann 
Tüchle. Augsburg 1964, pp. 187-267 



(") 



/p.205 



( 






n 



Bistum Konstanzt 



• • 



Aus dem Bistum Konstanz studier- 



ten an der gleichen Universitaet [BolognaJ im 14. /15« Jahr- 
hundert 222 ^). ...♦♦ 

3 
Vgl. A.Braun, Der Klerus des Bistums Konstanz im Ausgang 

des Mittelalters. Münster i.W. 1938, S.93 ^gp 

" ... Staerker als in Ulm war der erwachende Humanismus 
wieder in Konstanz von geistlichen Kraeften getragen. Kon- 
stanz war wie Augsburg Bischofssitz. Der Bischof residierte 
zwar seit dem 13. Jahr hundert, nachdem Konstanz Reichsstadt 
geworden war, auf der thurgauischen Burg Gottlieben ... Aber 
das Domkapitel, feudale und graduierte Herren, 24 an der Zahl, 
hatte seine Kurien ... in der Bischofsstadt. Da das Bistum 
tief in die Schweiz hineinreichte, wurde die Stadt Konstanz 
von der humanistischen Welle früher berührt als andere Staed- 
te. Von den Domherrn erschlossen sich dem Humanismus frühzei- 
tig Albrecht Blarer, Sproas einer aus St. Gallen eingewander- 
ten angesehenen Familie ... und Konrad Gremiich. Der erstge- 
nannte stand (1462) in Briefwechsel mit dem Esslinger Stadt- 
schreiber Niklas von Wyle [141Ö-1478] ... dem Übersetzer hu- 
manistischer Schriften ... / ... Auch in der Konst^nzer liai- 
enwelt hatte der Humanismus schon im 15. Jahrhundert Freunde, 
so den bischoef liehen Beamten ... Augustin Tünger,der nach 
dem Vorbild Poggio Bracciolinis ... eine lateinische Anekto- 
densammlung ••• veranstaltete, ... ferner den langj aehrigen 
Vogt und Bürgermeister seiner Vaterstadt Konrad Schatz ... 
Die Konstanzer lateinische Stadtschule oeffnete dem Humanis- 
mus in den siebziger Jahren ihre Pforte. . 



n 



pp. 204-205 



i 



Hiunanlsm In Konstanz, Wiblingen, Ottobeuren 



- 2 - 



( ) 



(') 



() 



( ) 



Kloster Wiblingen : "... Man greift kaum fehl, wenn man 
die humanistische Aufgeschlossenheit Wiblingens mit der un- 
mittelbar benachbarten Reichsstadt Ulm in Verbindung bringt 
/p.215 •••/ ••• Durchblaettern wir den Wiblinger Bibliothekskatalog, 
den zwei fleissige Wiblinger Moenche (Coelestin Mayer und 
Philipp Troger) in den Jahren 1724-1736 anlegten (WürttembT 
Landesbibliothek Stuttgart), so finden wir unter den Hss des 
15 • Jahrhunderts vind unter den Wiegendrucken die antiken Klas- 
siker, lateinische sowohl als griechische (diese in lateini- 
scher üebersetzung) , gut vertreten. *•• Den antiken Klassikern 
reihten sich Werke von Humanisten (Petrarca, Baptista Mantu- 
anus, Francesco Filelfo, Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Laurentius 
Valla) an. Es bedarf keines weiteren Zeugnisses, dass man in 
Wiblingen schon bald den Anschluss an die humanistische Bewe- 
gung gefunden hatte. Wir kennen auch einen Wiblinger Frühhuma- 
nisten mit Namen, Victor Nigri (Schwarzheim) , aus Feldkirch 
gebürtig, um die Mitte des 15 • Jahrhunderts als Moench in 
Wiblingen nachweisbar (1456 in Elchingen, speeter Prior in 
Alpirsbach, gest. 1475). Er war Oheim des Augsburger Humanis- 
ten Ludwig Rad ... Nigri hat 1442 ein lateinisch-deutsches 
Vokabular abgefasst (W.Landesbibliöthek Stuttgart). In Wib- 
lingen war auch, wie schon ausgeführt wurde, Melchior von 
Stammheim, der Reformabt von St .Ulrich in Augsburg, 1455- 
1458 Moench. 



... 



... Wiblingen unterhielt wohl schon vor Mitte des 15# Jahr- 
hunderts eine schola interna und externa. In der zweiten Haelf- 
te des 15» Jahrhunderts führten in der Wiblinger Schule die 
antiken Klassiker das grosse Wort 



• . . 



pp. 212-213 



Abtei Ottobeuren : " Die Aussichten für den Humanismus 
waren, als er sich im 15. Jahrhundert in Schwaben heimipch 
zu machen begann, in der Abtei Ottobeuren wenig verheisBungs- 
voll. Das 15. Jahrhundert gehoert zu den dunkelsten Abschnit- 
ten in der Ge5=;chichte dieses Klosters. ... Bessere Zeiten für 



Humanlsm in Konstanz, Wiblingen, Ottobeuren 



- 3 - 



/ V 



(" ) 



ottobeuren kamen erst, als Leonhard Widenman aus Schretzheim 
bei Dillingen 1508 Februar 15 zum Abt gewaehlt wurde ... Von 
ihm gefoerdert, drang auch in Ottobeuren der / Humanismus ans 
Licht. Bote und Bringer dieses geistigen Frühlings, ja schliess- 
lich der Inbegriff des Ottobeurer Humanismus war ein 23 jaehri 
ger Medizinstudent, der 1504, noch unter Abt Matthaeus Acker- 
mann, dem letzten Regenten des dunklen Jahrhunderts, in Otto- 
beuren um das Kleid des heiligen Benediktus gebeten h?^tte, 

Nikolaus Eilenbog [1481 - 15^«]." ^ ,„ 

pp. 216-217 



< ") 



( 



O 



( ) 



Htunanlsm in Konstanz, Wlblingen, Qttobeuren 



() 



/p.205 



( 



( ) 



Friedrich Zoepfl, 'KJoster Ottobeuren iind der Humanismus*, 
Qttobeuren; Festschrift zur 12QQ-Jahrfeier der Abtei « 
te^kuxgxiSijitqp edited by Aegidius Kolb OSB and Hermann 
TUchle* Augsburg 1964» pp. 187-267 

Bistum Konstanz! ** ••• Aus dem Bistum Konst?inz studier- 
ten rn der p-lcichen üniversitaet LBolognaJ im 1A./15* Jahr- 
hundert 222 '). •..• 

3 

Vgl« A^Braun, Der Klems des Bistums Konstanz im Ausgang 

des il^lttelalters- Münster l.'^\ 1938, S.93 ,oo 



» 



• • • 



Staerker als in Ulm war der erwachende Ilumrnismus 
wieder in Konstanz von geistlichen Krreften getragen • Kon- 
stanz war wie Augsburg Bischofssitz. Der Bischof reridierte 
zwar seit dem 13» Jahrhundert, nachdem Konstanz Reichsstadt 
gev erden war, auf der thur^-aui sehen Burg Gottlieben ••• Aber 
das Domkapitel, feudale una graduierte Herren, 24 an der Zahl, 
hatte seine Kurien ••• in der Bischof estc'>dt« Da das Bistum 
tief in die Schweiz hineinreichte, wurde die Stadt Konstanz 
von der humanistischen Welle früher berührt als andere Staed- 
te. Von den Domherrn erschlossen sich dem Humrnismus frühzei- 
tig Albrecht Blarer, Sprozs einer aus St. Gallen eingewander- 
ten rnresehenen Famili*- ... und Konr^d Grämlich. Der erstge- 
nannte stand (1462) in Briefv^rchs^ 1 mit dem Ksplinger Stadt- 
schreiber Niklas von Wyle [141Ö-1478] ••• dem Übersetzer hu- 
mani- tischer Schriften ... / •.• Auch in der Konstrmzer -i^ai- 
enwelt hatte der Humanismus schon im 15. Jahrhundert Freunde, 
so den bischoef liehen Beamten ••• Atigustin !rünger,der nach 
dem Vorbild Poggio Bracciolinis ... eine lateinische Anekto- 
densammlung ..• veranstaltete, ••• femer den langj aehrigen 
Vogt und Bürgermeister seiner Vaterstadt Konrad Schrtz ••• 
Die Konstanzer Inteinische Stadtschule oeffnete dem Humanis- 
mus in den siebziger Jahren ihre Pforte. ..." 

pp. 204-205 



./ 



HtimaniBin In Konstanz, Wibllngen, Ottobeuren 



• 2 - 



' ) 



Kloster TTiblingen t " .•• Man i^reift kaum fehl, wenn man 
die humanistische Aufgeschlossenheit Wiblin^ens mit der un- 
mittelbar benachbarten Reichssta t Ulm in Verbindung bringt 
/p»213 •••/ ••• Durchbinettem wir den Viblinger Bibliothekskatalog, 
den zwei fleissige \^^iblinger Moenche (Coelestin Mayer und 
Philipp Troger) in den Jahren 1724-1736 anlegten (Vürttemb» 
Landesbibliothek Stuttgart), so finden wir unter den Hss des 
15. Jahrhunderts und unter den Wiei^rendrucken die antiken Klas- 
siker, lateinische sowohl als griechische (diese in lateini- 
scher Uebersetzung) , gut vertreten» ••• Den antiken Klassikern 
reihten sich Werke von Humanisten (Petrarca, Baptif^ta Mantu- 
anus, Francesco Filelfo, Enea Silvio Piccolomini, Laurentius 
Valla) an. Es bedarf keines weiteren Zeugnisses, dass man in 
Wiblingen schon bald den Anschluss an die humanistipche Bewe- 
gung gefunden hatte. v;ir kennen auch einen T^iblinger Frühhiima- 
nisten mit Ncimen, Victor Nigri (Schv/arzheim) , vun Feldkirch 
gebürtig, UF! die Kitte des 15. Jahrhunderts als Ivloench in 
Wiblingen nachweisbar (1456 in Elchingen, spaeter Prior in 
Alpirsbach, gest.1475). Er war Oheim des Augsburger Humanis- 
ten Ludwig Rad ... Nigri hat 1442 ein lateinisch-deutsches 
Vokabular abgefasst ('V. Landesbibliothek Stuttgart). In T.'ib- 
lingen war auchjYide schon ausgeführt vnirde, Mel:jhior von 
Stfaminheim, der Re-^'ormabt von St .Ulrich in Augsburg, 1455- 
1458 Moench. 



• . 



• • • 



"^iblingen unterhielt v/ohl sch'.n vor ?üitte des 15» Jahr- 
hunderts eine schola interna und externa. In der zweiten Ilaelf- 
te des 15. Jahrhunderts ftlhrten in der Wiblin^-er Schule die 

antiken Klassiker das grosse V.'ort ..." 

pp. 212-213 



r) 



Abtei Ottobeuren J " Die Aussi hten für den Hiunanismus 
•en,als er sich im 15. Jahrhundert in Sch'^rben heimisch 
zu machen begann, in der Abtei Ottobeuren wenig verheis^nngs- 
voll. Das 15. JahrhTindert gehoert zu den dunkelrten Abschnit- 
ten in der Gerchichte dieses Klosters. ... Bessere Zeiten für 



Humanlsm In Konstanz, liTlbllngen, Otto*beuren 



- 3 - 



( ' 



Ottobeuren kamen erst, ?:ils Leonhrrd Wideninen sus Schretzheim 
bei Dllllngen 1508 Februar 15 zum Abt gewaeblt wurde ••• Von 
Ihic gefoerdert, drang auch in Ottobeuren der / HumaniGiTiUs jns 
Licht. Bote und Bringer die res geirrtigcn Frühlings, ja schliess- 
lich der Inbegriff des Ottobeurer Humanismus war ein 23 jaehri- 
ger Medizinstudent, der 1504, noch unter Abt l^atthaeus Acker- 
mann, dem letzten Regenten des dunklen J^^lirhunderts, in Otto- 
beuren "uir d?5S Kleid des heiligen Benediktus gebeten h^tte, 

Nikolaus I^llenbog [1481 - 1«^^]." 

pp. 216-217 



( ) 



Catalogues of Latin mss. collections 

Augsburg 

W. Wittwer [Wilhelm Wittwer, 1449-1512 J , Catalogus abbatum 
monasteril SS, Udalrici et Afrae Augustenris« Archiv für die 
Geschichte des Bisthum? Augsburg, vol. 3 (1860), 

Kolb-Tüchle, Ottobeuren-Festschrift (Augsburg, 19 64), 

199, n.l4 



( ) 



( 



( ) 



Opara Oxnnia. Latin and Graeoo-Latin editions aftar I6OO. (Grouping 

follows the llst of July 1957). 



M. [Opera] T»l-6* [Coloniae Allobr.:] Stoer I6O8 

T»5: Llbrl onmes,q.ulbua tota moralls philosophia.. 
DK 6t5986 (title fictitlou8;plaoe Inserted) , mh 

[Opera] T*l-5, Index. Lyonsiloanna Ituitae F.,Horatiu8 Cardon 
T. 3, Index - Junta 1579;T*lf2,4,5 - Cardon 1615-1618 
T,5i Llbrl omnes , qulbus tota moralis philosophia, • 
DK 6.5987 (title fiotious; Cardon 1613-18) iMH 

P, Operum Arlstoteli3..nova editio graeoe et latine..Ed.I«Casaubon. 

Aixrellae Allobrogum [GenevafliP.de la Reviere 1605 
T,lt2. 

3N|BM;DK 

R. Openun Ari3totelis#.nova editio graece et latine.«Ed.J»PaoiTX».» 

Ttl,2. GenevaiP.de la Reviere I606-I607 
BNjBM (holds It another edition of above)|DK 

S. Aristotelis opera omnia quae extant »graeoe et latine..Ed.Giiil- 

lelmu» Du Val..T.l,2. ParissTypis xegiis 1619 

DKfBMfDK 

m^ the aame. T.lp2. Paris iTypls regli» 1629 

BN>BM;DK |PPAP 

m the same» Editio postrena. T»l-4# Paris lAE. Morel lus 1639 

BH; 

m the 8aiDe...tertio recognovit#.T.l-4. Paris 1 Johannes 

Billaine 1654 

BHfBMjDK fPPAP 



Opera Omnia,after 1600 



- 2 - 



t. Opera^qua« extant omnla. .Ed. Sylvester Maxirus. T.l-<. Komet 

Franz inl 1668 

T.2i Cont.phllosophiam moralem». 
DK 6,5988;BN 

m the same. Ed.F.Ehrle with B.Felchelln and r.Berlnger. 

T.1-4. Paris :P.Lethlelleux 1885-1886 

BH;3)K 

U. Aristotelis opera omnia gra8ce..et novara versionem latinam ad- 

jecit. Sd.J.Th.Biihle. T.1-5* Zwelbrucken (& Stra8l>ourg)t 
ex typls Societatis 1791- 

BN;DK 

V. Aristotelis opera.Ed.Academia regia Borussloa, T.l-5»Berlini 

G.Reimer 1851-1870 
T*3t Aristoteles latine interpretibus variis. 

BIT I DK 

W. Aristotelis opera omnia, graece et latine..Ed.F.Duebner,Bu33e- 

maker , Holt a.. T.1-4. ParisjA.-F.Didot 1848-1869 

BNjDK 



[^.C 









■Vt/V-v^^ 



Cvv 



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^-w^- 

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Printed commentaries 1470-1520 not yet investigc'^.ted 

ICTHICA 

Breitkopf ,Gregorius, de Konitz Leipzig l''02,04,05, 11, Cracov 1517 

BuschiusjHerman Cologne 1508, 1512, aft r 1500, 

SckiupjJoh'- nnes Augsburg 1517 

Orbellis,ITicol^us de Basel 1505 

Romr^gius, Johannes Paratinus Nuremberg,l^l^ 

Wostefelde?^,Arnoldus Leipzig 1492, 1500,1504,1509,1516 

ChFn]pier,3yinphorien Lyons 1503 
Dol 2, Johannes Lyons 1514 
RhenanuSjBeatus Perip 1511^ 
Sylvester, Antonius Paris 1517 

Odonl£,Geraldus Bre^cia 1482, Venice 1500 
«.. x'~, 

fpolitie.nu;^, Angelos Panepistemon Rorae c,14?5, Venice 14^^" 

./ ' Florence 1491,r^ris s.d. 

V 

Dedicus, Johannes Oxford 1518 
" Perottus,ITicolaus Fani 1504 



POLITICA 
^erottus, Nico laus 
3olidus, Johannes 



Deventer 1512 
Cr' co^'' 1516 



^ 



(P 



^^'"^i-^^'ty.y,^ 



h 



DE VIRTUTI3U3 

HeriTionyr>us,Georcius Pcris 1480, 1^07, D^vrnter 1^14 

2THICA EUDEKIA 

Gtobniczr, Johannes Vienna 1517, Crr.cov 1517 (com. in Bruni Isagog 

Antonius de Fantis, org. opeculum retionrle (Tarip? 04? 111,23) ^ 

Ep.rtolup de Saxoferrato (Politic? ) Leipzig 1493 

Parvulus philosophia moralis (Ethicr. ) Leipzig 149^,^'^,'^^,1''00 

Petrus Pauli!?; Vergerius, (Eäthica) Louvrin c.1475 



• 



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ECONOMICS - Bibliographies and Extracts 



1. International Economics - Bibliograpby 

2. History of Economic Thought - Bibliogrsphy 

3. Karl Marx on Aristotle's Contribution - Notes 



U- 



Temporary Additions (4/77) 
4« Melanchthon Research - Notes taken at Bretten 1974 
5. Various Aristotelica^^ 



ö 



/• 



u 



f 



International Economics - Blbliography 



V 



1 



The Common Market 

The Exiropean Free Trade Association (EFTA) 

Comecon 

Atlantic Unity and European Integration 



o 



International Development Association (IDA) 
International Finance Corporetion (IFC) 



Foreign Aid 
1 . General 



2. U.S. 



3. Soviet Union 



Technical Assistance 

1. General 

2. U.S. 

3. U.N. 



mu^mmm^mmt^ 



International EconoiTiics 



o 



The Common Market 



- 2 - 



( ) 



Ingo Walter, The European Common Market, 1958-65. Growth 
and Patterns of Trade and Production. New Yorkt 
Praeger, 1966 % 12.50 

Vem Terpstra, American Marketing in the Common Merket. 
New York: Praeger, 1967 12.50 

George Lichtheim, The New Eurore. Today - And Tomorrow. 

gnd. ed. [Britain,Francae & Common Market]. New Yorkt 
Praeger, 1964 (P-105/ 2.25) 

Walter Hallstein, United Europet Challenge and Opportunity, 
Cambridge, Mss.: Harvard Univ.PrevSS, 1962 



J-mucwk-- 



International Economics 



The Common Market 



) 



Don D. Humphrey, The United States and the Common Market. 
A Backgrounct Study. Rev.ed. New York: Praeger 
1964 cloth (4.95); paper (1.95) 

Randall Hinshaw, The European Community and American Trade. 
A Study in Atlantic Economics and Policy. New York: 
Praeger, 1964 cloth (4.95); paper (1.95) 

Heinz Commer, Business Practice in the Common Market. 
A Short Guide. New York: Praeger, 1963 6.00 

U.W. Kitzinger, The Politics and Economics of European In- 
tegration. Britain, Europe, and the United States. 
New Yorks Praeger, 1963 cloth (5.50); paper (2.25) 

Anthony Edwards, Investment in the European Economic Com- 
munity. A Study of Problems and Opportunities. 
(The Economist Intelligence Unit). New York: Praeger, 
1964 15.00 

Colin Clark, The Common Market and British Trade. New York: 
fraeger, 1962 4.00 

J.F. Deniau, The Common Market [Exposition of Treaty]. 
New York: Praeger, 5.00 

Isaiah Frank, The European Common Market. An Analysis of 
Commercial Policy. New York: Praeger, 7.50 



\ r 



Michael Shanks & John Lambert, The Common Market Today - 
and Tomorrow. New York: Praeger, 1963 
cloth (6.95); paper (2.25) 

Gordon L. Weil (ed.), A Handbook of the European Economic 
Community. (EEC Information Service). New York: 
Praeger, 1965 7.50 



International Economics 



The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) 



F.V.Meyer, The European Free-Trade Association, 
of "The Outer Seven". New York: Praeger, 



An Analysis 



John S. Lambrinidis, The Structure, Function and Law of a 

Free Trade Area. The European Free Trade Association. 
New York! Praeger, 1965 12.50 



>»' 




International Economics 



Comecon 



(1 



John Butler, The Soviet Union, Eastern Eiirope, and the 
World Food Markets, (The Economist Intelligence 
Unit). New York: Praeger,1965 12.50 



Heinz Koehler, Economic Integration in the Soviet Bloc. 

With an East German Gase Study. New York? Praeger, 
1966 15. ÜO 



) 



International Economics 



Atlantic Unity and European Integration 



O 



Don D. Humphrey, An Economist Looks at Atl?>ntic Unity 
New York: Praeter, 1965 






Internp^tional Econorrics 



International Development Association (IDA) 

James H. Weaver, The International Development Association 
A New Approach to Foreign Aid. New Yorkt Praeter, 
1965 $ 15.00 



( ) 



o 



International Economics 



International Finance Corporfition and Development Banking 



( ) 



J.T. Dock Houk, Financing and Problem? of Development Bank- 
ing, (Prepared fpr the Fund for Internrtionrl Coopera- 
tive Development [ Inter-Americsn] ) . New York! Prae- 
ger, 1966 ^ IP.OO 



o 



o 



International Economics 



Foreign Aid - 1. General 



I.W. Moomaw, The Challenge of Hunger. 
Effective Foreign Aid. New York' 



A Program for More 
Praeger 5.95 



Leonard J. Lewis & Arthur J. Loveridge, The Management for 
Teachers to the Problems in New and Developing Systems 
New York: Praeger, 1965 4.50 



Jaco\r J. Kaplan, The Challenge of Foreign Aid. Practice, 
Problems, and Üpportunities . New York; Praeger 

8.50 

Harry G. Johnson, Economic Policies toward less Developed 
Countries. (A Brookings Institution Study). New 
York: Praeger, 1967 paper (U.621/ 2. SO) 







International Sconomics 



O 



Foreign Aid - 2. U.S. 

S. Chandrasekhar, American Aid and India's Economic Develep- 
ment, 1951-64. New York: Praeger, 1965 6.5Ü 

William 1. Elliott, Education and Training in the Developing 
Countries. The Hole of U.S. Foreign Aid. New York: 
Praeger, 1966 7.50 



Neil H. Jacoby, U.S. Aid to Taiwan. A Study of Foreign Aid, 
Seif -Help, and Development. New York: Praeger, 1966 

8.5Ü 



John D. Montgomery, The Politics of Foreign Aid. American 
Experience in Southeast Asia. New York: Praeger 
cloth (6.50); paper (2.25) 



International Economics 



Foreign Aid - 3. Soviet Union 



Joseph S. Berliner, Soviet Economic Aid. An New Policy 
of Aid and Trade in Underdeveloped Countries. New 
York! Praeger, 1958 4.25 



Marshall I. Goldman, Soviet Foreign Aid. New York: Praeger, 

8.50 

Cyril A. Zebot, Thr Economics of Competitive Coexistence. 
Convergence Through Growth. New York? Praeger, 1964 

6.50 



Leo Tansky, U.S. and U.S.S.R. Aid to Developin^e Countries. 
A fiasiisxzxxait Comparative Study of India, Turkey, -ind 
the U.A.R. New York: Praeger, 15.00 

Carole A. Sawyer, Communi^t Trade with Developing Countries: 
1955-65. New York: Praeger, 1966 10.00 

David Ingram, The Communist Economic Challenge. [Among the 
topics: aid to developing countries J. New York: Praeger 
1965 (Praeger Publications in Russian History: No.l56) 



o 







Intern.:^ tional Economics 



Technical Assistance - !• General 



( ) 



Jahangir Amuzegar, Technical Assistance in Theory and 
Practica. The Crse of Irrn. New York: Praeger 
1966 S 15.00 

Lawrence W. Bass, The Managerrent of Technical Programs. 
With Special Reference to the Needs of the Develop- 
ing Countries. New York: Praeger, 1965 8.50 

Mordechai E. Kreinin, Israel and Africa. A Study in 
Technical Cooperation. New York; Praeger, 1964 
206 pp. 12.50 



►■IM»! iw^o«n-a.t& — M ^*tw 



International Economics 



Technical Assistsnce - 2. Ü.S, 



( ) 



Francis C. Byrnes, Americans in Technical Apsif^tmce. 
A Study of Attitüde? and Responpes to Their Role 
Abroad. New York: Praeger,1965 .115 12.50 

James J. Shields, Education in Community Development. 
The Role of U.S. Technical Assistan'ce. New York: 
Praeger, 10.00 

Robert Scigliano & Guy H. Foy, Technical Assiptf:nce in 
Vietnam. (Michigan State Univer^ity Protect). New 
York: Praeger, 1965 ^-50 

Harold A. Hovey, United States Military Assistfnce. A 

Study of Policies and Practices. New York: Praeger, 
1965 15.00 



t I 



International Economics 



Technical Assistance - 3. U.N. 



Yonah Alexander, International Technicrl Aspistance Ex- 
perts. A Gase 3tudy of the U.N. Expericnce. New 
York! Praeger,1966 S 15.00 







Eco 4 - Syllabus - Additions 
page 2: Bibliography 

Doctrines, New York: Oxford University Prer.s,1945 
(Paperback! Galaxy Book 123, 1964) fnd J.A. Schum- 



• • • 



H.W. Spiegel (ed.), The Development of Econ - 
omic Thou^ht . New York! J.7/iley & Sons, 1952 (Paper- 
'^, back! Science Editions, 1964 ) ^ ^•^•'- N'.r< 



y 



Free Press of Glenooe, 1962 (Parts 2 and ?), W.E. 
Kuhn, The Evolution of Economic ThourM . Cincinnatit 
South-Western Publishing Co., 1963 and O.H. Taylor 



3 



History of Economic Thought 



General Histories - 2. Reprints of older works 

John R. McCulloch, The Literature of Political Economy (1845). 
'Reprints of Economic Classics*, New York: Augustus 
M. Kelley $ 12.50 

- - - » A Select Collection of Scarce and Vsluahle 

Economical Tracts (1859), Kelley Reprints 20.00 

- - - f A Select Collection of Scarce and Valuable 

Tracts on Commerce (1859), Kelley Reprints 20.00 

James Bonar, Philosophy and Political Economy in some of their 
historical relations. (1922) 3rd ed., Kelley Re- 
prints 12.50 

Edwin Cannan, A Review of Economic Theory. With New Intro- 

duction by B.A. Corry. (1929). Kelley Reprints 12.50 

- , A History of the Theories of Production and Dis- 
tribution in English Political Economy from 1776 to 
1848. 3rd ed. (1924). Kelley Reprints (1967) 8.50 

Albert C. Whitaker, History and Criticism of the Labor Theory 
of Value in English Economy. (1904). Kelley Reprints 
(1967) 7.50 

Charles Rist, History of Monetary and Credit Theory. From 

John Law to the Present Day. (1940). Kelley Reprints, 
LBefore 1967J 10.00 



/' ■) 



( \ 



History of Economic Thought 

Medieval Economic Thought - 2. Reprints of older works 

William J. Ashley, An Introduction to English Economic History 
and Theory. Part I (1888): The Middle Ages. Part II 
(1893): The End of the Middle Ages. 'Reprints of Econ- 
omic Classics*, New York: Augustus M, Kelley 12.50 

H. M. Robertson, Aspccts of the Rise of Economic Individualism. 
(1933). Kelley Reprints. 6.00 

Arthur E. Monroe, Monetary Theory before Adam Smith. (1923). 

Kelley Reprints. 8.50 



O 



Medieval Economic Thought 

G-abriel Biel, Treatise on Power and Utility of Moneys. 
Tr. by R.G. Burke. (?), 1930 

H.A. Oberman, Harvest of Medieval Theology. Gabriel Biel 
^.nd late medieval nominalism. (?), 1963 

Bede Jarrett, S. Antonino and Mediaeval Econoirics. St. 
Louis, 1914 

Rudolf Kaulla, Theory of the Just Price. A Historical 
and Critical Study of the Problem of Economic Value. Lon- 
don, 1940 



( ) 



n 



A. O'Rshilly, St. Thomas ort Credit. Irlsh Eccles. 

Record 1928, pp. 159-168. 

[M.Grabniann,Die Werke des Hl. Thomas von 
Aquln. Beltraege zur Geschichte der PhilO' 
Sophie des Mittelalters. Bt(. XXII, 1-2, 
(Münster, 1949), pp. 557-358] 



' ) 



o 



o 



< ) 



History of Economic Thoiight 
Renaissance Economic Thought 



\ ) 



G»-H. Bousquet, Esquisse d'une histoire de la science ^con- 
omique en Italie, des origines ä Francesco Ferrara. 107 pp- 
Paris, i960 

[Diomede Carafa, De regis et "boni principis officio, 1470 *s; 
Kuhn^Evolution,p.566 - probably based on Harold M. Groves (ed.) 
Viewpoints on Public Finance: a Book of Readings, N.Y.tHolt, 
1947J 

A« Renaudet, Erasme ^conomiste. In: M^langes offerts ä A. 
Lefranc. Paris, 1936 



( ) 



O 



( > 



History of Economic Thought 

Mercantilism - General Works - 2. Reprints of older works 

£• A. J. Johnson, Predecessors of Adam Smith. The Growth of 

British Economic Thought. (1937). * Reprints of Econ- 
omic Classics*. New York: Augustus M. Kelley 10.00 

Gustav Schmoller, The Mercantile System and its Historical Sig- 
nificance. Illustrated Chief ly from Prussian History. 
(1884). Kelley Reprints (1967 ?) 6.00 

Jacob Viner, Studies in the Theory of International Trade. 

(1937). Kelley Reprints 10.00 

P. J. Thomas, Mercantilism and the East India Trade. An Early 

Phase of the Protection versus Free Trade Controversy. 
(1926). Kelley Reprints 7.00 



(' ) 



History of Economic Thought 



Mercantilism - Representative Authors - 2. Reprints of their 

works 



Thomas Wilson. A Discourse on üsury, By Way of Dialogue and 
Orations. Edited by R.H.Tawney with an Historical 
Introduction. (1925) 'Reprints of Economic Classics*. 
New York: Augustus M, Kelley. 10.00 

Edward Misseiden. The Circle of Commerce. (1623). Kelley Re- 
prints. (1967) 12.50 

Free Trade. (1622). With an introduction 
by John M. tetiche. Kelley Reprints. (1967) 12.50 

Gerard de Malynes, The Center of the Circle of Commerce or, 
A Refutation of a Treatise, Intituled The Circle of 
Commerce, or The Ballance of Trade, lately published 
by E.M. [MisseldenJ. (1625) Kelley Reprints 10.00 

Sir Dudley North, Discourse Upon Trade. (1691). New Torks 

Johnson Reprint Corporation. (Cloth) 3.00 

Thomas Mun, England *s Treasure by Foreign Trade. (1664). N.Y. 
Johnson Reprint Corporation (Cloth) 11.80 

Sir James Steuart, An Inquiry into the Principles of Political 
Economy. 2 vols. (1767). N.Y.t Johnson 84. ÜO 



C) 



, The Works. Ed. by his son. 6 vols. (1805). 
Kelley Reprints (1967) 75.00 



History of Economic Thought 

Sir William Petty - 2. Reprints of his works 

The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty. Edited iDy Charles 
H. Hüll. 2 vols. (1899). 'Reprints of Economic Clas- 
sics*. N.y. t Augustus M. Kelley 20.00 

The Petty Papers. Some unpublished Writings of Sir William 
Petty, edited from the Bowood Paprrs by thr Marquis of 
Lansdowne. 2 vols. (1927). N.Y.? Kelley 20.00 

Sir William Petty, The History of the Survey of Ireland, Com- 
iponly Called the Down Survey. (1655-56). Edited by 
Thomas A. Larcom (1851). Kelley Reprints. 17.50 



C) 



History of Economic Thought 



Richard Cantillon, - 2. Reprint of his werk 



( j 



Richard Cantillon. Essay sur la Nature du Commerce en General. 
(1755). Edited with an English Translation & Other Ma- 
terial by Henry Higgs. (1931). [includes Jevons* essay]. 
Kelley Reprints. 12.50 



o 



History of Economic Thought 
Ferdinande Galiani 








"7")^" 












F, Galiani, De la monnaie (1751). Traduit et analys^ avec 
bibliographie, intrdduction & notes, par G.-H, Bousquet & J. 
Crisafulli. Paris, 1955 

_ Emil Kauder, A History of Marginal Utility Theory. Prince- 
ton: University Press, 1965 ^ - 



n 



r> 



History of Economic Thought 

Adam Smith - 1. Reprints of his works 

Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759). [Reprint 

of the latest Bohn Library printing (1892)]. »The Adam 
Smith Library'. N.Y.s Augustus M. Kelley 12.50 

Adam Smith, Lectures on Justice, Police, Revenue and Arms. 
[Students' Notes of 1763 J. Edited by Edwin Cannan 
(1896). 'The Adam Smith Library*. Kelley, 8.50 

Adam Smith, The Early Writings of Adam Smith. Edited by J. 

Ralph Lindgren. »The Adam Smith Library'. Kelley 10.00 



o 



Hlstory of Economic Thought 



o 



Adam Smith - 



2. Studies on Adam Smith - a. Reprints of 

olders books 



Dugald Stewart, Bibgraphical Memoir of Adam Smith, LL.D. (1793) 
[Reprint of Stewart's Collected Works, vol. X (1858); 
includes Memoirs by William Robertson and Thomas Reid] 
•The Adam Smith Library'. N.Y.s Kelley 12.50 

John Rae, Life of Adam Smith. Intrioduced by J.Viner. 'The 

Adam Smith Library*. Kelley 20.00 

William R. Scott, Adam Smith as Student and Professor. (1937). 
•The Adam Smith Library', Kelley 15.00 

Adam Smith, 1776-1926. L Commemorative lectures by Clark, Doug- 
las, Hollander, Morrow, Palyi, Viner] (1928). 'The 
Adam Smith Library', Kelley 8.50 

CR. Fay, The World of Adam Smith, (i960). 'The Adam Smith 
Library'. Kelley 5.00 



c 



Marx on Aristotle 

Doctoral Dissertation (Early 1839 - March 1841) 

Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Natur- 
philosophie (nebst einem Anhange), 

Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Natural 
Philosoph/ (besides an appendix: Criticism of the Plutarch- 
ean Polemic against Epicure*s Theology) 

»♦Nun ist es zwar eine sehr triviale ¥/ahrheit: Entstehen, 
Blühen und Vergehen sind der eherne Kreis, in den jedes Mensch- 
liche gebannt ist, den es durchlaufen muss. So haette es nichts 
Auffallendes, wenn die griechische Philosophie, nachdem sie 
in Aristoteles die hoechste Blüte erreicht , dann verwelkt wae- 
re. Allein der Tod der Helden gleicht dem Untergang der Son- 
ne, nicht dem Zerplatzen eines Frosches, der sich aufgeblasen 
hat". 

[Since everything in human life goes through a cycle of 
growth and declinej "Thus it would be not at all striking if 
Greek philosophy,after having reached in Aristotle its highest 
blossem, had withered away,." 

Marx -Engels Gesamtausgabe. Erste Abteilung. Band 1, 
Erster Halbband LPart I, volume 1, part Ij, Frankfurt 
1927 - [TextsJ,p.l3 



('} 



( 



*' ... The eseence of the argument ' against enrichment 
by trade, with reference to Heinrich von Langenstein and 
Luther 1 was that payment may be properly demanded by the 
craftsmen who make the goods, or by the merchants who trans- 
port them, for both laboiir in their vocation and serve the 
common need. The unpardonable sin is that of the specula- 
tor of the middleman, who snatches private gain by the ex- 
ploitation of public necessities. The true descendant of 
the doctrines of Aquinas is the labour theory of value. 
The last of the Schoolmen was Karl Marx." 



(■) 



R.H. Tawney, Religion and the Eise of Capitsil- 
ism. (Pelican Book), p,48 



( 



(') 



o 



K.Marx, Capital (Modern Library edition) - References to 

Aristotle not listed in Index (p.865) 



p. 93, note 2 (continued on p.94): ...If a gi«nt thinker 

like Aristotle erred •••• 

p. 97, note 1 "For two-fold is the use of every object •• 

... "being exchanged'* (Aristoteles, De Rep., 
I,c.9) 

p. 170, note 1 "Aristotle opposes Oeconomic to Chrematistic 

.... aiin of Oeconomic" (Aristotles,De Repub. 
edit .Bekker,lib.I,c.8,9 passim.) 

p. 185 line 13 ... Hence Aristotle:" since chrematistic is 

a double science .... contrary to nature" 



Aristotle, I.e. c.lO 

p. 358 line 10 ... The reason of this is that a man is,if 

2 
not as Aristotle contends,a politicali, 

at all events a social animal. 



Strictly,Aristotle*s definition ... 



p. 445 last 

line 



.. ."If",dreained Aristotle, 



p. 446 line 7 ... for the lords." 



O 



-^ F.Biese, "Die Philosophie des Aristoteles" 
[The Philosophy of Aristotle J , vol. 2, 
Berlin, 1842, p. 408 



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Bretten (Baden) : Melanchthonhaus - Dr.[rer pol.J; Dr. [phil. 

h.c.J Beutemtiller 31.8.1974 

Beutemüller, Vorlaeufiges Verzeichnis der Melanchthon- 

Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts. Halle i960 

Stuppench (?) Ausgabe s Melanchthon Werke, III, Gütersloh 

1961 
Hammer, Die Melanchthonforschung. I, II, III (in Vorber- 
eitung /1974) 

Vogt, Nachweis von Melanchthonbriefen. Theologische Stu- 
dien und Kritiken. Bd. 83 (1910), 195 - 243; ergaenzt von 
C* Fleming. 

Supplementband von Giemen. ?d I (Leipzig, 1926) 

Melanchthon Forschungsstelle Heidelberg, Heiliggeiststr. 
15 Lleiter ? :j H. Scheible - zustaendig für Briefe 

Helmuth Claus, Landesbibliothek Gotha [ besitzt Beute- 
inüllers Ergaenzungen zu seinem Verzeichnis der 16.Jhdt. Drucke J 

Hammer [connected with Melanchthonhaus J : Wilhelm Hammer, 
Northfeld, Minn. (specialises in Camerarius) 



o 



( ) 



Bretten (Baden) t Melanohthonhaus - Dr*[rer pol.J; Dr. [phil* 

h.o.J Beutemüller ?1.8.1974 

Bttutemiiller, Vorlaeufiges Verzeichnis der lielanchthon- 

Drucke des 16« Jahrhunderts. Halle i960 

Stuppench (?) Ausgabe t llelanchthon Werke, XII » Gütersloh 

1961 
Hammer» Die Melanohthonforschung. I» II, III (in Vorber* 
eitung /1974) 

Vogt, Nachweis von Uelanchthonbriefen. Theologische Stu* 
dien xuid Kritiken. Bd. 83 (1910), 195 * 243; ergaenzt von 
C. Fleming. 

« Supplementband von Clemen.^d I (Leipzig, 1926) 

Melanchthon Forschungsstelle Heidelberg, Heiliggeiststr. 
15 [Leiter ? t ] H. Soheible •» zustaendig für Briefe 

Helmuth Claus, Landesbibliothek Gotha [ besitzt Beute* 
müllers Ergaenzungen zu seinen Verzeichnis der l6.Jhdt* Drucke] 

Hammer [connected with Me lancht honhaus J t Wilhelm Hammer, 
Northfeld, Minn. (specialises in Camerarius) 



() 



(; 



Arlstotle*s dlsctinction of Wholesale and Retall Trade 

as interpreted by Cicero . 

« Now in regard to trade and other means of livelihood, 
which ones are to be considered becoming to a gentleman 
and which ones are vulgär, we have been taught,in general, 
as follows: ... Vulgär we must consider those also who buy 
from Wholesale merchants to retail immediately; for :^hey 
would get no profits without a great deal of downright ly- 
ing; and verily there is no action that is meaner than mis- 
representation. ... 



... 



Trade, if it is on a small scale, is to be consider- 
ed vulgär; but if wholesale, and on a large scale, import- 
ing large quantities from all parts of the world and distrib- 
uting to many without misrepentation , it is not to be great- 
ly disparaged. Nay, it even seems to deserve the highest 
respect, if those who are engaged in it, satiated, or rather, 
I should say, satisfied with the fortunes they have made, 
make their way from the port to a country estate, as they 
have often made it from the sea jhx* into port. But of all 
the occupations by which gain is secured, none is better than 
agriculture, none more profitable, none more delightful, none 
more becoming to a freeman." 

Cicero, De officiis, Book I, xlii. 

(as cited by Frank A. Neff , Economic 
Doctrines, 2nd ed. Hew YorktMxcGraw- 
Hill, 1950, pp. 31-32) 



O 



( ) 



Aristotle's Works - Vemacular - German 

Aristoteles Werke in Deutscher Übersetzung. Herausgegeben 
von Ernst Grumach. Akademie -Verlag, Berlin 

6. Nikomachische Ethik. Übersetzt von Franz Dirlmeier, 

Würzburg. A-V. Berlin, 1958 (possessed) 

7. Eudemische Ethik. Übersetzt von F. Dirlmeier. A-V. 

Berlin, 1958 (possessed) 

8. Magna Moralia. Übersetzt von F. Dirlmeier, A-V., 

Berlin, 1958 (possessed) 

9. Politik. Übersetzt von H. Stark, Saarbrücken. Ä-V. 

Berlin, 

10. Teil 1 : Staat der Athener 

Teil II ! Oekonomik . Übersetzt von H. Braunert, Kiel 

Berlin, 

Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 

Aristoteles Werke. Bd. I, Teil II : Oekonomik, übersetzt 

von H. Braunert (?) 
W.Buchgem. Nr. 2000 

[A. ] Ethik & Politik des Aristoteles. (Wege der Forschung, 

Bd. CCVIII) Hsg. von Fritz-Peter Hager, 1972 
W. Nuchgem. Nr. 4420 (ca. 37.50) 



o 



Aß Cz8^ 



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$4 



Cowtemporary nivillzation 



Nq. 1 



Spring 1946 






h- 



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/ 



QUEENS COLLEGE 
ContemporikSy Civllisation 2 



Student s will purchase: 

Modlin and DeVyver, Development of Economic Society 

Dell and Luthringer, Population, Resoiufccs and Trade 

McCftte and Lcstor, Labor and Social Organization 

Goycr ond Ho stow, Höw Monojr Works 

Tho Föderal Rosorvo System 

Mimoographod roading matorlala on tho Business Oycle will bo 

distri"butcd by tho Instructor 



WESTBEN ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS 



IntroductionJ 



1 hr. 



Nature and pürpose of GC 2* The major issues of the course« 
Significance of economic institutions in Cantemporary Oiviliza- 
tion. The iitiportance of Capitallsm« Its rolatlon to social 
and politlcal problems. 

Modlin and DeVyver, Development of Economic Society 

pp. 3-8 



2 hrs 



Scction I \ 



Main Poaturos in thc Historical Devolopmcnt of 
Modern Capitalism in the V/est 



I. The Riso of Capitalism in Buropo 

l* Tho Modioval Background and its transforraation 

a. I'fe.nor and Guild l^dlln and DcVyvcr 14-41 

"b, Trado, Pinance, and the Economic Thought of tho Middlo 

Ages Ibid. 42-72 
c« Docay of tho l^odioval Agricultural System, ibid. 75-93 



1^ 



2 hrs 



2# Origins of Capitalism 



3. 



a, 



Dornest! c System. Foreign Trade and its busine ss 
Organization ibid. 94-124 



b,; Origins of modern Jlnance and Banking ibid. 125-151 



^^v 



Mercantilisml the national states absorb and transform old 
economic thought and adapt the economic structure to a 
growing soclety; Stimulation and rogulation of enterpriso 
ibid. 152-168 



II, The Old Industrial Revolution 

1. ^hc naturo of the Industrial Revolution (mcaning of 
concopt) and the technological changos in Europc and 
America; factory system and urbanization ibid. 171-197 



\ 



8. 



Contemporary Civllizatlon 2 



)) 



3 hrs 



2» The Agricultural Bovolutlon: comincrcial and scientific 
fanning, thc Wostward Movement in the U.S. ibid, 198-219 

3. Revolution in Transportation and Trade: growing intcrdepcndencc, 
spccialization, c3q?ansion of cconomy ibid. 220-244 

4, Economic Individuali sm ibid. 267-288 



Soction II : Contomporary Economic Institutions in tho U.S, 



4 hrs 



I. Dominant Oharactcristics of Production and Oonaumption 
1. Industrial Production 

a. Tho Second Industrial Revolution in Americat now typcs 
of economic spccialization ibid» 291-309 

b. Industrial Conccntration: largo- scalo production, now 
forms of business Organization ibid. 310-332 



L 



A continuously cxtcnding market« agriculture, transportation, j 
trade ibid. 333-372 -" 



3« Growing importance of Government rcgulation ibid. 424-454 



4 hrs 



II, Sclect Problems of Contemporary ikicrican Financo 

1', An Introduction to Monetary T^eory 
^ Gay er and Eostow, How Money Works 

2« Banking and the Credit ^stem 

Modlin and DeVyver 373-388 r:-: Uoif 



/• 



The Pederal Beservo System 

Seloct roadings from the pamphlot of the same titlo 



) 



Soction III ; Major Problera« of Twcntioth Century Economic Society: 

Background and Contemporary Sotting 



I. Thc Domost ic Sccno 



1. Population Problems in tho Contemporary Economj'' 

pd Thoory and historical background of growth of population 
^ Doli and Luthringor 23-73 6"?- 7^ 



( 



/ 

$w Contomporary Olvilization 2 

b. Composltlon of U.S. population iMd. 74- 1H 3 V "'^ 

c. Social and economic significoncc of population changcs 
3 hrs ibid. 113-139 

8. Utilization of Natural Rosourcos 
( ) 1 hr flf; Exploitation of Resources ibid. 140-158 

3« Labor Organization 

a. Riso and G-rowth of Labor Organization 

McOabo and ^o stör 11-36 '«^ 

b. AiL and CIO ibid. aSaaBö \i.d>'''>^ 

3 hrs c. Trade Union Policios and l^cthods ibid. 52=tt3 ir-»*»-*? 

4, Labor Lcginlation 

a. The Strugglc for rocognition of the Labor Movement 
and Government intorvontion in Labor dispiufecs 

ibid. 117-14 7 '^l- '^o 

b. Public rcgulation of thc terms of employmcnt 
2 hrs ibid. XAf^mVtZ \C\ • 2.0^ 

5. Social Security 

a. 5ho Problem of Economic Insccurity ibid. 177-199 x ^? 2 - ^ • v 

b. Business Cycle mimeograph material 

c. Public Insurance Schemes ibid. 2fiÖs2Ö3 ii^-it»7 

4 hrs d. Social Security Issues ibid. 354 ff. 

^^ _, ?i>.l ^^ 

II. International Aspects 

1. International Trade 

jt^ Theory of International Trade ^--^ 
^ Dell and Luthringer 174-193 Mi • '<^3 

b. Tariffs and othcr controls of International Trade 
. ^ 2 hrs ibid. 212-rß28< x^x^i, 

-^ rr. 

2» International Oommerical Policy; a discussion of Inter- 
national! sm and Seif- Sufficioncy 
2 hrs ibid. 2294275> i-fe, 1 , ^ ^ <, ^ ^^^ 

3. Criticism of Capitalism 

a* ThOoretical attacks McCabe and Lester 281-307 
4 hrs b. The socialistic Systems abroad ibid. 308-340 

Total 37 hrs 



■^r^^-ir?:j-ii^yr^ryr' 'f/f^ 'yp^'^^ftf 



f ■ 



,•'•'■ " '-< ■ '■''' 



sf 



■ - ' *. • - . . / 

Contemporary Civilization 2 






'r7»,^-Tnr»-7J''7'«»5c?^r*^ 



V- 



Introductionr Nature and purpose of CC2« The major issues of the course, Significance 

of economic institutions in Contemporary Civilization. The iurportsLiice 
of Capital ism, Its relation to social and political pro"bleras» Modlin 
1 hr« . and DeVyver, Development of Economic Society pp, 3-8. 



*/»< ^ 



^V.,V 



Section I: Main Features in the Historical Development of Modern Capitalism 
'^. , I In Western E-orope and the United States, 



-M' 



2 hrs. 



!♦ The Hise of Caoitalism in Burope 

1» The Hedieval Backgroimd and its transforamtion 

a. ^'ianor and G-uild Modlin and DeVyver 14-41 

"b* Trade, Finance, and the Economic Thought of the Middle 

Ages itid. 42-72 
c, Decay of tho Medicval Agricultur^il System, ihid, 74-.9o 



2 hrs. 



2. Ori^lMS of Capitalism 

a. Domes tic System, Foroij^ Tra.de and its "businoss Organization 
ihid, 94-124 
. "b, rigins of modern Finance and 3an]:ing il-)id. 125-151 

3# i-icrceantilism; tho national statcs a'bsorl) and transform old 
. • economic thouglit ojid adapt tho economic stnicturc to a grov/ing 
sociotyt Stimulation pjid rcgulation of cntorprisc ibid. 152*-168 



.j^(^ •■ 



1 hr. 



1 hr. 



1 hr. 



.-^'.■•i ^. •■ 



■.;^ 



1 hr. 



II. Tho Old IndMstrial Revolution 

1. Tho naturo of tho Industrial Revolution (mcciiing of concopt) 
and tho tcchnological changcs in Suropc rjid America? factory 
System eiid urhoiiization ihid. 171-197 



2, The A^ricultural Revolution^ commercir;! and scientific farr.iin^-, 
tho V7cstv/ard Hovcmcnt in tho U.S. ihid. 198-219 



3. Revolution in Trmsportation, Trade, and FinmccJ grouing 

intcrdcpcndoncc, spccialization, ncv^ forma of "businoss Organiza- 
tion, cxpojision of hoiiking ibid. [ä80-2^3 z-i^i - u-^ iC> -4» 



4. .'Economic Individualism ibid. 267-288 



III, The Smorgcncc of Modern Ilconomic Institutions in the U.S. 

1» Tho rovolution in industry and tcchnolo-^S' in America: tlie 
"Socond Industrial Revolution"! reccssions, furthor typos of 
economic spccialization ibid. 291-309 

2. Industrial ConccntrationJ large'-sca?-C production, nc-r forms of 
.. bUBinoss Organization ibid. 310-332 



■ .v 



HOL 



ii»i I ,« i<ti«. 1, . ■ 



.^, '.„\ 



-V»^J->«»» ^-— -T- 



k: 



^\ 



Contcmporr.ry Civil ization 2 



Scctioii I: Pc?-rt III 

3, Continucd cxtcnsion of thc rnr.rl:ctj :\3riculturc, tr-^äisportrX ion, 
1 hr. tr-dc ilDid, p5=»37&^ c^'-^ii. 



1 hr. 



4. C nt empor c.ry American J'inrncc: Bp^ikin{]^ r.nd tho Credit System, 
Cc:itralized Control ibid. |B¥ {!! 101 ^ 3-o.>j^ 



IV, M<7Jor Effects of thc industrinlizr.tion of Society 

1« Soci?.! ConscquencQs of t'^e Industrial Rcvolutions, Growth 
1 hr, of Population, Labor Ilovoraeut Modlin cjid DcVyvor 405-423 



2, Thc grov/ing iir^portpjicc of G-overnment mä tho Decline of 
^ai SS cz- Faire ibid, 424-454 



1 hr. 



Scction II: Tho Economic Institutions of 'I'vrcntieth Century Society 

Introduction to major concepts of Capitalism 

Ilodlin and ilcisaac, Social Control of Industry pp, 3-8 



1 hr. 



I, Thc Structuro of Business Enterprise 

1, S'ori.is of ousincris Organization ibid, 11-31 



2, Financing md control of cntcrprisc, distribution of securitics, 
Rcgul-ation of rjxchanscs ibid, 32-74 



1 hr. 



1 hr. 



II, Thc Mcarlcct 

1, Tho Consumor and thc liarlict ibid, 77-109 



1 hr. 



2 hrs. 



■A 



2, Competition and its rcstrictions ibid, 131-161 ( 



3, G-ovcrnmcnt and control of industry and trade, ibid, 162-179, 
1 hr, and 192-222 

III, Money, ^'^onctary Thcory, ciid. Credit Institutions . 

1, Economic Significancc of money — functions 

Luthringor, Chandlcr and Ciino, Ä^oncy, Credit and Financc pp,3-26 

2, *j.n Introduction to Monetär- Thcorjr 
. G-aycr and Rostov/, How Money Works (thc cntiro paraphlöt) 



3, Credit ..uid Ba)ücins 

i\, credit and credit instruncnts, Luthringer, Chandlcr riiö. Clinc 

53-67 
1 hr, b, Investment Institut ions ibid, 68-81 



1 hr. 



c, central izcd bc^i^-in^ ibid. 91-109 

d, control of credit ibid, 110, 117-127 



IV, Public Financc 



1 hr. 



rp» 



1, Thc Public Sconomj/ ibid, 241-256 

2, "^'he Revenue S^rstem ibid, 257-277 



^, Contcmpor-'^r^'' Civilization 2 
" ^r\ ^ ^ 

Scctio:i Hl Part IV 
I - 3 ^-i-Yu Iii c ld u acu — IbicU '^yB^^^2S^-^ 

1 hr, 4y Incomo 5«;3e— iM4^--?0g-3eS- 

1 hr. r. Public Credit ibid. 341-373 

_ V, Populiition "-"roblcms in thc Contcmporary '^conorn^ 

1« T-hnnry -^-ir» •hi?^t.nrinn1 "h-r^^^gm^nr^ nf ^grnut.h of population ^ -, 

1 hr, Doli cAid. ;..'uthringcr, Populp.tion, Pcsourccs and Trade po« ^ -73 

2, Distrih-'j.t'.on of Population! internal ni^rations, colonial 
cxpansion. conrpoGition of prcsjnt day U.S, population, 

1 hr, ai2:;c {^iroups ibid. 74-112 

3, Social and Scononic Si^^nif icnncc of population changos 
1 hr. ibid, 113-139 

Scction III: Major Aspccts of tho Fanctioning of tho Contomporr^ry Economy 

I* The Doraostic Scono 

1. Uti'.ization of IT^.tural Hosourcos 
1 hr. n« rXploitation of Eosourccsj llodlin :uid McIsaac, 225-260 

•. 1 hr, b. ;igricultural Problems ibid. 231-28'?' 

2o Transportation 
1 hr. n. The Transportation System, ibid. 319-341 

b. Hcgulation of Transportation ibid, 367-334 

1 hr. c. Trpjisportation Policy ibid. 385-400 

3. Public Utilities: selcct readings fron ibid. 403-471 

a, -i-ature of ^ublic Utilities 

b, ^xaniplcs of rcgulation of Public Utilities 

c, Public Ov/ncrship and Operation of Public Utilities 

2 hrs, d, Alternatives 

XI., International Trrd.c and Comncrcial J^olicy 

1 . '^ iuüi^ uf — ^h ^crnational ' i- 'rad e ♦ 6 1 - ^ "^ J • 

^.^^^ 1 hr. Dell and Luthringcr, Population, Resources and Tradc,pp.!S$=^3 

;/ ^ — _ , 

1 hr, 2y ->Iuj.iU L,.tg^ziJl Aju9ti ;^aa4s — ibid. I94w23.1> 

1 hr. 3. Tariffs cnä. othor controls of International Trade ibid. 212-228 

4, International Commorcial Policy: argunents for a comncrcial 

2 hr$, policy of Prce '^'radc ibid, 229-275 

> TotrJ.: 39 hours 



,J 



As the very idea of develooment implleg, Important changes in economic 
organizc^tion occurred from time to time, Hfhat are the forces which have brought 
about these changes? How have they affected the economic security of individuals 
or classes? As we approach our own time, the answer to these questiong will ext- 
Exble the student to discover the economic origins of our own social problems, and 
to understand the forces which must be cont rolle d if we are to have economic 
security for the members of our eociety, 

Besides these aspects of economic development, the student should bear in 
mind that other aspects of society, the political and intellectual, are being con- 
stantiLy influenced and changed as economic changes occur. Likewise,^ theoe politi- 
cal end intellectual factors in culture modify, in turn, the economic development, 
Coustiuently, such vital matters as war and peace, political freedom snd suppres- 
sion, intellectual and religious freedom and persecution are directly relatfd to 
the economic changes which we are ebout to study. 

In C. C. Ij we may well trke our point of depprture from a current problem 
using the term "problem" as it was eyplsined at the bcginning of this introduction, 
The present strikes in industry may be viewed as an erpression of a Icrge ^roup 
within the Americrn public iusisting " that wages be made adequ^.te for the present 
cost of living, The demands of labor for higher wages have been made in terms of 
the ability of Ctrtain large corporationg to pay such increases and still retain a 
high rate of profit. The deraand of labor has been met with the ieclaration by 
some corporations that labor has no right to base its demands on the ability to 
pay. 1!he corporations insist that business profit is a private matter of those 
who undertake the business. But, does the business, granted the Institution of 
free enterprise, remain private once the proc: ss of production and profit begins? 
This is the question about which part of the dispute centers. 

This dispute is comprehensible only in terms of the tradition of economic 
behavior which is called "capi tali sra" , and which has its root? deep in our culturf . 
C. C. 1 will examine among other things, the history of the capi talist economy of 
the western world, and the origins of the conflict between capital and labor. 



Contemp orary Civili zation 
Intro d uction to the course and C, C. 1 

Text : Clough and Cole , Economic History of Europe 



Class 

hours — 2 



PART I 

The Main Fe atures of Me dieval Economy 

!• Manorial Life and its Solution of Basic Life Needs: 
e, Political and social security of the manor - 

achieved through interdependence of serf and lord. 

b. Economic Organization of the manor - degrees of 
economic security of serf, lord, and free men. 

c. Economic causes of the decline of the manor, 

Aasgt. : Clough and Cole, 3-22. 

2, The Social Function of the ^Medieval Graft Ouilds: 

a. Protective .function to worker and public. 

b, Regulative function in control by authority. 

Assgt. : Clough and Cole, 23-40. 



.__-i^ 



3. Eise of Medleval Towns and Creation of a Middle Clase: 
a» Demand for freedon and its economic basiß in 
the medieval town. 

Marke te and fair? ^ economic basis of the towns and 
the new raiddle class. 

Merchant guilds - orgraixsation for protection and control. 
Restrictions on medieval trade. 

Asegt. : Clough end Cole , 41-64. 



b. 

c. 

d. 



\ 



4. Nature and Riee of Capitalism - Its Contr^st to Medieval Vif',v3 
of Economic Life : 

a. Religious restrictions on capitalism. 

b. Adaptation of the Church to capitalism and the role of 
Italian bankers in European economy. 

Assgt. : Clough and Cole , 65^-92, 



3 



PART II 



Emergence cj^ the Major Economic Characteristics of 

Early Modern Society 

5. Main Features of Early Mocern Society: 



Class Hours : 1 



A survey of tne politiccl, social and ideological, and 
economic changes which hcA taicen place by 1776, 
Assgt.: Clough and Cole, 97-lOi 



12. 



d. 



e. 



6. Expansion and Empire; 3 

a, Cause s and nature of the eypansion of Europe, 

b, Comraercial and financial effect o^ the expansion on 
Europe and the world. 

c, Effects of eypansion on culture - the basic changes in 
European life. 

Creation of empire ~ nar for empires — England and her 
colonial eypansion. 
Trade with colonies and its effect on European life, 

Assgt.: Clough and Cole, 103-139, 256-272; 

Barnes, Higtory of We stern Civilization , II, 6-6. 
Source Book, Pt, I, fll, 53-60. 

7. Capitalism: Its Crowth after 1500. 3 

a. Basic techniques of capitalism, 

b. Formation of the capitalistic outlook. 

c. Nature of banks, eychanges, and companiecs. 

d. Bank of England; public debts; "bubbles". 

e. Capitalism changes agriculture (the Agricultural Revolution.) 
• Assgt.: Clough and Cole, 140-158, 167-194, 274^315; 

Source Book, ?t. I, VI, 55-62, 62-66. 
' ■ ■ « 

8. Mercentilism: 2 

a, Mercentilism — government and business. 

b, English raercantilisra and rise of laissez— faire. 

c, Changes in English mercantilism after 1640. 

Assgt,: Clough and Cole, 19&-20 4, "343-369; 
oource Book, Pt. I, VI, 11-18; Pt. 

8-13, 18-28. 



> 



J 1^ - Ml 
I, X, 



9. Main Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution: 

Its various aspects: political, social, ideological, and 
economic. 

Assgt. : Clough and Cole , 373-392. 



V 



< I 



PAKT III 
The Economic Phape of the Indus trial Revolution 

10. Mechanlzetion of Industry: Class hours: 

a. Uequirements for an industrial revolution — capitel; urge 
to Profit; merkete; workers, raw materials; machines. 

b. Final stages - the age of eteel, 

c. The factory ayetem of production, -^.^^^ 

Assgt. : Clough end Cole , 393-399, 556, 559; 

Source Book, Pt. II, IX, 7-14, 14-15. 

11. >velopment of iönerirCÄfir Agricul ture : U^^-t^^^ 

AsBgt. : (To be selected) 

t 

12. Commerce andMarkets: 

a. Industrial Ivevolution and commerce. 

b. International trade; tariffs; free trade. 

c. Later 19th Century development of free trade, tariffs. 

d. Iraperialism and colonial ernpire, 

Ase^-t. : Clough and Cole, 440-442., 463-479, 602-5^2; 

Source Book, Pt. II, I, 24-34; Pt. II, XI, 22-27; 
Collateral: Barnes II, eh. 15, pp. 521-554. 



o. 



13. Industrial Capitalism: 

a. Importance of money and gold. 

b. Joint stock banks and companies. 

c. Various forms of busine ss Organization, 

d. Co operatives and insurance - safeg'j.ards against the 
risks of capitalism. 

e. Public finance and its benefit to capitalistic society, 

f. Stock exchanges and foreign investment. 

g. Depressions. 

Assgt. i Clough and Cole, 460-508.-' ■ ■- 
B;rnes II, eh. 21, pp. 780-633. 
Gource Book, Pt. II, IX, 41-49; Pt. II, XI 



1 V 



14. ourvey of the Inter-actions of the Preceding Economic Development 
on Society, Politics and Ihought: 

a. The class structure of society and tne Industrial 
Hevolution — increase in population; the new aristocracy 
of 7'-ealth. 

b. Economic classes and the theory of economics and politics. 

c. Economic classes and political control - the rise of trade 
unions; social legislation. 

Asj?gt. : Clough and Cole, 505-527, 667-698; 



Source Boo^:, Pt. II, I, 3-14; Pt. 
59-72; Pt. II, XII, 27-36; Ft. II 



II 



VII 



III. 



3-12. 



PAHT IV 

The Levi l opment of the 20 tn Century Eco nomy 

15, The Economy of the Jirst 77orld War: 

Economic consequenceg of the First World War. 

Assgt.: Clougn and Cole, 699-702; 719-728; 730-756 



yO^ 



■ ' "•" «lllll 



6 . 



K 



16. Economic I^evelopments since X918 : - Claes Hours : 6 

a. Spread of industrielization - The U, 3. S. Tu 
t, General bf.ckground of the Soviet Union. 
c» The economic Organization of U. S. S. H. 
Assgt. : Clough and Cole 757-766. 

Slkes, Contemporary Economic Systems , 241-?60, 

17, Contraction of Western European and American Economles 5 
in the 1930' s, 

a. Eecline of foreign trade and world depression. 

b. Rise of Nazism. 

c. New Ijeal reforms in American economy, 

Assgt,: Clough ?nd Cole, 788-817. 
Gikes, 469-497. 

Taylor, Contemporary Problems in the U. 5» 
Vol. I, pp. 64r-79. 



; 



■'■:> 



1 1 



o 



I 



./ 



Flushing, II. Y. 



Contemporary Civilization 1 



Modern Economic InstitutionB and t lielr Historical Backrround 

Texts : McConnell, D.W., Sconomlc Behavlor 

Clough and Cole, Economic History of Shirope 

I. Business Enterprise : 

Jl. 0"bjective and I\mction of Enterprise : 

1. The ITature of Profit-Sceking Enterprise ; 
McConnell, pp, 60-83 

2» The Eise of the Capitalist Spirit : 

a. Prom Medieval Vie'7s to Modem Outlook : 
Clough - Cole, pp. 65 - 93, 151 - 54 

"b, ?rom Grovernmont Control to Free Enterprise ! 
Clough - Cole, pp, 318 - 23,. 343 - 369 

K 

B. Organization of Business : 

-,ji ~l€>> 

1. The Structuro of Business Enterprise : McConnell, löS-öi, 176-Si 
2« Tho Development of thc Indus trial and Comnercial Corporation : 
a. The Craft gilds : Clough-Colc, 23-34 
"b, The Bcglnning of Coroorations : pp. 147-51, 154-58 

c, The Growth of the Corporation System : pp. 173-77, 302-308 

d. Big Business and Littlo Business : pp. 638-50 
3. The Development of /gricultural Enterprise : 



* *■ V. i 



a;. The Manorial System : Clough-Oole, pp, 6-l2i 17-22 



' \'^ ■. ^ -'-'U^v.^^-o 



. - ' V' 



t ^« Capitalist Oonduct of Agriculture : 

1. The Enclosure Movement s : pp. 185-194, 308-315 
2« Parming as Enterpriso : pp« 430-39, 561-68, 573-84 
C, Technological Basis of Enterprise : 

1, Business Enterprise and Machine Teclinolog:'' : McConnell, 86-103 
2t Prom Handicraft tn Massproduction : 

a. Tlic Craft s and the Manor: Oloug.i- Cole, . 8-12 
"b^ The Putting-Out System: pp, 89-92 



.•*.3 



») 



«• The Indu Stria! RGVolv.tio;i : pp. 393-421 

d. The Factory S:''stoi.i : pp. 532-561 

0. Mcchanization of Agricu3.turc : pp, 421-31, 559-573 






11. Tho l/orkcr ; 

A. The V/orkcr in thc Market : McComicll, 566-75, 579-81, 584-88 



» 



B. Thc Origin of the V/orking Olass : 

1, Sorfs aiid Frooncn : Clouehp-ColQ, 12-1? 

2, Appronticcs aiid Joumcyncn : pp, 34-40 

3, Prom Villagcrs to Tcnant-Edimors : pp, 190-94, 311-12 

4, Prom Cr-^.ftsnvon to Pactory VJorkcrs : pp. 509-27, 667-79, 692-98 

III, Ilarkcts : 

A. Conpctition r-id Mono-'^oly - Doncstic and Foreign Market s : 
McConncll, 354, 356-59, 399-402, 512-20 

B. Thc Grov/th of thc Market S;j/stcn : 

1. Medioval Market s and Fairs J CloUi^'h-Colc, pp. 50-58 

2. Thc Conr.iorci.al Revolution : pp. 103-133 

3. Thc System of Co lo nies : pp, 256-272, 345-351 

4. Modernizati )n of Donostic Councrcc i PP. 381-83, 460-63, 602-605 

5. Toward Free International Trade : pp, 440-42, 463-79 

6. Foreign Trade and Inipcrialism : pp, 605-22 

C. Spcculation and Criscs : 

1, BuTdTdIcs : pp.- 146-47, 296-302 

2, Criscs and Business Cyclcs : pp, 501-508, 661-65 

IV. Financial Techniqucs: 

A, Modem Banics -and Exch-^äiges : McConncll, 279-84 

B, Financing Business : 

1. Bankers ond Morchants : Clouglv-Colc , pp. 74-81 
2« Bnnks and Boursos : pp. 167-7©, 27'l-83 

3, Central Banks and Stock Bxcha:igcs : pp. 487-97 

4, Financial Capitalisn : pp, 628-38 

C, Financing G-ovcrnracnt : 

1. Bonks, Investors ojid thc Public Dc"bt : pp, 285-291 

2. Taxös and Loans : pp. 498-501, 650-55 

- 2 - 



# 



m - ^ —'■■■■■»■ ■ 



.-fi 



( ) 



V. The Conflict 'bctv/ocn 3coiionic Classos : 

A. The Strugglc of thc Oapitalist 31ass : 

1# Tho Ri30 of thc Bo\irgcoi3io : pp, 81-88 

2. Bourgeoisie nnd Vforking Ciass : pp. öi^iS 

3, Conccntration of Wealth ; pp. 671-79 

B. Idologios of thc Stniggling Classcs ; pp. 514-22, 679-87 
0# Thc Political Power of the Classos : pp. 522-27, 687-92 



! (/ 



3 



•» ■— ö •• 



QUEENS COLLHaE 



Contemporary Clvilization 1 



' i- . - . 



■ •-'■■*■'■ 




pring 1947 


•■ . >» 




. •• 







^./<?/'^r 



J=- -•■ 



'if^\ 



' Introduction to the courso : 

*; V Problena of Modern DeEocn.cy 

'/'■;-'::- ; 

Text : Becker, v, L, , Modern Democracy 

i' ' 

I. Tlie Ideal of Modern Pemocvacy : Beckc;r» pp» 1-30 

rr !!• Tlie Reality of Modü:n Democracy : Becker, pp, 31 -64 I^v^'-il»] 

III, The Dil'jnima of Modern Democracy : Becker, pp, 65- 100 

■'■'^ Contemporary Civilizatioa 1 : 

M odern Economic Institut Ions and their Hlptorical Background 

Texts: McOonnell, D.'/, , Bconom ic Boliavior 

Clough and Cole, Eco iomic History of :Suro pe 






ä.M' 



;V"?1 



;^i' 



Business Entorprise : 

A. Cbjective and Function of Enterprise : 

1. The Haturc of Profi t-Secking Ent-rprise : 
McConnell, pp. 60 - 83 

2. The Eise of the Capitalist Spiril : 

a. Prom Iledieval Views to Modern Outlook : 
Clough - Oole, pp. 65-93, 151 - 54 

b» From Sovernmont Control to Fv^e Enterprise 
Clough - Oole, pp, 318 ~ 23, .532 - 340, 353 

B,. Organization of Business : 

1. 



;69 



t . II fr : 

^•.■'i'■•.. 



■m 



' V-v.«- 



V 


















!||, 




■"./,■,''' ', 






2. 



The Structurc of Business Enterprise : McConnell, 158-72, 176-7^^ #|Jä, 
The Development of the Industrial jnd Cormercial Corporation : 






-.v?:-,!-; 

"'a', 



3. 






a. The Graft gilds : Clough-Oole, 23-34 

"b. The Beginning of Oorporations : pp, 147-51, 154-58 ~^^ft'*-0 

i. '■» ü •% « J t ;i 

c. The Growth of the Corporation System •; pp, 173-77, 302-308 

d. Big Business anö Little Business : pp, 338-50 2>t.-J<h\, ^y^/^J-ü^C 
The Development of Agricultural Ente-'prise ; f ; 

a. The Economic Positio.i of Present Day Farming : McConnellt 

pp, 702-10. 71^t-21 ' -• 

b. Tlie Manorial System ; Clough-Cole, pp, 5-12, 17-22 












-<-';V'<!^ 



4*A-- ♦!« ''-^ - 



-tr-v^^' '>■#.'■*#* 






-2- 



■,.<.->'S 



'■Vv'» 



••?rv, 



..l^-KV.V »1 






€ifli*^ V Oapitalist Conr'uct of Agricalture : -'''''^' 



'■^■^^"T — "'^'* " . ' CT *'.' 



V^.*-Ji ■% . 



^ ,.i:^J,-ii*)v4*,.' 



.,'M;;Ä;r?-V; 



•f?. 



::uH ; ' . 1. Tlio Enclosurc Movonontg : pr). 185-194, 308-315 

2. Farm ing as Enterprise : pp, 430-39 ♦ 561- 68,^ 573^84 

C# Techno logical Basis of Entcrpri'so : 

1« Business Enterprise and Machine Tcclmology : McConncU, 
86-10;5 

2» Prom Handicraft to Massproduction : 

a. The Grafts and tho Manor : Olousii-Colo, 8-12 

b. The Pattins-Out System ; pp. 89-92 

c. The Indnstrial Hovolntiön : pp. 393-421 
d» -he Pactory System J pp. 532-561 



. ";t-.. 



J;tr 






o. Mochanization of Agriculturc : pp, 312-15, 421-31,569-72 



II. The V/orkor : 



%i ' 






A. The Worker in tho Market : McOonnell, 566-75, 579-81, 584-38 
B« The Origin of the Working Class : 

1. Sorfs an'^ freomen l Olough-Oole, 12-17 

2. Apprenticcs 8ii'5 Journeyinen : pp. 34-40 

3. Prom Villo^rers to Tenriit-Farmers : pp. 190-94, 311-12 

4. Prom Graft smcn to Pactory Iforkers : pp. 667-79, 692-98 



lil. Market s J 



■S- 



y-y:- \k-; 






'■i^{p: 



•■Vi ■ V . 



^■'■\'. A. Oompctition sind Monopoly - Domcstic and Foreign Iiar!:cts : 
... iIcConnell, 354, 356-59, 399-402, 512^20 

B. The Growth of tho Market ^System : 

1« Medicval l-ferkets and Fairs : Clough-OolOi pp# 60-58 

, 2» Tho Commercial Revolution : pp. 103-133 

3. Tho System of Colonics : pp# 256-272, 345-351 

4. M^dernization of Doucstic Coiamorce : pp. 381-83, 460-63,602-605 

5. Tov/ard Free International Trade : pp. 440-42, 463-79 
6« Foreign Trade and Impcrialism : pp. 605-22 









Fi'. '. 



■-■. •<■■ ■ V"t 



■*Tft*«»*' ■ ■■■^--»AkV WI M BT ^J*^.Vh-. ... ^^ ^ 

■,-. , - —3»*; . :.t ..IX- . ^2' 

■-■■ ■■ »»f»V' ■■;■••■■;'- .-ii-Ät-i',- •, y ^f^ydrif^* ' ' « ■ »» ■'-.-■-•■■,''- ■'■.-.»• ■ 

C. Spcculation and Crisos ♦ >.^ . \.^ • ;• . V,'^- 





















7 



Vf..; . 






" K 



m:\:- 






1. Bubbles : pp. 146-47, 296-302 

2. Crises and Buoinoss Cyclos : pp» 501-508, 661-65 
IV* Financial Teclmiq-u.es: 

A, Modern Bmks and Excliangos ; ricConncll, 279-84 
3, Pinancing Business : 

1* Ban'rcrs and Merchants J Clough-Colo, pp. 74-81 

2. Banl:s and Boursos J pj>* 167-79, 274-83 

3, Central 3r>.nl:s and Stock I3xchangcs : pp» 487-97 
|v:^ ' 4. Financial Oapitalism : p-o. 628-38 

C« ?iiiancing G-ovcrniriünt : 

1. Banks, Investors aiid the Public Dcbt ; pp. 285-291 

2. Taxos and Loans : pp. 498-»501, 650-55 









•'■■.? 



I 






v'K-V'i 



1^ 



V. The Conflict Betv/ccn Economic Olasscs : 

'''* A. The Strugglo of tue Capitalist Class ; 

1. The HisG of the Bour£,'eoisie : pp. 81-88 
^ 2. Bourgeoisie and Iforkin^ Olass : pp. 509-14 ' -llfjS 

fe.r 3, Conccntration of VJealth ; pp. 671-79 ,,^ 

'■'^. B. Idoologies of the Strugc^ling Ciassos : pp« 514-22, 679-87 

vf 0, The Political Po\/or of the Classcs l pp. 522-27, 687-92 



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TIME: 2 i hours. 



QUEENS COLLEGE 
CC 1 EINiu- EXAiuIMTION 



JUNE I9I+6 



Part I 

Explain Brief ly and concisely 10 out of tue following terms 



Forestalling 

Quant ity '■^heory of Money 

Enclosure 

Proletariat 

Laissez faire 

Bullionism 

Mississippi Btibble 

Com Laws 



Spinning Jenny 
Bank of Amsterdam 
Continental System 
Eriedricn List 
East India Company 
Bounties 

Division of labor 
Calico 



(15 cra^it«) 



Part II 

Discuss briefly 5 ©^^ of tJie following questions 



(25 credits) 



Q) 



How did the following developments aff«^ct the social and economic position of 
different classes of European society: 

1. The influx of precious metals from the New World 

2. Agricultural changes botween I5OO and 180.0 

3. ^he English Navigation Acts 

^. '-^'he replacement of the gilds by the Domestic or Putting Out System 

5. The introduction of the factory systom 

6. The Separation of ownership and control in modern corporations. 

J^art III 

Answer 3 out of the following questions (60 credits; 20 credits each question) 

1. Compare and contraet the Organization of labor under the manorial system, the 
dorne Stic system and the modern industrial system. What were the principal 
advantages and disad^antages of each of the above Systems? 

2» Show the economic basis for the different social classes in the feedieval 
and modern capitalist society. 

3. What were the main causes and consequences of the rise of towns in the llth- 
l4th centuries? 

U, What were the main arguments a.dvanced for the policies of (a) free trade 
(b) protectionism? 

5« Outline the policies of the mercantilist state; what were the driving 
pclitical and economic forces behind such policies? 

6. Explain the connection between the development of mass prcduction and 

financial institutions in the 19th and 20th centuries. In what w?^ys did tht 
financial interests restrict production? 



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PENSIONS-A REPRESENTATIVE SURVEY 



About 5,000,000 of Ihe nation's 51,441,000 nonagricultural em- 
ptoyes are covered by private pension plant. These cfiaris are 
based on a survey of 289 such plans, affecting 1,166,456 worl- 
ers. Percentages shown refer to the total number of employes. 



WHO RAYS FOR PENSIONS 




Employe may Supplement 
management confribuHon» 

2% 



Employe pays only on 
earnings ovct $3,000 



WHAT PENSIONERS GET 



for Emphyts Earning $250 a hAonth 
gPl^epU» (includinj Fed«(ai Social Security) 

$75 and under ■ ■ fl j 15.8% 



$75->$100 



ii 



».6% 



$i»o-»m tiilitiiiill 
tili"* 



SS. 3% 



$125-5150 
$150 and ovcr I IJ^V» 



(EacK Symbol equaU 5'-) 



The dispute in Ihe steel industry i» basically over the question of 

who should finance pension costs. The upper ,chart shows how 

costs are divided. The figure-s iised in the charts are based on a 

survey made hy the Bankers Trust Company. 



New York Times 
January 1 , 1950 



SOCIAL SECURmr TAX 
INCREASE5 TO WtVo 

i , 

WAgHINaTON, D«c. 31 <*»— A 

50 per Cent rise in tAte «ocial aecu- 

rity Ux, «dding: up to almoet |75^- 

000,000 more in 1950, goea inte 

effect with th« new year. 

The payroU tax, which haa been 
1 per Cent for thirteen yeara, riaea 
to 1% per Cent. It ia levied alike 
on workerg and employera for a 
total of 3 per cent. 

About 35,000,000 joba are' af- 
fected. Also, a few million carriers 
of aocial aecurity carda may work 
in the insured induatriea part of 
the year and gret aome further 
credit toward an old-age pension 
at 65. 

There will be no riae in the pen- 
siona «r the beneflta paid to 
widowa and diiWren if the wage- 
eamer diea— not, at leaat, tmtU 
Ck>ngreaa completea actlon on a 
ibill which, as paaaed by the Houae, 
jwould Increaae them around 70 per 
cent. 

The Senate ia expected to ap- 
prove the measure, although per- 
hapa in altered form. Both parties 
have pledged "improved" benefits, 
and thia is an election year. 

If the Houae bill becomea law 
the lowest pension, now $10 for a 
Single retired worker, would risel 
to $25 a month. The top pension I 
for an aged couple, now $85, would 
be $128, There would be an in- 
crease along the line between, de- 
pending on aalary and length of 
Service, 

Also, the tax would be applied 
on the first $8,600 of income in- 
stead of on the first $3,000, as at 
present. It would rise to 2 per 
cent Jan. 1, 1951, instead of in 
i 1952, a« under present law. 



Sick Benefit Deductions Start ^ 

' Under the provisions of the New York State disability benfits law 
enacted by the last legislature, contributions to a special fund to ■ 
provide benefits for those who became sick while unemployed, * 
Start Jan. 1, for a period of six months. -^ 

Starting July, 1950, the new law provides benefits for siekness 1 
and disability, vvith a miximum of $26 per week, for 13 weeks, after • 
a one-vveek waiting period. '^ 

Disability benefits for the sick unemployed are at the same rate 
as for those who become disabled while working. : ; 

The special fund contribution starting Jan.l are two-tenth of 1 
pcrcent for six months, with a maximum of 12 Cents per week per v, 
employe, and employer and employe are each liable for half the j: 
«mount. 

Contributions to the regular^'fund start July 1, 1950, when ih^ 
rate of contribution goes to a maximum of 30 cents per week by 
the employe, with the employer paying the balance of the costs. 

While all states novv have some kind of benefits for workers in- 
jured on the job. only five states have cash benefits for workers 
injured or sick while not on the job. 

These five states are California, New Jersey, New York, Rhode 
Island and Washington. . --^i 



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mwins : h9 
Contemporaiy Civilization 1 
"Copyright 196ii, Queens College. This material laay not be reproduced in whole or in 
part, for sale or free distribution, without the written consent of Queens College, 
Flushing 67, N. Y." 



Final Examination 
Time : 2-| Hours 

Part I Answer ONE question Credit i^O^ 



January 13, 196ii 



1 

.1- ,~ 



Political philosophy can have two tasks : it can either describe and analyze 
existing institutions, or it can attempt to establish a theoretical hasis for 
new and presuinably superior institutions. How are botli, or either, of these 
tasks dealt with by the following four philosophers? 

Plato Aristotle Aquinas Machiavelli 

2« Compare and contrast the writings of the humanists, Pico, Pomponazzi, and Erasmus, 
with those of the religious reformers, Luther and Calvin. Show how their varying 
evaluations of man both depended upon medieval Inspiration and tended to undermine 
medieval concepts. 

3. Illustrate as specifically as possible the mixture of reason and faith in 17th 
Century scientific thought by a discussion of the works of Bacon, Galileo, 
Descartes and Newton. 



Part II 



Answer THREE questions 



Credit 60^ 



1- Compare Hebraic and Christian concepts of ethics and explain the Hebraic 
contributions to Christianity. 

2, Explain how Augustine would have reacted to the Greek notion that ethics is a 
branch of politics and that the good life can be attained in and through the state, 

3. Describe the theory of mercantilism and discuss the factors necessary to its 
proper functioning. 

h, Review the background of the Renaissance Church and show how its condition in this 
period created an atmosphere favorable to reform movements. 

Account for the failure of the Spanish Empire to keep pace with the rising power 
of France. Analyze the objective factors involved. 






6, Discuss the ways in which the Magna Carta was effectively used as a Propaganda 
weapon against the early Stuart kings. Explain why this use was unhistorical. 

7- Describe the relationship between law and nature as developed by Hobbes and Locke 
and compare their understandings of that relationship, 

o, Summarize the development of scientific thought from Copemicus through Newton, 
Illustrate by examples changes in the response of society to that development. 



Timm^r^im} vor 



fjl 



cg!I!?e;;:pora]aY civilizatioit i 



Becond Lidterm Examina t:.on 



DecGxnber 1963 



!• Identifj 14 of the fclloiving terina: 



Galerius 

Theodosius 

Alarlc 

Clovis 

St.Jerome 

Gregory the Great 

The Rule of StsBenedict 

Cistercian Order 



Commune 3 

Edward I 

Sirron de liontfort 

Visconti 

Lorenz Valla 

Elector Frederick the Viise 

«ILnights' XJax"* (1522) 

John Knox 



2* Peace and unity were asstiDed to be the aims of St«Ao^istine 's 
**City of God^» St »Thomas* ruler and :.:achiavelli*s Prince. L;xpiain,\v:iy 
these authors agree on the aims tut ül&aQ'ree on the ultiicate purposa 
of pursuing these aims. 

3. In the opinion cf all thinkers discussed happlness or tjälvaiion 
is the ultimate goal in man 's life. (a) Contrast the thougbts on the 
relation "between virtue and stilvrition of St*Augustine and St<,Thoffias 
with those of Luther ar>d Calvin • (b) Indicate to what extent ilato,, 
StcAagnstine and i^ico would agree on maii's most exalted state (whet ler 
in this life or in the here-j?fter) and Cicero, Pomponassi^Luthe:; and 
Calvin on man^s conduct in ordinary life» 



•I. ' 



•1 



Final Examina tion: 2^ Hrs . 



Contemporary Civilization 1 



inwins37 
June 1963 



/ 



"Copyright 1963, Queens College. This material may not be reproduced in whole or in 
part, for sale er free distribution, without the written consent of Queens College, 
Flushing 67, New York." 

In your answers, refer to Source Book readings where possible . 
PART I Major Essay Select mE Credit hC^o 

1. Qne of the major problems of Western thinkers has been how to obtain truth. 
Discuss and compare the views of Plato, St. Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, 
and Des carte s on this question, 

2, Indicate how three of the following writers treated the problem of the right of 
resistance to tyrants, Relate their views to the political and social Situation 
of the times in which they lived. 

St, Thomas Aquinas Calvin Locke Hobbes 

PART II Minor Essays Select THREE Credit 605S 

1. Contrast the political ideas of Plato, Aristotle, and Machiavelli in terms of 
the best form of government. 

2. Indicate the importance of the following in medieval political discussion: 
the Donation of Constantine, the Investiture Controversy, the doctrine of the 
two swords« 

3. In what sense may each of the following thinkers be classified as a "Renaissance 
man": Pico della Mirandola, Machiavelli, Erasmus? 

U. What do you understand by the stoicism of Greek and Roman antiquity, and in what 
ways does Cicero reflect Stoic attitudes and outlook? 

5. To which of the currents of thought and feeling which we have studied under the 
names humanism, Protestantism, and rationalism do you think modern democracy 
owes most? Why? 

6. How did the rise of a town economy help transform the manorial system? 



CÜIITSLiPOKiUiy CIVILIZATIOII 1 



First iäidterm Ex.ainination 



October 1963 



!• Identify 14 of the following terms: 

Pisistratus Tarquin the Proud 

Areopagus Centuricte Assembly 

Lyciir^s Sciplo Africanus 

iiphors Llrrius 



üetics 

ßattle of Chaeronea (338) 

Allegorlral Comb (Plato) 

L'iithrid'tes 



Praetor 
Optimotes 
Lucretius 
LTarcus Aurelius 



2« »»Platf embodies the utopian dreai» of the ideal State wherein all 
indiUduals may perfect themselves .♦. Aristotle is the reallst 
who takes accoimt of man and history as he finds them." Comirient,, 



3* *'acero*s exposition of a "natural law*» is correlated ..* with 

•Oman universalism •♦* but Cicero also shcres with Plato and Aris- 
totle • ♦. a helief in reason as man's hi^fhest Instruinent of seif- 
perfection,** Comment» 



0(jiij}.^^:^o.-\ix civii.i..A0JiOK 1 



Second laidtorm i:^xamn- ition 

1. löentiiv^ 12 of the foilov;ing terrae: 



li^ 1963 



Juli'in the /..poctate 
ThGOöoric 



Clovi 



o 



St.IiOuiB Ia 
Henry I ( n^gL-JcnJ ) 
Thon-.s a 3eel:et 
Lombird Je ..giie (1176) 



Prederick il (Gcriaanj,) 

Allodb 

bu'o inf eud : ; t ion 

Pi'Ovi£;ioi:.s of Oxford (l?5B) 

Vul/;: te 

öynod of the Lateroi: (1059) 

Lorenz Valla 



2. Pea^e Lind unity were n.3öumed to b3 the aima of yt^Au^iU-t^tirio . 
City of God, S-?:,Thona£' ruler -nc Hachiaveili» t; prince* üxpl-in, ;. I y 
theee authorB a^ee on the alm^; jbut disa^xoe on the uit.ijn^to pirrpoce 
of pursuing ohese -'iniEu 

3. In the opinion of 'ill thinkerB discuseed happinesG or oa3;va,- 
tion iB the ultlnn.te goil in i:k2J1» £ iife. In v/hal; woy öo ot ..-m^-tine , 
tSt.J^homas, Pico ''nd Pomponaszi Ylex: the reili^abion of this5 SO-^^ -^ 
reW'Xd of virtua ? To wiiat exüont do t]iej:;e au-^hore accept eonoepts 
aeveloped hy either Aribtotle er Plato or Cicoro ? 






COKTEMPCflYRI CIVILI^ATION 1 

First Mid- t«rni Exaraination 

Group Ä 



March, 196.3. 



Dr., ?oadek. 



lo Identiiy J.2 of "he followinfi terms: 



Pisiötratus 



Lycui'gui 



bphors 



Meticö 



Battle of Chaeronea (33^^) 
AlJ^egoricai Cave (Plato) 



Mitiiiidat«sS 



Tarqu3-n the Proud 
C e nb'jr ia^e A s s ^ mbly 
Scipio Africanus 



Liarius 
Pra(?tor 
Optima tes 
Lucret iusj 



2 c "Plato embodies the atopian dreaiTi of W e ideal State w/ierein eil 
individuüla irkiy perleot tberiselves .• c r, Aristotle is che realist 
viho takes account of ins..! and history as he finds them,/' Comrnent^ 

3- »Cicero '*s Q:,".poslbiori of a -Vnatural law^- is corrslated .. ■, rith 
Roniar. uniw5r3Ällsm .; . (but Cicero also sharss with Plato and 
Aristotl'3) r. -. :, a beli.;:f in reason as mar.»s higl^ost i-.ii;trumei'it 
of self-'perfection. " C^ramöiit: 



mwiTis 



2$ 



Contemporary Civilization 1 



"Copyright 1963, Queens College, This material may not be reproduced in whole or in 
part, for sale or free distribution, without the written consent of Queens College, 
Flushing 6?, N. Y," 



Final Examination 
Time: 2-| Hours 

Part I Major Essay Select ONE 



January 19^3 



Credit: UOJg 



1. Describe the rise of Chris tianity and trace the main phases of its grnwth from the 
middle ages through the l6th Century. Include an analysis of the political and 
economic conditions which were involved in the religious thinking of these phases. 
Include specific references to source readings. 

2. "A man 's political opinions are often the result of his views on human nature," 
Discuss fully the opinions and attitudes trwards human nature held by three of the 
following: Aristotlej St.Augustinej Thomas Aquinas; Thomas Hobbes; 

John Locke, 



Part II 



Minor Essays 



Select THREE 



Credit : 60^ 



In your answers, refer to Source Po^k readings. 



1. "Feudalism was a two-edged sword; it enabled a king to defend his land against 
attack, but it also prevented him frr»m becoming a streng ruler." Discuss and 
comment on the validity of this statement with specific references to the 
historical development of France and England. 

2o Describe the nature of a humanist during the RenaisBance, 

3. Summarize the scientific prrgress of Western Civilization from the Renaissance 
to the Enlightenment . 

U. Compare the societies presented in Plato's Republic and Thomas More's Utopia . 

5. Discuss main aspects of the European overseas expansi^n and the Commercial 
!• Revolution and show how they are reflected in the theory and practice of 

Mercantilism. 

6. Discuss the meaning and cultural effect on Western Civilization of Cicero 's 
concept of "Right Reason," 



CONTEKPOIiAKY CIVILIZATION I 



2nd f idtörm Examinatlon 



Novembor 1962 



Group B 



1* Identify 12 of the follov/ing terms 



Julian the Apostat e 

Vulgate 

Synod of the Lateran 

Thcodoric 

lepin the Short 

Mbigensian Crusade 

Henry II (England) 

Richard I (England) 



Lombard League (1176) 

Fredorick II (Germany) 

Robort Bruce 

Curia rc^is (France) 

Franklins 

Donation of Constantin/ (740-750) 

Cisterci:in Order 

Philip II Augustus (French) 



2. St »Thomas Aquinas ''represents m^^dieval attenpts to reconoile the con- 
flicting elcrnents of the Judaic-Christian and Graeco-Koman traditions 
• •. Ilis ivhole method of approach is ilristotelian vvhile his conclusions 
are in large measures specifically Christian". Comment on this State- 
ment and indicate in what ways St »Thomas* choico of goverrcncnt fullows 
ideas presented by Flato and Cicero and the purpose of hi::> chosen gov- 
ernment those by Aristotle and L3t. August ino. 

3. Iv the opinion of all thinkers discussed harpiness or salvation is the 
ul.imatc goal in rran's life« IIow do St .Paul, St .August ine fmd St »Thomas 
vie;. the realization of this goal as rev;ard of faith or virtue ? To 
what ^xtent do these authors accept concepts developed by either Plato 
or Arlototle or Cicero ? 



COOTEKPORARY CIVILIZATION 1 



2n(i L'idterm Examination 



November 1962 



Group A 



1. Identify 12 of the follov/ing terms 



Theodosius 
Alaric 



Clovis 



Strasbourg Oaths (842) 
St. Louis IX 
Henry I (England) 
Thomas a Becket 
Frederick I (Germany) 



Henry VI (Germany) 
Concordat of V/orms (1122) 
St .Benedictes Rule 
Sub inf eudat ion 
Provisions of Oxford (1264) 

Allods 

Gregory the Great 

Septuagint 



3. 



St .Thomas Aquinas '*represents modioval attempts to reconcile the con« 
flicting elements of the Judaic-Christ ian and Graeco-Koman traditions 
... Ilis whole method of approach is Aristotelian v/hile his concluoions 
are in large measures spccifically Christian**. Connment on this State- 
ment and indicate in what ways St. Thomas* choice of governmont follows 
ideas presented by Plato and Cicero and the purpose of his ohosen gov- 
ernment those by Aristotle and St .August ine. 

In the opinion of all thinknrr» discussod happiness or salvation is the 
ultimate goal in man's life. How do 3t. Paul, St. August ine and St .Thomas 
viev; the realization of this goal as rev/aj d of faith or virtue V To 
v/hat extent do these authors accept concepts developed by either llato 
or Aristotle or Cicero ? 



•«♦«•— • 



OOMPRTüHSysilgS •5XAMINATI0N IN ECONOMICS» 



I^eceniber 16, 1959 



GTÜljraRAL I!?$TRUCTIO>TS 
!• All Student 8 onist answer Part 1* 

2. Bconomics majore nnist also answer three questions from Part 2 
end 3. ITot more than two of these questlons may "be chosen from 
Part 3. However, all three questlons may "be chosen from Part 2. 

3. Accounting majors must answer Part 4 (level 2 Achievement Test). 

4. Piepse use a separate "booklet for question 8 if you select it. 



♦ Copyright 1959, Queens College. This material nay not be repiroduced 
in whole or in part, for sale or free distribution, without the 
vritten consent of Queens College, Plushing 67, New York. 



. 2 . 



Psrt 1 



M. 



1 hQur 



1. The Research DeTjartment of the Chase Manhattan Bank dlscoureed recently 
In Its M-monthly pub.licatlon Business in Brief (No.lS.January 1958) on 
an important aspect of -^morican economic growth, namely "The Growth of 
Services". It stated: 

"Along wlth the growth of the tJ. S.economy over the years has gone a 
series of hasic shifts in the im-portance of various occupations. Most 
dramatic of these shifts was the decline in the -Dortion of our working 
force engaged in f arming, . .Now we are in the midst of an equally dramatic 
transformation - a shift from the production of goods to the Provision of 
Services of all sorts, Today almost three-fifth of the lahor force is en- 
gaged in various Service activities - trade, govemment, finance, transpor- 
tation.electric power, medical care,recreation and the like...The fact that 
we are becoming a service-oriented economy should cause no constemation. 
It l8 a sign of our steadily rising Standard of living. ..The trend towards 
Services has raised the question of >^ether a slower rise in output per 
man-hour in these activities may not reduce the gains in the nation's Over- 
all -productivity and thus hold back the rate of general economic growth. 
The record since 1899 showe Tjroductivlty in Services has advanced at an 
average annual rate of 1 1/2 ^ whereas the rise for all -private industries 
was 2 1/2 ^ per annum. ..". 

This erposition raises various questions: 

(1) Is it correct to assert that the growth of Services "is a sign of our 
steadily rising Standard of living" ? In your answer he specific v^at 
Services are signifying a rising Standard of living and why. Also in^ 
clude in the Services Account ing. 

(2) Is there any cause for constemation? 

(3) What, in your opinion, accounts for the slower rate of increase in the 
productivity of Services as compared with all private industries ? 

Is it feasible that the rate of increase in the productivity of Services 
(such as t rode, transportation, medical care) may he stemped ud? If not, 
would this peculiarity of Services necessarily hold hack the general 
economic growth? 

(4) Some economists have recently pointed out the need for even more serv» 
Ices than are avallahle at present; they stre^ped that such Services 
(e.g. education.facilities for recreation) would he raainly rendered 
hy government. In not distlnguishing hetween privately and puhlicly 
rendered Services the ahove article may have missed an inmortant T)oint 
in the significance of the growth of Services for our econony. 

What is that point ? 



. 3 - 



Pflrtg ?, find ^ 



^ 



l ,1/2 hottTg 



Ansvrer three oft he followlng questions: 

T.iTt 2 (Economlcs) 

2. "Varlous studies have shov/n that a 1^ increase in personal income after 

taxes leads to a 2-4 % increase in automobile sales.vÄiereas a 1^ increase 
in auto prices cuts eales lay from 0.6^ to l^si^. Discuss the two concepts 
of elasticity of demend underlying this statement. How would you charac- 
terize the elasticity of demand for automoTsiles as established in these 
studies? How would it compare with the elasticity of demand for milk 
or TV sets? 

3. In discussing the inflationary effect of an un'balanced budget a prominent 
American economist suggested **that the impact of a huge sum of tax money 
spent by the governoent iaay be very different from the impact of an equiva- 
lent expenditure by consumers and business firms**. Do you agree or dis- 
agree with this statement? In either case, give your reasons for supDort- 
ing or opposing it, 

4. The Board of Governors of the Pederal Reserve System reported for the 
first half of 1959 that "banks increased their borrowing from the Pederal 
Heserve ^^^ reduced their excess reserves as Pederal Heserve "oolicy was 
modified to make bank reserves less readily available". ^hy did banks 
increase their borrowings from the Pederal reserve in the first six months 
of 1959? Hov7 has the Pederal Peserve made bank reserves less repdily avail- 
able? If you do not know the facta, indicate how the Pederal Heserve 
might have made bank reserves less easily available? 

5. The Index of Retail Prices (Cost of Living Index) is being used in theore- 
tical discussions as well as in political decisions concerning the economy. 
Can you give exaraples for both cases? Statisticians comouting this index 
are confronted with the cholce of using averages of price relatives or 
«iggregative index numbers, weigihting of each item included in the index 
and T)ro"oer base T)eriods. Discuss the Statistical Problems involved in 
conrputing these index numbers. 

6. New8pa"Ders reported recently that the Studebaker-Packari Corporation 
plane to buy the farm equipment business of Oliver Corporation. The plan 
involves both cash and stock in exchange for Oliver' s f our fprm equipment 
plante. What might have prompte'^ the Studebaker-Packard Corporation to 
onsider this action? How would you characterize the financial arrange- 
ment between the two companies? Could they have accomiDlished their 
objective by way of other arrangement s? 

7. In his Economic Report to Congress of January 1958 the President predict- 
ed a decline in foreign demand for our goods and asserted that this de- 
cline "is likely to exert a moderately contractive influence on economic 
activity f or t he time being". Has the President *s prediction been borne 
out by the trend of economic activity in the past 18 months? If our 
exnorts have indeed declined durlng that period, vfcat were the reasons 

of this decline? 



- 4 - 



8. "Hißtorically, government has "been the chlef off ender in Inflation, vAiat- 
ever the means "by which It sou^t to extort e3cces?sive amounts from the 
economy" (First National City Bank. Monthly Letter . ?eberuary 1958). Would 
you remember earlier financlal writers who held similar vlews? Would 
you also know of argumenta contradictlng them or at least mitlgating the 
graveness of this accusation? 

9, Discuss the steel industry of the United States wlth reference to (a) 
sources of raw materlals; M location of the iron- and steel plants; 
(c) structure of the industry; (d) nature of t he flnished products. 



Part .'^ (Accounting and BuRiness Law) 

10. Define and discuss the concept of independence as it applies to the 
Certified Pu"blic Accountant. State specifically how the Securities and 
Exchange Commission and various -Drofessional accounting societies have 
helped to enforce the independence of the Certified Pablic Accountant. 

11. Distinguish and describe various liens on real and personal property. 
What are the reauirements for them to he valid and enforceahle? 



i«wr*3 : 1 



ontemporary Clivilizaticn 1 



"Copyriftht 1962, Oueens CoDlugc, 7ni3 maierial may not be reproduced in vholo or in 
part, fcr sale or freo distribution, witncut thc written consent of Queons College, 
FluGhinp 67, N. Y." 



Final i^::.Dm:,nntion 
Time: 2^ i.ours 

:-*art I Najor Esr:ay 



Selcct ONE 



January 1962 



Credit: iiO^ 



1, Dir>ciiS3 the historical continuity of the ccncept of Naturrl Law with refcrence 
to Cicero, TiiC'maL^ Aquinas, i.achiavGlli, and Locke, 

2. "The Rercniation began as a relif'ious mcvcment but it was soon captured by 
ar.ibitious rulcrs. These rulers had littlc regard for the rcligious content cf 
thc nover-ont, and used it merely as a force to break the power cf Rome," 

As'sers the validity of this Statement by discussing the cases of: a) thc 
Rcfor.nation in Gcrmany, b) thc Geneva of Calvin, c) the Reformation in England, 



Part II 1 inor Essays 



Seloct THRLE 



Credit: 60^ 



In ycur ancwers, refer to Sourco Book readinps, 

!• Erief].y compare thc ejtimatc of hurr-an nature underly;ng thc form of gcvcrnment 
favor:d rcspectively by: Aristotlc, Thomas Aquinas, Ilachiavelli, and Hobbcs. 

2. Vhat rclitcrious argtiments were used in thc nedieval conflicts of statc and 
church? Examplcs: Honr;;,' IV vs, Gregory VII; Henry II vs, Becketj Philip 

the Fair vs, Bonifacc VIII. 

3« "The scientific revclutior, vhile it did not banirh God from the universe, made 
Hi"'! so remote that it gavc man' s power of analysic an iiipcrtance unknown since 
tho Grceks," 
Hcw accurate is this Statement? Refer to: Bacon, Descartes, Galileo, and Newton, 

h* XTiy did ccntralization of the medieval mcnarchy succeed in France and England, 
but fall in German^'? Be specific, 

5# CcLinent on the impcrtance of jWY TIJQ pairs of the following rcfercnces: 



Delian League 

Grcat Schism 

Henry thc Favigatc-r — 

Fief 

Friars 



Athens 

Council of Consta.nce 

Pcrtuguese discoveries 

imnor 

Cluny 



/ 



COIi^'K^lJ'^SIVE EXA^xIl-ATICM 1'^ EconOyqos^ 



ilay 2, 1962 



aiüMi'.L Ilx^STHUCTTJ KS: 



1. All students raust answer Part 1. 

2, Ilconomics riejors r.ust also ansirer throe questions 
fror.1 Part 2. 

3» Accountin5;; niajors must ansüer Part 3 (level 2 
Achievoment Test). 



^KJooyrisht 1961, Queens Collsise. This material 
raay not be roproduccd 5.n Hholc or in part, for 
sale or free dlstribution, v/lthout the tirltton 
consent of Queens Colleso, Flushinj? 6?« H« Y* 



Page 2. 



Part I 



IfcO^ 



1 hour 



In his flrst Economic Report 
prepared in January 19o2 
President John P, Kennedy states: 

"The unflnlshed buslness of economic policy includes..,, 
The achlevement of füll eraployraent. . •sustained prosperity 
wlthout Inflation. . »The acceleration of economic growth. ., 
and the restoration of balance of payments equilibrlum, 
economic policy, thus confronts a demanding assignment, but 
one which can and will be met wlthln the framework of a free 
economy • ( pp • 7-6 • ) 

In "Introduotion, to Macro Economic Theory", Professor Sirkin 
distinguishes between congenial and uncongenial, objectives. 
"Certain economic objectives are mutually reinforcing, in the 
sense that the pursuit of one will contrlbute to the attain- 
ment of the other; these can be termed "congenial" objectives... 

"The Statement that two goals of policy are "uncongenial" means 
only that it will be difficult but not that it will be im- 
possible to find and manipulate a set of policles which will 
enable the economy to attain both. If however, the goals are 
conflicting (that is, if it proves imposslble to administer 
policies that will achieve both), then policy makers will be 
in the unhappy position of having to choose which is to be 
sacrificed". (pp* 225-226). 

(A) Using Sirkin' s categories, indicate clearly which of 
these four Macro -Economic Policy Objectives of President 
Kennedy are congenial or uncongenial with one another. 

(B) As a policy maker, which "mix" of these four economic 
objectives would you select? State clearly the consid- 
erations - economic," philosophlcal, etc. which con- 
stitute the basis of your selection of the above goals. 

(C) Given your choice, explain clearly and thoroughly the 
specific means you would recommend in the following three 
areas to achieve the economic program outlined in (B). 

(1) Domestlc stabilization policies (i.e. fiscal, debt 
management and monetary policies). 

(2) Wage and price policies (includlng government policy 
toward Industrial relatlons and buslness). 

(3) International commerclal, flnancial and monetary 
policies. 



ac;e 3. 






T>art 2 60fo ij hours 

!• Central bankin,; functions can be porformed both with and 
vjithout a central bank. Illuströte this propositlon. 

(a) i3y oxplainin^j clearly tlie neanin,';^ of central banking 
functions and 

(b) 3y refwrence to the concreto ex^orienco of the United 
States both before and uftor the establishinent of the 
Pederal Reserve System. 

2« Coinare oure comnetition, ^^ure -lonopoly, nonooollstic 

cori'>et* tion and oli-^opoly on each of the folloTrin^ pointa: 

(a) 'ibi3.ity to raanipulate r^roduct v»rice, 

(b) Tochnolor^icöl advance in the form of proöuct 
doveloo:i'aont, 

(c) TecI:inolo^;ical advance in the form of iraproved 
raethods of oroduction. 

(d) Expenditurea on advertisinr; and fon^s of sales 
Promotion. 

(e) Stability of cmoloyr.icnt . 

(f) Plexlbllity of prices, 

(3) Dfficiency in the a^location of rosourccs. 

(you raay uso diaf^rams to facilitate your answer). 

3. •^ritin.n; in the ^^^oalth of >^ations (1776), Adan Snith offcred 
these four ^^enoral principles or "canons" of taxation: 

(a) "Tho subjects of overy State ou:';ht to contribute 
to'^ard the su^port of the Governrient • . ♦ in proportlon 
to their resoective abilitios; that is, in oropor- 
tion to the revenue which they resDCCtively enjoy 
under the orotection of the State .^^ 

(b) "The tax which oach individual is bound to nay, our.ht 
to be certain, and not arbitrary« The tirie of payment, 
the manner of payrient, the quantity to be r)aid, our ht 
all to be clear and >lain to the contributor. . ." 

(c) tJvery tax ou^ht to be levied at the tir.ie, er in the 
iaanner, in wbich it is most likely to be convenient 
for the contributor to pay it." 

(d) xiivcry tax ou:;$ht to be so contrivod both to teke out 
and to keep out of the pockets of the peoplo as 
littlo as poasible ovor fuid above what it brin^c^s into 
the public treasury of the State." 

Carefully ovaluate these Prlnciples of Taxation. Are there any 
Gltoi*native principles x:hich you feel are equally or more Im- 
port ant than these? 



Hairiß ttieso canonsi evaluate 

(a) The Pederal Personal Incomo Tax 

(b) A local tax on business propcrty 

(c) An exclso tax on cif'iarettes, 

l|.. Explaln clearly the meaninß and the deter m5nants of 

under-enployraont equilibrlum in the Keynsian System. In- 
cUcate clearly, wlth the use of dlagrams, the relationshlp 
of the folloui nr; concopts. 

(a) The supply of money 

(b) Liquidlty preforence 

(c) Tio mar^inol efflciency of Investment (capital) 

(d) The consumption function 

(g) The equallty of savinr:s and Investment 

5, Since 1929 there has been a sicnificont reciprocal inter- 
play bet'Jeen the economic, sociel and political environ- 
ment and the activities and influence of trade unions, 
Examine carefully the ?ole of the follo'.jing in this re- 
letionship, 

(a) Pederal Legislation of industrial relations 

(b) Deiiiand-pull and cost-DUsh elericnts In Inflation« 

6» Invostiuent has not only boon a source of G^t3re^:ote de- 
rriand but it has been a strate^^ic elenent producing 
economic chan:;o both in the fern of cyclical fluctua- 
tions ; and sroi^th. 

Analyse the treatmcnt of 5nvestr.ient in this latter sense 
in the x^rorks of four of the follox^inc vrriters. 



(a 
(b 
(c 
(d 
(e 
(f 



Joseph Schumpetcr 

Priederich Tlayelc 

T?oy Farroft and Hvsey Dumar 

Dennis II. Robertson 

John R. Kicks 

Arthur V. Spicthoff 

^alph J>. Fawtrey 



?• In Order to cope with antici ^ated lar^er Imports from the 
Common liarket, President Kennedy suprcsted that the renewed 
Heciprocal Trade a; reenents Act provlde for technical as- 
sistance, tax relief and loans to Industries adversely af- 
fected by increased imr)orts. locplain (1) the effect of such 
raeasures on che federal bud :ot, (2) how cnd why certain in- 
dustrios should be selected for such aid and (3) the reasons 
^^y you uould support or rejcct the President «s pro^osal. 



Gontemporary Civilization 1 
"Copyright li,iU, Queens College, This material may not be reproduoed in whole ü3 
in psurt, for sale or free distribution, without the written conc-önt of Queens 
College, Flushing 67, N. Y." 



Final Examination 
Time: 2| hours 

PART I Write on TWO Credit: ^0^ 



May 26, 196ii 



1. Discuss Plato*s and Aristotle's views of the state, Contrast their understanding 
of the political process. 

2. Compare in detail the concepts of the rule of one held by Aquinas and MachiaveTli< 
Account on historical grounds for the differences between them. 

3. Describe Luther 's idea of the freedom of a Christian. How did it differ from 
Calvin 's, and how did both differ from the Catholic position? 

U. Analyze in both political and psychological terms the Opposition between 
Hobbes's and Locke's theories of the social contract. 

PART II V/rite on TWO Credit: 50^ 

1. Show how feudalism, as a political system, and manorialism, as an economic 
System, were responses to the realities of medieval Europe. 

2. Discuss in detail the interaction between the expansion of Europe and the growth 
of capitalism. 

3. Explain the causes of the development of powerful dynastic states and account 
for the preponderance of France in the 17 th Century. 

h. Describe the impact of modern scientific thought on European society. To whaL 
degree did it act as a solvent on ths existing order? 



r 



« • 



COi\[TEI^iPÜRARY CIVILIZATION 1 

FINAL EXA14INATI0N 
Spring 1958 

"Copyrip:ht 195P, Queens College. This material may not be reproduced in whole 
or in part, for sale or free distribution, without the written consent of Queens 
College, Flushing 67, New York." 

TiLie: 2-| Hours 

Part_^. Answer one - l+O,^. 

1, Write an essay comparing as to similaritios and differences the thought of 
Greece and Rome on the one hand and Kedievp2 Europe on the other, ThivS 
conparison is to be made \n.th explicit references to the writings of Plato, 
Aristotle, Cicero, August ine and Aquinas. 

2. Both the Renaissance and the Reformation signify a new perspective with regard 
to man. Discuss the basic charactcrs of each of these historical movements 
and their interrelations. Devclop your discussion by means of explicit 
references to five of the following: Machiavelli, Pico, Pomponazzi, More, 
Luthur and Calvin. 



Part II. Answer two - 



'0* 



1. Discuss the changes in Modern European civilization as wrou<5;ht by the Com- 
mercial Revolution and the movement of exploration and expansion. 

2. Relate the rise of the national monarchies to the waning of Mcdieval pclitical 
and economic institutions. Illustrate this rise of kingly power with a 
dctailod historical analysis of the developmont of either England or France 
from late liedie.val times to the scvcntecnth Century. 

3. vlhat were the basj.c discoverios of the scientific revolution? Discuss the new 
vievj of man in his rclation to the universe and to God that emanated from the 
writings of Galileo, Descartes and Newton. 

U. VJhat were the vicvjs of Hobbes and Locke on Absolutism and "natural law"? 

How did their respoctive positions reflect changes in English political hj.story? 



5» Discuss the relationship between the development of medieval Christianity and 
modieval Feudalism. V.Tiat were some of the political implications of this 
relationship? 

Part III . 20;^. 

Identify ten of the following and indicate the significance of each of these ten 
with respect to one of the major divisions of CCl,. 



1. Fief 

2. Pax Romana 

3. Peloponnesian Far 
U. The FU;^gers 

5. Johannes Kepler 

6. Edict of Nantes 

7. Investiture Controversy 



8. Babylonian Captivity 

9. "The Institutes" 

10. Delian Föderation 

11. Mercantilism 

12. Stoicism 

13« Ilanseatic League 

lii. Punj.c Ivars 

1$. John Uyclif 



<■ ^3r t i. ,i % t «,1. 



cor!?} MPORARY CIVILIZATIQN 3 



First Mldteinn Examina 1 5 oii 

Group A 



March 1962 



1. Identify 12 of tha i'ollowing terms: 



Pisistratus 

Lycurc'Js 

Ephors 

Metics 

Battle of ChaeroriOi. ;338) 

Allegorical Cave ( -iato) 

Mittiridates 



Tarquin che Proiad 

C en t ur 5. » ?* e .;. 3 semb ly 

Scipio Africanus 

Mari US 

Praetor 

Optimate^. 

XiUcretir:& 



2. "Plato erabodies the ir'.opian dreeui of the iciöal atate 

wherein all indivlduala may perfect th^i.ihülvea* . « 
Aristotle is the r.. iHist X'/ho takea accoia^ ". of man and 
history as ha tlnäü Ihem»" Comment, 

3. "Cicero» s axposltinn of a "natural law^ 1.:, ..orrelatod, 
with Roman universal: sm* «., (bat Cicero e'lso i^ha^^es wlth 
Plato and Aristotle) e »» a belief in reescn as man's 
highest instrumcnt of self-perfection." Co^iiment, 



COM'EMPORARY CIVILIZATION I 

2nd Llidterm Examlnatlon April 1962 

Group A 

1# Identify 12 of the follov/ing terms 

Civitatos (Rome) Henry VI (Germany) 

Theodorlc St. Benedictes Rule 

Clovls Subinfeudation 

St. Louis IX Provisions of Oxford 

Henry I (England) Allods 

Thomas a Backet Guelfs 

Fredericlc I (Germany) Lorenzo Valla 

2. Peace and unity were assumed to be the aims of St .August ine 's City 
of God, St .Thomas* ruler and llachiavelli^s prince. Explain,ivhy these 
authors agree on the aims,hut disagree on the ultimate purpose of 
pursuing these aims. 

3* In the opinion of all t hinkers dlscussed happlness or salvation is 
the tiltimate goal in man*s life. In v/hat way do St «August ine, St. 
Thomas, Pico and Pomponazzi viev7 the realization of this goal as 
reward of vlrtue ? To v/hat extent do these authors accept concepts 
devcloped hy either Aristotle or Plato or Cicero ? 



"Wl- 



CONTEMPCFvARY CIVILIZATION I 



2nd Midterm Kxamination 



April 1962 



1. 



Group B 
Identlfy 12 of the followlng terms: 



Julian the Apostate 

Vulgate 

Synod of the Lateran 

Alaric 

Pepin the Short 

Albigensian Crusade 

Henry II (England) 



Richard I (England) 

Lombard League (1176) 

Prederick II (Germany) 

Robert Bruce 

Curia regis (France) 

Ghibellines 

"Fraise of Polly" 



2» Peace and unity were assumed to be the aims of ^t« 
Augustiners City of God, St. Thomas' ruler and 
Machiavelli's prince. Fxplain, why these authors 
agree on the aims^ but disagree on the ultimate purpoae 
of pursuing these aims. 



3» In the opinion of all thinkers discussed happiness or 
salvation is the ultimate goal in man*s lifo« In 
vhat way do St, Augustine» St. Thomas ^ Pico and 
Pomponazzi view the realization of this goal as 
reward of vir tue? To what extent do these authors 
accept concepts developed by either Aristotle or Plato 
or Cicero? 



BOX 12B 



A^ G^«^ 



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^^^^ 5out::>t k coittcnor^T 



Se^/tö^nr/alß 



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/ 




U^Of(l^v'.V 






V 



I ^ ' ;■ •"" 



^ 



t 



-y 



Gontemporary Civiliz-ition I 



I 



t 




February 1962 







QUEENS COLLEGE 



CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION 1 



WESTERN CIVILIZATION TP THE ENLIGHTEMENT 

Books: 

^ Brinton, Christopher, and Wolff, A History of Civilization, Vol. I, 
New Edition (i960) abbreviated as: BCW 

•K- The Soiirce Book, ("Introduction to Conteii5)orary Civilization in the 

West," Vol. I) Third Edition (second printing 1960A96l) 
abbreviated as: SB 

■»•CS. Haiimond & Co., Historical Atlas 

* Short History of Science (Anchor) 

* CC Student Manual 



* Student s will buy BCW, SB, Historical Atlas , Short History of Science , and CC Student 
Manual. 



o 



jetä^m^. 



t" — "-• 




- 2 - 



THE CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION SEQUENCE 



CGI. WESTERN CIVILIZATION TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT. 

The intellectual and Institut ional background of Western 
Civilization is studiedo Major emphasis is placed upon 
political, economic, religious, and philosophical deveiopments, 

CC2. WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

Western Civilization from the French Revolution to the First 
World War is studied, with special attention to the rise of 
democracy and nationalism, and to the intellectual and social 
deveiopments of the 19th Century« 

CC3. THE TWEIITIETH CENTURY. 

A survey of the 20th Century: the two V7orld Wars, the Great 
Depression, the rise of Communist and Fascist fomis of 
totalitarianismo The course endeavors to recount these 
deveiopments, to explain and Interpret them, and to consider 
some of the suggested Solutions to these problems of our era. 

CC4. MAN AND SOCIETY. 

A study of the individual and his economic, political, and 
social behavior - how men act - and of the problem of how 
men should act - the search for moral stability in our 
civilization* 



7 



3 




' *■ — '»r* "f >! 



QUEENS COLLEGE 
FLUSHING, N.Y. 



Contemporary Civilization 1 



September 1963 
Instructor: Josef Soudek 



WESTERN CIVILIZATION TQ THE ENLIGHTENMENT 



I INTRODUCTION 



7^ 



A. The Contenporary Civilization Sequence 

B« Ancient Foundations of Medieval and Modern Civilization 

1. Classical Greek Political Thought 

A. Hellenic Political and Cultural Trends 

BCW 59-69 

B. Plato and Aristotle as Political Philosophers 

BCW 79-83; SB 1, (3rd ed., i960), 1-28; 29-59 

2. Hellenistic and Roman Political Thought 

A, Hellenistic and Roman Political and Cultural Trends 

BCW 8ii-92; 125-127; 95-112 

B. Cicero - The Concept of Natural Law 

SB I, 60-73 

II MEDIEVAL WESTERN CIVILIZATION 

1. The Christian Foundation 

a. Judaism and Early Chris tianity 
BCW U1-U6; Ihl-^hl 



b. Chris tianity and the Roman Empire 
BCW 112-119; Iii7-160; 132-135 









c, St. Augustine and the Philosophy of Christianity 

BCW 167-171; 166-167; SB I, 129-17U ,,,,.,. , v......-t.;k 



t> 



-^-^^ 2. Ear3y Mediaval Europa - 500-1000 



raJ^P^ 



a. The Break-up of the Roman Empire; the Frankish Errmira 

BCW 173-180; 180-189. 

b. The Civilization of the "Dark Age" 

BCW I96-20U; 20U-209 



3. The Flowering of the Middle 



- 1000-1500 



a^ A Review of the Political History of France, Germany and England 
BCW 260-272; 28U-298; 272-28U 

ll. Economic, Political and Religious Trends 

a. The Growths of Tovms and Central Authority 
BCW 292, 3OI-3OU 



jUk 



1 



Conteinporary Civilization 1 (cont*d.) 



-2- 



Q 







b. The Shaping of Parliamentarism 
BCW 279-28U 

c« Political Doctrines 

BCW 32O-32U; SB I 2UI-255 (St. Thomas Aquinas) 

d, Religious Movements; State and Church, Monasticism 
BCW 271-272; 288-291; 1S6-158; 307-310 

III THE RENAISSANCE 

1. The Renaissance in Italy: The City States 

BCW U17-U2U 

2, The New Political Realism: Macchiavelli 

BCW U2U-U26; SB I, U59-U79 

3» Humanism 

BCW UU1-U$0; SB I, 581-587 (Pico); 588-591 (Pomponazzi) 

IV EARLY MODERN WESTERN CIVILIZATION 



Lollards and Hussites 



1. The Reformation 

a. The Prp-Lutheran Background: 

BCW 310-311 

b. The Lutheran Revolt 

BCW U79-U88; SB I, 717-730 

c. The Swiss Reformation: Zwingli and Calvin 

BCW U89-U90; SB I, 731-751 

d. The English Reformation: High Church, Calvinism and Sects 

BCW U91-U93; U97-U98; ii99-502; 502-S03 

e. The Catholic Reformation 

BCW 503-508 

2. The Commercial Revolution 

a* Early Commercial Capitalism 
BCW ii26-U35 

b. The Expansion of Europa: Discoveries, Explorations, Empires 

BCW 565-5 7U; 575-582 (Portugal and Spain); 582-589 (France, Holland, 

England) 

c. Mercantilism 

BCW 610-612 

3. The Development of Modern Science 

a. Pre-Copernican Backgrounds 

Review Ba^ 77-79; 90-91; 325-326 

H. Butterfield, The Qrigins of Modem Science , Chap« 1 



-^i-# 1 itti »»tt imAtmmMmmm 



Conteirporary Civilization (cont'd.) 



-3- 



9 



• 



b« The Copernican Theory and its Consequences 
BCW U66-U70; SB I, 786-811 (Galileo) 
The Origina of Modern Science ^ Chaps, 2,U,5. 

c« The Philosophy of Natural Science, Rationalism 

BCW 626-630; 63U-636; SB I, 779-785 (Bacon); 812-835 (Descartes)f 
836-852 (Newton); The Origins of Modern Sciencs j Chaps. 6,7,8, 

U. The Rise of the Modern State 

a« Absolutism in Practice and Theory 

(1) Absolute Monarchies on the Continent and in England 

BCW 521-537; 5UO-550; 597-610 (Austria and France); 550-557; 
613-620 (England) 

(2) The Theory of Absolute Monarchy 
BCW 606-607; SB I, 961-993 (Hobbes) 

b. Constitutionaliam in Practice and Theory 

(1) Toward Constitutional Monarchy in England (I61;9-l689) 
BCW 620-626 

(2) The Theory of Constitutional Monarchy 
SB I, 1010-1053 (Locke) 



■'•"•' I - T-n r- i - "- - i - I i«i III 



mmmmmt 



"^m 



R;r»*^w^w»!!5|i 



>JM>IMLL 








QUEENS COLLEGE 



CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION 1 



WESTERJJ CIVILIZATION TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT 



Books : 

* Brinton^ Christopher, and Wolff, A History of Civilization , Vol« I, 

New Edition (i960) abbreviated as: BCW, 

^5- The Source Book ^ ("Introduction to Contemporary Civilization in the 

V/est", Volc I) Second Edition (195h) a^reviated as: SB. 

^ Cc So Hammond & Co., Historical Atlas . 

Brinton, The Shaping of the Modem Mind (Pocketbook Edition) - optional, 

^ The Science Pamphlet 

* CC Student Manual 



X 



I 



X- S'cudents will buy BCW, SB, Historical Atlas, The Science Pamphlet , and CC Student Manual' 

Important: Students should retain their copies of the above books through 
the four Semesters of work in CeCo and until they have passed 
the Coriprehensive Examination in Conteirporary Civilization. 





- 2 - 



THE CüNTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION SEQUENCE 



CGI. V.^STERU CIVILIZATION TO THE ENLIGHTENMENT. 

The intellectual and institutional background of Western 
Civilization is studiedo Major emphasis is placed upon 
political, economic^ religious, and philosophical developments. 

CC2, WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. 

VJestsm Civilization from the French Revolution to the First 
World War is studied, with special attention to the rise of 
democracy and nationalism, snd to the intellectual and social 
developments of the 19th Century, 

CC3o THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. 

A survey of the 20th centui'y: the two World Wars, the Great 
Depression, the rise of Comraunist and Fascist forms of 
totalitarianism. The course endeavors to recount these 
developments, to explain and Interpret them, and to consider 
some of the suggested Solutions to these problems of our era, 

CGI;. MAN Al^D SOCIETY. 

A study of the individual and his economic, political, and 
social behavior - how men act - and of the problem of how 
men should act - the search for rnoral stabil ity in our 
civilisationo 



<y 



i 



G 



D 



QUEENS COLLEGE 
Contemporary Civilization 1 Instructor: Josef Soudek 

VJESTERN CIVILIZATION TP THE ENLIGHTENMENT 
I INTRODUCTION 



A. 

B. 



The Contemporary Civilization Sequence 

Anciont Poundations of Medieval and Modern Civilization 

1, Classical Greek Political Thought 

a. Hellenic Political and Cultural Thought 

BCW 59-69 

b, Plato aid Aristotle as Political Philosophers 

BCW 79-83; SB I, a?^f-3^7~-^ ... . r^^ -y, .ur^ ) 



? _ lg I ^-/.^^.^, 



2, riellenistic and Roman Political Thought 

a, Hellenistic and Roman Political and Cultural Trends 

BCW 8I|.-92; 95-112; 125-127 

b. Cicero - The Concept of Natural Law 

SB I, 308-321 

II MEDIEVAL :JESTERN CIVILIZATION 
1. The Christian Foundation 

a. Judaism and Early Christianity 

BCW Ii.l-i|.6; lii.l-ll|.7 

b. Christianity and the Roman Empire 

BCW 112-119; 132-135; ili7-ioO 

c^ St. Augustine and the Philosopöy of Christianity 
BCW 167-171; 166-167; Sb I, 55-100 

2» Early Medieval Europe - 500-1000 

a. The Break-up of the Roman Empire; the Frankish Empire 

BCW 173-180; 180-189 

b, The Civilization of the "Dark Age" 

BCW 196-201^.; 20li.-209 

3. The Plowering of the Middle Ages - 1000-1500 

A. A Review of the Political History of France, Germany and 
England 

BCW 260-272; 28[i.-298; 272-28l^. 



.^^ 



o 



- 2 - 

B. Economic, Political and Religious Trends 

a. The Growth of Towns and Central Authorlty 

BCV/ 292, 301-30i|. 

b. The Shapins of Parliamentarism 

BCW 279-28I1. 

c. Political Doctrines 

BCW 320-32ii.; SB I, 175-189 (St. Thomas Aquinas) 

d. Religious Llovementsj State and Church; Monasticism 

BCW 271-272, 288-291; 156-158, 307-310 

III THE RENAISSANCE 

1. The Renaissance in Italy: The City States 
BCW Ii-17-lJ2l|. 

2« The New Political Healisraj Machiavelli 
BCi: Ii.2Il-I|.26 ; SB I, l4.59-Il.79 

3. Humanism ^^"^ c?? . rai 

BCW !|i|.l-l|50; SB I, 501-5?^ (Pico); 5tp:=^^i}4 (Pomponazzi) 

IV EARLY MODERN VJESTERN CIVILIZATION 

1. The Reformation 

a, The Pre-Lutheran Background: Lollards and Hussites 

BCW 310-311 

b. The Lutheran Revolt 

BCW lfr^-l+68; SB I, 717-730 

c« The Swiss Reformation: Zwingli and Calvin 
BCW Ij.89-l4.9O; SB I, 731-751 

d« The Snglish Reformation: High Church Calvinism aid Sects 
BCW Ii.9i-I4.93; I4.97-I1.98; ij.99-502; 502-503 

e« The Catholic Reformation 
BCW 503-508 

2, The Commercial Revolution 

a. Early Commercial Capitalism 
BCW If26-I|.35 



1 



- 3 - 

b, The Expansion of Europe: Discoveries, Explorations. Empires 
BCW 565-571]., 575-582 (Portugal and Spain); 502-589 
(France, Holland, England ) 

3« Mercantilism 
BCVJ 610-612 

3. The Rise of the Modern State 

a, Absolutisd' in Practice and Theory 

(1) Absolute Monarchies on the Continent and in England 

BCW 521-537; 51+0-550, 597-6lO (Austria and France); 
550-557; 613-620 (England) 

(2) The Theory of Absolute Monarchy 

BCW 606-607; SB I, 961-993 (Hobbes) 

b, Constitutionalism in Practice and Theory 

(1) Toward Constitutional Monarchy in England (161^.9-1689) 

BCW 620-626 

(2) The Theory of Constitutional Monarchy 

SB I, 1010-1053 (Locke) 







nmumti^i* 



September 1962 



Queens College 



Contemporary Civilization 1 



Instnictor: Josof Soudok 



WESTERN CIVILIZATION TO TliE ENLIGHTENIffiNT 



I INTRODUCTION 



A. The Conteinporary Civilization Sequence 

B. Aiicient Foundations of Medieval and Modem Civilization 

1. Classical Greek Political Thought 

A. Hellenic Political and Cultural Trends 

BC^i 59-69 

B. Plato and Aristotle as Political Philosophers 

BCW 79-83; SB I, (3rd ed., i960), (Jl28; 29-59 

n 

2, Hellenistic and Roman Political Thöu§ht 

A. Hellenistic and Roman Political and Cultural Trends 

BCW 814-92; 125-127; 95-112 *^v-u,^. .o.,,_j^^ ^ v-..At..._'-v. val. 

B. Cicero - The Concept of Natural Law 

SB I, 60-73 



C '^ ~ VO, ; ■t-♦'v-^ -e . . ''•-.• -.Lv.V-^-;« 



d 



II MEDIEVAL IVESTSRN CIVILIZATION 



1. The Christian Foundation 

a. Judaism and Early Christianity 
BClif la-U6; lUl-lU? 

b« Christianity and the Roman Empire 
BCW 112-119; 11;7-160; 132-135 ] 



ii>. - n. 



••:i>. 



, .0. 6.. ' 



.^„ ! 



»^*-v .. _ i^v 



c« St. Augustine and the Philosophy of Christianity 
BCl^/ 167-171; 166-167; SB I, 129-17li 



L 



2. Early Medieval Europe - 500-1000 



> I ,' i' T- 



a. The Break-up of the Roman Empire; the Frankish Empire 
BCW 173-180; 180-189. 



b. The Civilization of the "Dark Age" 
BCM 196-20U; 20U-209 t «.v-wu/-, 



-\ -«>. ^ »^/V'v-.-- • '*5'" ;» '- V "V • V 



3. The Flowering of the I^ddle Ages - 1000-1500 

a. A Review of the Political History of France, Germany, and England 
^ BCW 260-272; 28Ii-298; 272-28U 



*•«.. 



1 



I 



6 
I 



! 



-2- 

B, Economic, Political and Religious Trends 

a, The Growthi of Towns and Central Authority 

BCl^ 292, 301-30li 

b. The Shaping of Parliamentarism 

BCW 279-281; 

c, Political Doctrines 

BCW 32O-32U; S3 I 2lil-2$5 (St. Thomas Aquinas) 

d. Religious Movements; State and Chiirch, Monasticism 

ECW 271-272j 288-291; 156-158; 307-310 

III THE RENAISSAMCE 

1. The Renaissance in Italyi The City States 
BCW I4I7-I12U 

2* The New Political Realism: Machiavelli 

Ba-J U2U-U26j SB I, 36fiÄ3ßa h-c.^ . ^i^c^ 

3* Humanism 

BCW Ua.-ii50; SB I, 581-587 (Pico); 568-591 (Pomponazzi) 

IV EARLY MODERl'I ItJESTERN CIVILIZ/ITION 



ö 



I 



1, The Reformation 

a* The Pr^-Lutheran Background: Lollards and Hussites 
BCW 310-311 

b. The Lutheran Revolt 

Bar U79-U88; SB I, 717-730 

c, The Swiss Reformation: Zidngli and Calvin 

BC\^ UÖ9-U90; SB I, 6i*8-669 7^1 o^^' 

d, The English Reformation: High Church, Calvinism and Sects 

BCl^ U91-U93; U97-i493; U99-502; 502-503 

e. The Catholic Reformation 

BCW 503-508 

2. The Commercial Revolution 

a. Early Commercial Capitalism 

BCW U26-U35 

b, The Expansion of Europe: Discoveries, Explorations, Enroires 

BCI^ 565-571; 575-582 (Portugal snd Spain); 582-589 (France, Holland, 

England) 

c» Mercantilism 

BCW 610-612 



4 

i 



j 



-3- 



1 



f 



3. The Eise of the Modem State 

Sl. Absolutism in Practice and Theoiy 

Cl) Absolute Monarchies on the Continent and in England 

BCW 521-537; 51*0-550; 597-610 (Austria and France); 
550-557; 613-620 (England) 

(2) The Theory of Absolute Monarchy 

BCW 606-607; SB I, 961-993 (Hobbes) 

b. Constitutionalism in Practice and Theory 

(1) Toward Constitutional Monarchy in England (I6ii9-l689) 

BCW 620-626 

(2) The Theory of Constitutional Monarchy 

SB I, 1010-1053 (Locke) 



r\ 



^ 



t 



qUEENS OOLLEGB 
Ccntonmcr^iry Clvillzatlon 1 Instructor: Josof S-udok 

WESTERN CIVILIZA3?I0N TP THE ENLIGH^rENMENT 

t INTROnaCTION 

A, Tho Contomporary Civil izat Ion Soquonco 

B. Anciont rnundnti^ne of Mor«loval and Modorn Civlllzötion 
1, Classicnl Grook Pnlltical Thought 

a, Hollonlc Polltlcal and Oulturel Trends 

"b. Plato and Aristootlo as Polltical Philoco-phors 
BCW 79-83; SS 1, 1P5-152; 153-184 

2. Hollonlstic and Roman Polltical Thou^t 

n. Hollenlstlo pnd Homan Polltical nnd Cultural ^rende 
BCWiffai-92; S5-112; 125^127 

"b, Clcor'^ - Tho ConccT^t of Natural Iiaw 
SB I, 185-199 

II MBDIEVAL WESTERN CIVILI2ATI0N 
1, Tho Christian Foundation 

a* Judaism nnd Borly Chrlstianity 
BCl<r 41-46? i4i-.14V 



O 



"b, Christianity nnd tho Roman ^mpVro 
BCV 112-119; 133-135; 147-160 

s 
\ % 

c, St. Augustino and tho Philosophy of Christ i^onity 
BCW 167-171; 16G«a67; SB I, 242-253 

2. Sarly Modieval HHirope - 500-1000 

a, Tho Break-up of tho Roman ^nnplro; tho ^rankish Empire 
BCW 173-180? 180^189, 

1). Tho Civilisation of tho «Dark AgQ^ 
BCW 196-204; 204-209 

3. Tho Howoring of the Mlddlo Agos - 1000-1500 

A, A Rovlow of tho Politlcal History of Franco, öermany» and England 
BCW 260-272; 284-298; 272-284 



-2- 

B, Economic, Polltlcal and Roliglous Tronds 

a. Tho örovths nf Towns and Central Authorlty 
BCW 292, 303^304 

1). Tho Shaplng of Parllamontarlsm 
BCW 279-284 

e» P:>lltical Doctrinos 

BCW 320-324; SB I, 300-314 (St. Thomas Aqulnas) 

d» Roliglous Movoments; State and Church, Monastlclsm 
BCVr 271-272, 288-291; 156-158, 307-310 

III THÜ R}0^SSANCJB 

1. Tho Renaissance In Italyi ^o City States 

BCW 417-424 

2, The Kow Polltlcal Roalism? Mächiavolli 

BCW 424-426; SB Ip 368«388 

3» Eumanlsm 

BCW 441-450; SB I, 534-540 (Pico); 541-544 (Pomponazzi) 

IV BAELY MODBEN WESTERN CIVIL IZATION 

1. Tho Roformatlon 

a, Tho Pr«öfintli6ran Bacltgrounds Lollards and Hussitos 
BCW 310-311 



H^<^-'{t2 



1. 



"b. Tho Init/Oran Rovolt 



BCW 




8; SB I, 634-647 



c. Tho Swise Reformation! Zwingli pjid Calvin 

BCW 489-490; SB I, 648-669 

d, Tho English Roformationj High Church, Calvinism and Socts 

BCW 491-493; 497-498; 499-502; 502-503 

o. Tho Cathollc Reformation 
BClf 50^-503 

2« Tho Oommorclal Revolution 

tu Early Commoroi«! Copitalism 
BCW 426-435 

1). Tho Expansion of Surope; Discovorios, Bttpl erat Ions, Empires 
#; BCW 565-574, 575-582 (Portugnl and Spain); 582-589 (France, Holland, 

England) 

c, Morcantlllsm 
BCW 610-612 






-:^ 



a 



3. Tho Biso of the Modorn Stato 

a, A"bsolutlsm In Practico and Thoory 

(1) -^"bsoluto Monarchlos on thc Continont and In England 

BCW 521-537; 540-550, 597-610 (Austrla and France); 
550u5ö7, 61.%620 (England) 

(2) Tho Theory of Absolute Monarchy 

BCif 60S«607; SB I, 891-9S3 (Hobbos) 

T)» Cnnstltutionalism in Practico and Thoory 

(1) Toward C^nstltutlonal Monarchy In England (1649-1689) 

BCV 620-626 

(2) Thc Thoory of Constltutlonal Monarchy 

SB I, 940-984 (Lccko) 



tl 



Q1UF.WS C0LLEai5 
CCllTEI^^OBABY CIVILIZATION 1 



o 



I lOTT^ODüCTION 

A. The Conteraporary Civil izat Ion Sequence 

B. Ancient Foundations of Me(^leval and Modern Civilization 

1. Clös^ical Greek Polltical Thou/2:ht 

a. Hellenic Political and Oult\iral Trends 
BCW 5&-60 -. 

t. Plato and Aristotle ns Political Philosophers 
BCW 76-Ä; SB I, 125-15S; 153-184 

2. Hellenistic and Homsn Political Thoii^ht 

a. Hellenistic and Homan Political and Ciiltural Trends 
BCVr&9-10g; il€-lV8 /M - . ^ - 

i l 

V. 

t. Cicero - The ConceDt of Natural Lav; 
SB I, 185-199 

II MITOIEVAL W?!ST]ERI"T CinLIZATIOH 

1. The Christian Poundntion 

a. Judaism and Early Christian! ty 
BCW g9-4S; l«l-.if56 

T), Christianity and the Homan EmT^ire 
BCW 1Q& - Ii a; 133-135; 136 15 

c. St. Augustine and the Philosophy of Christianity 
BCW 3:§8-.i€l; 15 6- 1 6 7 ; SB I, 242-253 . - 

2. Early Medleval Europe - 500-1000 

a, The Break-up of the Roman Bnmlre; the Frankish Empire 
BCW 1 <j O-»1?S ; a:^?€-W4 \~ ■ 

t. The Civilization of the "Dark Age" 
BCW 190-800; 1 6 6 - 1 68; 200-994 

3. The TLowering of the Midr''le Ages - 1000-1500 

A, A Peview of the Political History of France, Germany and England 

BC^^ 010 - 31 3, glV - 2nr >; 846-260; 229^-234- 237-23^ 

B. Economic «ft* Political' Trends c ;, , , . 

a. The Growth of Towns and Central Authority 
BCW 254, 967-2?e 



; -t- 



( cont • ) 



- 2 - 



'1 



t). The Shaping of Parliflmentarlsm 
BC!v' t3 39 240 ^n ^ :, . , 

c, Political Boctrlnes 

BCWpa2a2a5; SB I, 300-314 (St. Thomas Aquinas) 

C. Medlev-nl Thought 

a. l!duc?^tion and Scholasticism 
— - BCW 279-282, 28<V285 _- 

^. Religious Movement s: State and Church; Monasticism; J5Ri««,d«^ 
BC^V asa, 878; 147-i49, 871-277 ; ^■S'JQ^-S&S 

III TITE BSNAISSAMCE 

1, The Penpissance in Italy: The City States 

BCV 489-436 u--. iv-.^« 

2, The ITew Politicsl Heplism: Mochiavelli 

B(r^ 448 44 5; SB I 368-388 ; < - ; . 

3, Humanism 

BCW 4 46-45 5; SB I, 534-540; 541-544 (Pico and Pomnanazzi) 

IV E.«PLY MODÜPTT '^nrST^.N CIVILIZATION 

1, The Reformation 

a. Pre-Lutheren Background: Lollards and Hussitea 
BCtf 877 - 070 

"b. The Luthernn Revolt 

BCW 406 604 ; SB I, 634-647 

c. The Swißs Reformation: Zwingli and Calvin 

BCW 504-€06; SB I, 648-669 

d. The Bnglish Reformation: ^h^Hi^ Church, Calvinism and tj^ Sects 

BCW 61 g » BIO : 506-€ee, §11-618 , 

! 

e. The Catholic Reformation ^— - 

BCW 618 6 8g 

2. The Commerclal Resolution 

a. Barly Comraercial Capitaliem 

UnW ■«•'«•t JK-tO 

"b. The ürpansion of 1hiroT>e: Discoveries, ExDlorations, Emroires 

BCW .6&B»690, 591-59^ (Portugal and SDain); 599-606 (France, Holland, 

England) 



[ 



c, Mercantilism 

BCW 6 86 637 



(cont.) 



-.■^■L..(.U* 



o 



- 3 - 



3. The Rlse of the Mortem St-^te 

e.. A"bsolutl8m in Practlce and Theory 



(l) Absolute Mon?rchles on the Contlnent anri in Un^land 

BCW 6g7 566, Sl 9-629 (Austria and France); 566-573, 638-646 (lingland/ 



4 : 



(2) The Theory of Ahsolute Monarchy 

BCW 68 9 . 6 30, 651-^2; SB I, 891-923 (Hohhes) 

"b. Constitutionalism in Pr^ctice and Theory 

(1) Toward Constitutional Monarchy In England (1649-1689) 

BCW 6 45 651 c x., 

(2) The Theory of Constitutional Monarchy 

BCW 66 " 66 3 ; SB I, 940-984 (Lock$) 



'*> 



w 



QUEENS COLLEGE 



CONTEMPORARY CIVIU2ATI0N X 



September 195Ö 



1 



X 



I IMTRODUCTION 

A, The Cont empor ary Civil! zation Sequence 

B. Ancient Foundations of Medieval and Modem Civilization 
1« Classical Greek Political Thought 

«• HelXenic Political and Cultm'al Trends 
BCW 56-60 

b. Plato and Aristotle as Political Philosophers 
BCW 73-7^1 SB I, 125-152,- 153-18U 



L ^^ 



2* Hellenistic and Roman Political Thought 

a» Hellenistic and Roman Political and Cultiiral Trends 
BCW 89-1031 116-118 

b» Cicero - The Concept of Natiaral Lav 
SB I, 185-199 

II MEDIEVAL WESTSIN CIVILIZATION 

1« The Christian Foundation 

a« Judaism and Early Christianity 
BCW 39-U2i 131-136 

b« Christianity and the Roman Empire 
BCW 103-llOj 123-125i 136-150 

o* St« Augustine and the Philosophy of Christianity 
BCW 158-161; 156-157; SB I, 21^2-253 

2, Early Medieval Europe - 500-1000 >V J> ^ 

a» The Break-up of the Roman Empire; the Frsnkish Empire 
BCW 169-175; 176-181 

b, The Civiliaation of the •T)ark Age» 
BCW 190-200; 165-168; 2O0-20li 

3 t The Flowering of the Middle Ages - lOOO-lSOO 

A, A Review of the Political History of France, Oermany and England 
BCW 210-213, 217-222; 215-260; 227-23U; 237-239 

6, Economic and Political Trends 

a* The Orowbh of Towns and Central Authority 
BCW 251i, 267-270 

b. The Shaping of Parliamentarism 
BCW 239-2li0 

0« Political Doctrines 

BCW 287-286; SB I, 300-311 (St* Thomas Aquinas) 



•«^.■'•■'"V'JiJX 






CCl 



-2- 



'n 



IV EABLY MODERN WBSTERN CIVILIZATION 
1« The Reformation 

a, Pre-Lutheran Baekground: Lollards and Hussltes 

BCW 277-279 

b, The Lutheran Revolt 

BCW U95-50U,- SB I, 63li-6l47 

0, The Svlss Reformation: Zvingli and Calvin 
< BCW iÖk-SOS; SB 1, 6U8-669 

d» The English Reformation: The High Church, Calviniöm and the Sects 
BCW 513-510: 5o6-5o8, 5X1-512 

e, The Catholic Reformation 
BCW 516-523 

2» The Conmercial Revolution 

a« Early Commercial Capitalism 
BCW Ia9-l;c8 

b» The Expansion of Europe: Discoveries, Explorations, Empires 

BCW 582-590, 591-599 (Portugal and Spain); 599-606 (France, Holland, 

£ng3a nd) 

c, Mercantilism 

BCW 635-637 

3: The Rise of the Modern State 

a* Absolutism in Practice and Theory 

(1) Ibbsolute Monarohies on the Continent and in England 

BCl^ 537-555, 619-629 (Austria and France); 566-573 (England) 

(2) The Theory of Absolute Monarchy 

Ba>r 629-630, 651-652; SB 1, 891-923 (Hobbes) 

b« Constitutionalism in Practice and Theory 

(1) E ngland In R e v o lu t i on: Fre» J a m e s I ^ Qeorgr I 

BCW 63Ö-651 

Luc 

(2) The Thecrry of Constitutional Monarchy 

BCW 652-653; SB I, 9i^0-981| (Locke) 



I 



■'■■ 1 



»^t^ 



I 



-■«*wi 






.u^ifotakt'nM'JiuAkki^ 






V ■ - 






« ' nOUXBVAx X IlUUgUb 

) a7 Educatlon and Scholasticism , 

l BCW 279-282, 263-285 4 

b. fteligious Movements: State and Churchi ^onaaticiam; Crusades 
BCW 222, 278; IU7-II49, 271-2775171-385 

III THE RENAISSANCE 

1, The Renaissance in Italy: The City States 

Bdw I29-I36 

2. The New Political Roalism; Machiavelli 

BCW hh3'hhii SB I 368 -388 

3« Hunanism .^_«-r^ 

BCW Ui6-i*55| SB I, 55I?SSS> (Pico and Pomponazzi) 



rif - s^*-?', ^»pi • s-m 





.> 



y*:^',?**-»-.. «• ••-.*• .'l-.'.A'iv . *fc!f 




..»-.■..iij»«! £._. — t~i ..ti~^^ • ., , -..« l»g ,..«.'U, 



» 



CC 1 



- 1 a - 



B. 1. a. Hellenic Political and Cultural Trends 

I. Changing forms of government 

(1) [1200] - 800! patriarchical monarchies 

(2) 800 - ilä: Oligarchies in Sparta & Athens 



) 



(a) Sparta! the Constitution of Lycurgus (c.600) 
provided for 2 kings, 5 overseers (ephors) ,annually elected, 

by a populär assembly of all Citizens over 30 years; the over- 
thrown Laconians became the lower caste (helots, numbering 
l!l0) and the inhabitants of annexed territories the "dwel- 
lers around" (perioikoi); the power rested v;ith the 4000 ad- 
ult male Citizens; 

(b) Athens! ±kKxfixz±XKBnx±±±Kt±aK prior to 
621 (Draco), the real power rested with the old landed families 
who administered Attica through 9 eiders (archons) together 
with the Council of the Areopagus (near Acropolis). While 
Athens expanded and colonized, tensions developed between the 
powerful families and the debt-ridden peasants. These tensions 
were not resoyed by the first Constitution compiled by Draco 
(ca. 621) - death penalty for petty theft - and by the Reform 
of Selon (594). 



(3) 560 - 431! Transformation of Athens, Persian 
Wars, Stagnation of Sparta 

(a) Athenian tyrannies (560-508); The tyrant 
Pisistratus who exiled aristrocats was followed by two sons 
who were overthrown by Cleisthenes (508), the true founder of 
Athenian demoeracy! he set up ten new tribes (demes) in 
place of the old tribes; from the Citizens of the demes 
which had self-administration were chosen through bailots 
(ostraka) the 500 merobers of the Council for two years; the 
Council working through 10 committees (50 men each) operated 
with the judicial branch of 6000 elected men acting as judges 
and Jurors; 



) 



CG 1 



- 1 b - 



) 



(b) The Persian Wars (490-479)? after the 
army of the Persian Empire under Darius was defeated at Mara- 
thon by the Athenians in 490, the Persians, led by Xerxes, tried 
again in 480 to overrun the Greek peninsula but were defeated 
once more by the Spartan army at Thermopylae (480) and by the 
Athenian fleet off Salamis (480) and finally by a united Spar- 
tan and Athenian army at Plataea (479), thus forced to give 
up the plan of subjugating the Greek peninsula; 

(c) The Expansion of Athens and the seed 
of the Peloponnesian War (478-431): Athens formed in 478 the 
DeliAn Confederacy (Delos) through which she pursued imperia- 
listic polioies. Pericles (fl. 461-429) transferred the treas- 
ury of the Confederation from Delos to the Acropolis, gave Athen- 
ian courts exclusive Jurisdiction and contracted trade agreem- 
ents favorable to his city - thereby making it the political, 
administrative and Bommercial center of an empire with an un- 
parallaled cultural flowering (the "golden age*»). When Peric- 
les turned to consolidating the commeicial empire by first an- 
nexing other city states in Greece and finally turning toward 
loanian (in a supposed "liberation moKvement") , it became ob- 
vious that he overreached his hand and frightened the landlock- 
ed Spartans« 

II. The Decline of the Hellenic Polis-System and 
its final destruction 

(1) The Peloponnesian Wars (431-371): 

(a) The first round ending in the victory 
of SSliii (404): Beginning in 431 the strife between Sparta and 
Athens reached its climax in an open war (429-404) from which \ 
§S§nS, particularly after the death of Pericles (429) and the 
disastrous attempt to capture Sicily (415-413), emerged victo- 
rious but as exhausted as the defeated Athens; 

(b) The second round ending in the victory 
of Athens (371): accomplished through a coalition of city-states 
under the leadership of Athens ; 



CC 1 



il 



INTROBÜCTION 

B. Ancient Foundations of Medieval and Modern Civilization 
1. Classical Greek Political Thought 

a. Hellenic Political and Cultural Trends (Ll200j- 323 B.C.) 
I. Changing forms of government 

(1) Ll200?]-800: patriarchical raonarchies 



(?) 
(3) 



•A 



.-» O •»- ^ -. V- 



(4) 



800 -^^: oligarchies u 

S$f) -5SÖ: tyrannirs following the oligarchies that 
were unable to cope with the Opposition 
of debt-ridden peasants and commercial 

'^y^^- ^^^ classes 

^96 — 33Ö-: Oligarciiy and I-emocracy 

(a) Sparta: isolated militaristic oligarchy 

(b) Athens: Imperialist ic comrnercial democracy 



O 



II. Decline of Greek Civilization 

(1) The Peloponnesian War (451-404) :the climax of city- 
State strife from which,particularly after the death 
of Pericles (429) and the disastrous attempt to capt- 
ure Sicily (415-413) and the defeat ihn 404 Athens 
emerged as exhausted as the victorious Sfiarta. 

(2) Defeat of Sparta: in 371 by a coalition of the city- 
states under the leadership of Athens 

(3) The "Battle of Chaeronea in 338:in which all Greek 
city-states were overtaken by Philip of Macedonia and 
lost their independf^nce 

b. Plato and Aristotle as Political Philosophers 

1. The Socratic Background (Socrates ,46^-:)^^ ij.ü.; 

a. the oDjecLlve of lif e:happiness = pursuit oi tne -uooa' 
(=virtue) 

b. Virtue (moral excellence) = balance of reason,will and 
the various appetites 

c. Moral excellence is identical with knowledge 

d. The pursuit of the Good cannot be taught but man be 
made to recognize it in himself (= it can be learned 
t'rirough self-examination) 




' \ 



CGI - 2 - 

2. Plato (427 ? - 347 ?) on the Ideal State (= THE 

REPUBLIC, SB I (3rd ed., 3rd printing (1962), pp. 
3 - 28) 

A. The Ideal Ruler: 10, 1. 7-20 (»'Will they then 
persist in their anger .,. they mußt necessarily be corrupted ?" ) 

B. The Knowledge of the Good 

(1) The Four States of Mind:- Conjecture, Belief, 
Understanding, Pure Reason : 21, 1.21-26 ("You have taken in my 
me;ining most satisf ^ctorily .... truth of their respective ob- 
jects") ; 

(2) Conjecture (Opinion) versus Knowledge 

(a) Conjeeture: 19,1.4b - 20,1.3 ("Then let 
US proceed to consider ... but to a conclusion" ) ; 

(b) Knowledge: 20,1.3 - 6 ("The other Seg- 
ment ... real essential forms."). 



C. The Rule of Philosophers: 7,1.15 - 23 ("It was 
for these reasons ... a genuine love of genuine philosophy . " ) . 



r 



CC 1 



- 2a - 



9 



3. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) on the Extant and Ideal State (Politics) 
4. The Nature of the State and Citizen 

(1) the nnture of the State: an associrtion of villages compris- 

ing households for the realization of a ''good life" which 
is its "highest Good" (32,1.21-24 (par.4T: »«Lastly.the as- 
sociation composed ,,, to make life good") 

(2) the nature and virtue of the Citizen 

(a) the nature: those who participate in judicial and deliber- 

ative Office (36,1.3b-2b: "Citizen then we may define ... 
deliberative office»*.) 

(b) the virtue of a Citizen: '**,. to be both an excellent ruler 
and an excellent subject" (39,1.10b-5b: "Hence it is said 
... characteristic of a free Community**)- 

)i, The Typ es and forms of Government 

(1) the two types (41, last par,:"It is evident then ... society 

of free persons") 

(a) the normal: ''such polities as regard the good of the Com- 
munity .. accoriing to the principle of abstract justice**, 
i.e. a society of free persons 

(b) the corrupted or perverted: "such as regard the private 
good of the ruler3",i.e. ruler-subject relation is that 
of master-slave 

(2) the six forms (42,1.13-20 ("..The form of Monarchy ... viz. 

a polity"); par.3 ("As perverted forms ... Community 
at large"). 

(a) the normal: Monarchy (Kingship) ,Ari8tocracy, Polity 

(b) the perverted: Tyranny,01igarchy and i)emocracy 

(3) the nature of perverted governments (43,1,3-7 ("Tyranny is, 

as hes been said ... property, i.e. the poor.**); 1.12b-4b 
(**.,The really distinctive charactersistics ... mast^rs 
of the polity.**) 

(a) Tyranny: master of slaves 

(b) Oligarchy: where wealth constitutes the title to rule 
regardless of whether the rulers are a mejority 

(c) Democracy: where the poors are the rulers 



CC 1 



t 

9' 



- 2b - 



The Best Possibl© Stflte 

(1) The best polity: 

(e) is not the only one worthy of consideration: but also that 
which is attainable (54,1.10b-7b (»»..For it is not only 
... polities of all existing Stetes»*) 

(b) is beyond the attainment of ordinary people: (55,1.6b - 
56,1.5 (i.e.chapter XI,first par.):*'But what is the best 
...as one and the same.»*) 

(2) The least bad of the perverted forms - Democracy; (55,par.3 

("It is evident ... and Democracy the leest baid. .'*) 

(3) The best possible state is one controlled by the middle class 

because 

(a) the middle class provides stability: (57,1.12-22 ("It is 
clear then . . . of either extreme, a Tyranny") 

(b) the middle class will play the role of arbitrator: (59, 
1.15b- 7b ("For th^re is no danger of a conspiracy ... 
consenting to an elternation of rule.") 

(4) The legislator should therefore engege the support of the 
middle class: (59.1.20b-17b ("But the legislator ... in be- 
half of the laws"). 



9 



m 



CC 1 

2. Hellenist ic and Homan Political Thought 

a. Hellenlstic Political and Cultural Trends (323 B.C 
(1) The Hellenistic States 



4 - 



« . 7 C? A 1> ) 



(a) the three States: 

Macedon proper and Greek satellites 
^'^SyptiTuled by the ^tolemies from Alexandria 
Syria:ruled by the Seleucids from Antioch 

(b) the character of the states: Greek-oriental despoties 
in which Greek settlers (merchants and civil servants) 
enjoyed self-government . Rhodos , Alexandria and Antioch 
becarap the Centers of international trade with agricul- 
tnr<^ continuing its pro^ress that had started in 4th 
Century Attica. 

(2) Hellenistic Culture 

(a) Art :theatrical and naturalistic architecture and soikip- 

t ur e ; 1 ight c ome dy 

(b) Science :Library collect ions and systematic study of the 

Greek classics;progress of afetronomy and mathe- 
matics 

(c) Philosophy:centered around individual happiness 

Epicureans:pleasure (=absence of pain) to be achieved 
by Spiritual pleasures and moderation of bodily appe- 
tites 

Stoics:a universalist ic (=brotherhood) philosophy on 
the triumph of spirit over flesh and reason over emo- 
tion 



b, Roman Political and Cultural Trends during the Republic 

(1) Political History (509-27 B.C.) .-, -- v^?^.li 




(a) 509-449 B.C. 



after the overthrow of the Etruscan king- 
dom ( 600-509, ending with Tarquin the 
Proud),an Oligarchie republic was estab- 
lished ruled by the Patricians (füll Ci- 
tizens) over the Pleboians (partial ci- ' 
tizens) 



■ TaVi rk 



1 



CC 1 



- 5 - 

(b) 449-265 B.C.: First Expansion - Italy ,ending with the 

defeat of Pyrrhus; Liberalization of the 
Oligarchy through the Twelve Tables 

(c) 265-146 B.C.: Second Expansion - Overseas 



Cl 



264-241 
218-201 

149-146 
146 



First Punic War:Sicily 

Second Punic War:Hann±bal ( Victor at Cannae, 
216) was defeat ed by Scipio Africanus and 
Carthage had to yield Spain 

Third Punic ^ar:agitated by Cato,ending with 
the destruction of Carthage 

Rome annexed Macedon as province 



1 



(d) 146 -27 B.C.: Crisis and Collapse of the Republic 



133-1'^1 

112-101 

86-80 

58-44 



Reform of the Gracchi 

Marius - Consul 

Sulla - Dictator 

Caesar ;since 49 Caesarisra (Greek tyranny + 
Oriental despotism) ;assasinated in 44 by 
Brutus 



44-30 Octavian defeated Mark Antony -Cleopatra 



O 



^2)CEoman Civilization 

1 • Law 

a. unwritten law:legislation of Senate »decrees of emper- 
ors,decisions of Chief justices (praetors) »opinions 
of expert lawyers;codified under Justinian (483-565) 

b. expert jurists ( Juris-consults) :in the Republic pri- 
vate Citizens, in the Empire officials deciding cases 
according to the spirit of the law (Ulpian: ♦'. .we pro- 
fess a knowledge of what is good and fair..**) 

c. courtsrwithout juries but stress of the right of Ci- 
tizens 

d. influ^nce of Roman Law:it was not imposed on non-Ro- 
mans but servel as pattern for Canon Law and the laws 
of Latin countries I 

2. Philosophy and Religion ' 

a.religion in the early Republic : imposed on a worship 
of spirits (larves,penates) was a Komanized Greek my- 
thology (Zeus=Jupiter) ;the cult was assigned by the 
State to a caste of priefets headed by the pontifex 
maximus 



\ 



_**■ 



o 



o 



CC 1 - 6 - 

b, religion in the later Rpp'.i'blic an^l Empire: 

(1) pliilosophy of resignation amon^ the educated: Epicureans 
"(Lucretius [c. 95-55 B.C.], De rerim natura) and Stoicism 
(I.;arcu3 Aurclius,r/:edidations) stressing the sense of 
duty 



J 



(2) Oriental myr^tic CLilts: Isis, Magna L'Iater ,i:ithra 

3. Cicero (106-4*5 B.C.) on Natural Law (Thn L-n"/-.) "" >io-'J^] 

A , . 

j?c» Law of Natur e and Civil Lav/ (Law of r.lornls) 

(1) Natural and civil law are differ-nt ((^-5 ,1.6b-2b : "Now 
if nature ... hurnan vices") 

(2) Civil laws -re not noces^^arily just (e.g.tyrännical laws) 
and just is not what is decreed by civil lav; (67,par.2, 
1.6-15 :'*It is ther^fore •.. ov/n deionce") 

yfe . The E s s e nc e o f N at u r a 1 Lav/ : i t e rnh r a. c e s "o o t h t h e 

(1) Greelc co nc e p t : e qu i t ab 1 e d i s t r ib ut i o n o f .::; o o d s and 

(2) Piornan concopt : discrimination between ^:;;:ood and evil 
(61, par,3, 1.17-21: "According to the Greeks ... these 

char ac t c r i a 1 1. es") 

t 

p. Lav; is natural (= divine and univ' rsal) 

(1) The divine oharacter of law consists in its rationality 

(a) reason and conscience enable us to distinguish be- 
tween good and bad (68,par.2: "A.s far as we are con- 
cerned ... --nd disrraceful" ) 

(b) man was endowed v/ith reason b^^ the Deity [Nature]: 
(64,par.l: "As th^ D'ity ... science and art . '' ) 

(2) The universal character of law is testified by theecxual- 
ity (= uniformity) of man 

(a) the fac -Ity to acquire knowled,p:e is common to all 
(64, par.4, 1.21-25: "In fact ... endlessly diverai- , „ x 

(b) '^rrors and delusions ar^ universal such, as the fear 
of death and the thour'ht that pain is the greatest 
evil and supersti". ions (65 ,par.l: "An error ... to 
be inglorious. " ) 

(c) also universal is the respeot of virtue (65,par.3: 
"But in not hing ... arts of well-living" ) 



"ia gMllfc«.l:^ 4 i> J- .U** !' '• 



r 



cc 1 



- 7 - 



<.> 



(d) vice (= voluptiousness) is a common ocourr- nee 

(64, last par. ,1.5'b-lb : "For all men ••• poisonous 
/ qualities. " ) 

i^. The Sources of Justice - Conscicnoo and Keason (Liviniby) 

(1) Justice, the restraint from v/ickedness ,is Jiiotivated "by 
the fear of penalty of conncience (66 ,par,4: "Tliere is 
the greater need ... than v/icked."): 

(a) .i'^istioe is desirable for its own sake and not for 
reward (69,par.2: "From what I have said ... it is 

connected. " ) 

(h) otherwise the .iust man v/er^: cunnin^r^ and the v:ioked 
man imprudent (66, last par. : "On th^ other hand ... 
.. clovm raust hlush.") 

(2) Justice is divine because 

(a) Grod and man are consociated by Lav; (= F:eason = Just- 
ice) (62,pa.r.2: "There exists ... conimunication of 
Justice." ; 

(b) Tho participation/man in the devine lav/ is mediated 
throuph the soul v;hich retains the idea of Dcity as 
expressed in the universal v/orshipping of Ood (62, 
last par.:"üh^n we thus reason ... of his life.") 






CG 1 



C. Ko::r;;.n Oivilization 



- 7 - 



I. Outline of Homan :ii::.tory 

1. PrG--Kom'\n (c.8:)0 - 509 J.C.): LtruiiCHU iCiiisdom (6JO-509) , 

endin£; vvith Tar^^uin tliG Fioud 

2. iioman iiepublic (509-27 13. C.) 

a, 509-449 3.G.: Oligarchie ropulDlic ruled by Fatricians 

(füll Citizens) to \;horn v/ere 5iub;jected 
the Plebei'-'ns (partial Citizens) 

"b. 449-2^^5 B.C: First exp-nsion - It^'ly ending vith bhe 

dement oi Pyrr'ius ; Liber-ilized oli,3''rchy, 
the Tv/'lve T'd)les 



r^ 



'^'^5-14^ n.C: Second Expan'^.ion - Overseas 
9^4-o./i.]_ First Punic '"ar: Sicily 



218-231 

149-146 
146 



Seconl Punic '"'ar: TPvr ihal (victor at Gannae, 
21^^) Y/as defe-it^-d by Scipio Africanus -md 
Garthage had to yi'll Sp-.^-in 

Third Punic "ar: af^it-ited by Cato,endino ..ith 
the destruction of Garth '^e 

iiOme aanexod Lacedon as province 



d. 146-27 3.0. : Grisis and Collap-e of the Kepublic 



K\- -•VT ', 



riA 



,Vtty?,^'^^^ - -A/.v^ 







' ^/ w v^-- «■ 



' O 



!U -i- 



s^>> -•--"'; 



133-121 

112-1)1 

86-80 

58-44 

44-30 



Keforrn of the Oracchi 

L!;^iriuo - Gon.ail 

Sulla - Lictator 

Caesar ; Tince 49 Gacsarism (Oreek tyranny+Ori-. 
tal despotism) ; .•\ssasinatod in 44 by Brutus 



c t a vi an d e f e '" t e d Vi ^i r k An t o ny -G 1 e o p a t r a 

3. Kornan Empire - Pax Eom-na (27 B.C. -180 A.L.) '-i^'o 

-> "^. 27 B.C.- 1") A.L. : Octavian beoairie Princeps (first Citi- 
zen) 'nd Au:"iir-tus ("iinverei Lmp-ror 
and 2on of Godlike Caesar") 



O 



b. 14-180 A.L. 



Successors of Auf;:u::itus 

( a ) T ib e r iu s , C a 1 i^^ula , G 1 au I ins , • [e r o 

(b) Ilerva,Trajan,Hadrian, Antonius Pius , 
Ivlarcus Aurelius 



i 



* -" ~ - > ■ — 



•^mnmt^f^pmm 



ho 



o 



CG 1 - 8 - 

■i 

II. Roman Civilization 

1 . Lav; 

a. unv/ritton Law: le^i-l'ition of Senate, docrees of emperors . 
deoisions of Chief justices (praotors ) ,opinions of cx- 
pert lav;y rs ;codifiod undor Justinian (483-565) 

"b . experl: juri~.its ( juris-conoults) :in the Kepublic private 
Citizens, in the Empire officivils decidin^- cases accord- 
ing tot he 3 p ir it o f t Vi ( ; 1 ai/ ( Ulp ian : " . . v/e p r o f e s s a 
knov.'lede^e of what is good --^nd fair,.") 

Courts :T/ithout juries hut Streiks of the right of Citizens 

influenae of i.oman Lav/iit r/as not imposed on non-hom-mc , 
but served -^s pnttf^rn '"or Canon Lav/ anl the lav's of Lat- 
in countries 



c. 

d. 



( ■ (o - 1, J 



2, PhilO'jOphy nnd Reli.p^ion 

a, reli^'-^ion in th^ ^arly Kepuhlic : impo -'^ l on a ..'Orohip of 
spirits (larves ,penates) r.'*is a Komanized Lireek mythology 
(Zeu3"Jupiter) ;the calt -.'as asni,?^ned by the 3tate to a 
Gaste of prieots headed by the poatifex maxirnus 

h. reli^ion in the lat-^r i-Lepiihlic „rirl Empire: 

(1) philosoxjhy of resignation among the edücited: Epicur- 
eans (Lucretius ,c. 95-55 J.C.,Le reriirn natura) and 
Stoicism (Marcus Aurelius ,I.'.editations)streo3ing pri- 
vate virtue jhrotherhood ^md sense of duty 

(2) Oriental myotic cults: I:iis ,Uagna kater ,L.ithra (per- 
5 ian sun god) 



1 2. 



in' III. 'I'ne Lecline of Korne (180-357) 



O 



s, 



1. The unsucceosful emperors (180-284) :beginning v;ith Conmodu 
the son of Liarcus Aurelius onded in nilitary an- rchy 

2. Liocletian (284-305 ) :centr-'.lization of govornmont ;e3tablish- 
pient of q court (curia) of Oriental denpotism; economic re- 
forms: severe tax'^tion,heredit--iry tax oollectors n.nd heredi- 
tary farm hands on the State farms (coloni) 

3. Conr.tantine (30^-337): after Liocletian had moved the capit- 
al of thp "e'^t'^rn "Empire to Milan, Constant ine fixed the ca- 
pital of the Sastern Empire at Byzantium i 

4. " hy Lome d;clined: Gibbon, Kostovstev i 



.1 



» ^ ■ -!■ ■ « ^J i 



1 



CG 1 



- 9 - 



f~i 



I. Judaisra 

1. Outline of History 

Jl. L14J0J - 9y^ B.C.: Hebrev.s first formod a fcderation of trib- 

es under "^jud^^es" nnd then a kin,>-:dom (La- 
div,5alornon) 

2. 933 B.C. : Split of the tribes into 
a. TTorthnrn >in^^dom of Isr'-ol 

"b. Southern kin*-dorn of Judah .vith J-rusalem ^^,s oapifcMl 

3. The orrl of Israel '^nd Judah 

a. 722 B.C.: Isranl feil to Assyria 

b. 5ö6 B.C.: Judah to Babylon unVr NebUv;hadrezz'-<.r II 

4. 444 B.C. - 70 A.L. : tho kia_; lom of Jud ;h v;as restored under 

i-ersian~rule oy ]^ehe'-:iiah,b<-o;.,ra.- first a 
part of the Hclleni'^tio Kni] Ire and in 
63 B.C. '/hen Ponipoy entered Jerusalem 
a Roman province (Judea). 



IKH>\ 



^r^jrvj ...-.«y 



: ö >j 



II. The Reli^'ion of Judais ifi 
1. luonotheism 

a. Jnenoss of aOi: the tribal Ylfal LYav^'eh, Jehova} vjas turned 

into a non-natur'lißtic --> n 1 non-aathromorphic deity 

b. Lar;3: prescrib : I the v^or^hip of God -^nd et}iic-l beh,;vior 

2. The Universal F'-'.ith: developing before an^l --^it-r the fall 
of Jerusnlem in 3^'''6 in the v/ritin^^s of t'e prophets (Isai- 
ah) ent-^'ils 

a. ^n ^thic-il concevtrthe good life 

b. th^ b^lief in ialividu-'l i'-nmort '^lity aad a life here- 
af t ^ r 

c. the Submission to bhe ^-ill of God jhose plans are un- 
knov;n and unander st aad-^bl-" to T-i-m 

3. Tho emotional power of persuasiv^ness of univers'il monothe- 
ism 



i->^- 



f 



The Lord 's Prayer 



St. Matthew 

Our Father which art in heaven, 

Hallowed be thy name . 

Thy kingdom come. Thy will be 

done in earth, as it is in heaven. 

Give US this day our daily bread. 

And forgive us our debts, as we 

f orgive our debtors . 

And lead us not in temptation, 

but deliver us from evils 

For thine is the kingdom, and the 

power, and the glory, for ever. Amen. 



1 



eh. 6, 9-14 



St . Luke 

Our Father which art in heaven, 

Hallowed be thy name. 

Thy kingdom come. Thy will be 

done, as in heaven, so in earth. 

Give US day by day our daily bread 

And forgive us our sind; for we 

also forgive every one that is 

indebted to us. 

And lead us not in temptiation; 

but deliver us from evil. 



eh. 11, 2-4 



The Last Words of Jesus 

Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani ? 

that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? 

St. Matthew, eh. 27; 46 (Luther 
points to Psalm 22 ) pQ_lnts t 

My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? Psalm 22: 1 
It is finished St. John, eh.l9?^0 (Luther points to above) 
that he hath done this Psalm 22 : 31 



3 



... 



.^■•* 



'" ' » . -a>.m „ ., „ 



••mmim^mi^ 



n 



o 



- 10 - 



CG i 

II. MKLIEVAx. ^^'"i^STEKN GIVILIZATION 

1. Tho Christian Foundation 

A. Christ lanity 

I: Jesus and Paul 

1. Th^ histori.cn.l Jesus 

•■■» - Sourc's of his lifo history: the 'Vsynoptio r^ospels'' of 



b 



M-^rkyLuk^ n.n'\ r'-itther/^'-dat ing from about GO A.l. 
The ■-istoric-il ,iieolo'-'-iG'.l i^^/l factu-:! liacVpTOund 

(1) The 'lellenistio chnr?^ct^ir of the rulnrs: Ilei'Od the 
ureat (37-4 3.0.) j 

(2) Tne intens! f'ication of i'Iessi .nie; holiof uader Ilerod | 

(3) The religious f^-roups in J^däsrn | 

»adducees: li":itinr La.-. ,2SxxSiix''^?ndividu':„l im- * 
mort.allty iri-I r.essi:Anic o;,^li f 



(a) 






( h ) Pli.ir i s e s : devote! t o Lav; , s t r e s s e d i mo r t .1 it y 

and the coiainr; of the Lessiah 

(c) Esoenes 



c :.iriie in 1 e x i 3 1 • j nc e .■ . i o ui i d 150 13 • C . t o ■ 
^ether ..ith the t/.o oi: iOr ^:roups ; thiy 






a 



b 



v;ere ascetics , or^'anized in non b;:ic or- 
dere and subscrihtul to lersi n and Hel- 
lenistic holicf.s (angels ,he<ivGa and helü 

(4) The life of Jesus: 6/4 B.C.- 29 A.L. , 

he teachinr^s of Jesus 

The Sermon of the ''^ountain ( ••t .:att her; 5:1 - 7:28) v ith 
t he Lord * s pr wjc r (6:9 - '^^ : 13 ) 

(1) God = father in heaven 

(2) Jud^^:rnent : heaven anl hell (5:':^ 2) 

(3) Kinp:dom of God 

The higher ethics: enjoyment of the good things wit iiin 
the Lav; (5:17 "Think not that I am oome to de.-.troy the 
law. .but to fulfil") 



3. The first Christians 

a. The "chiliast ic" belief lu the irnmediate iv(3cond Coming 
of Christ: leading to ascetism as preparation 

b. The first follov/ors: Christ inn Jerjs,'i splinter sect 



i 



\ 




Man 



Soul 
Oslos tial 

Immortal 



Body 
Terrestrialj 
Mortal 




Latter 



Utork - 

Observati 



oii 




Meroy 

Death of Christ 
Individual Salvation 
fron Original Sin 



Justice 

Salvation of Mankiai 

God's Decision 



• 



CG 1 



- 14 - 



1 



V. St.Aurustino (354-430): The City of God 

!• The tfjo parts (= oities = com oiinit ies) of the hum-in r-'^oe 

a. thoye v;ho live according to aod and predestinel to toign 
etornally and 

b. those vvho live aocordinK to man 'ind predcotined to suii'er 
eternal punishmr-nt *.ith the devil 

r.245 LlV,lJ,i.6-lÜ 

2. The City of the saints is above , ilthou^^h here belov; it begets 

Citizens, in Y/hom it sojourns tili the time of its rei^n ar- 

rives.,in the day oJ resurrection ^.r ■^ r t^ 

■^ Y> • 24ü , I.D-IO 

a. Jerusalem was a syinbol and f oreshadov.dng i(!-i-»^^'e of tuis city 

^•246 L^V ,^2 J, 1.11-15 
as JerusBlem '..as a shndov/ of Sarah and the e -rthly city by 
Agar, the handmaid of S-rah c._ t ^,^% >^l^' V'^ V '^r^-r 

,^ ,,_,^-_ ^, __^,^A..c P. .4r,i.i 4 , ^w6,/.4 -. 

b. TVie heavenly oity 'hil^- it sojonrn^. on eart'i calls Citizens- 

out of '^11 n^tionS ^.^^ i vr-r T -7 1 T sr^ 1 ff 

p.^49 LXIX,17J ,1.10-1? 

c. The earf»nly city ^.e-^ks n oarf-^ly peace rhereas the heavenly 
city makes U'ie of this peice for its ov/n ends 

r. 248, 1.13-21 

3. 'i-he fulfillTtOnt of the hen.venly city (-the fMture ..o. Id) 

a. To see the rriaterial forms of the ne-- heav^n.'s and the nev; 
earth and to see uod v.ith irnfa..teri'j.l eyes 

p.251 LXXII, 29 J, 1.5-12 

b. There shall be the enjoyment of a beauty .hich appe Is to 

the re-ison ,.,..„ . »' -, ., 

p.2:;2 ,1.^-lJ 

c. God •.;ill be tlie rev/ard of virtue ^co i o-, m 

d. The blessc'd v.ill o'^ the Oabbath ou-- i -^ /i 

p • 2p:; , 1. ?*-4 - 

The Sabbath will corne after the sixth day (=the present age) 
and will be folLOv;ed by an eigth -Lnd eternal day ,consecrated 
by the surrection oi Christ _ .>,r-z n -, o-k -^^ 



■•i^aA>MI».^MttkJ^ 



SToAUGÜSTBJE, THE CITY OF GOD 






la The Two Parts of the Human Race 







i t 



tt • e 



(The hiunan) race v/e have dlstrihuted into two parts,the one 
confsisting of those who live accorulng to man, the other of those 
who live according to God. And these we also mystically call the 
two eitles, or the two corfimunities of man^of ivhich the one is pre- 
destined to reign etemally with God, and ths other to suffer eter- 
nal punishinent with the devll ••.". Book XV,chapter 1 



2« The City of God on Earth 

a* The City of the Saints is Sojouming 



" ••• For the city of the saints is above,althou,^h here Tbelow | 
it begets citi25sn,in whoni it sojoums tili the time of Its reign 
arrives,when it shall gather together all in the day of resurrec- 
tion; and then shall the promised kingdom be given to thein,in 
i'/hich they shall reign with the Prince,the King of the üges, \ 
time without end.** Book XV,chapter 1 | 

Jerusalem was a Symbol Foreshadowed by Abel , 

**There was indeed on earth, so long as it was needed,a ^^ymbol and 
foreshadowing image of this city,which served the purpose of re- 
minding men that such a city was to be,rather than of making it 
present; and this iznage was itself called the holy city,as a | 
Symbol of the future city,though not Itself the reality o»o** 

Book XV,chapter 2 .^ 

"•.a Accordinglj,it is recorded of Cain that he bullt a city, 
but Abel,being a sojoumer,built none •••". Book X\.%chapter 1 



c* The Citizens of the City of God on Earth 

*• ••• This heavenly city, then, while it sojourns on earth^^calls 
Citizens out of all nations,and gathers together a society of 
pilgrims of all languages,not scrupllng abont diverslties in the 
manner Sßlaws, and institutions whereby earthly peace is secured 
and ffialntalned,but recogniaing that^horever various these are^ ^^ 
they all tend to one and the some end of earthly peace 



» <» «> 



Book XIX,chaptar 17 



^ 



-Tgwyy uj I . p . w ii. »» > '-— -^jyjji— 



mtanim. 



P 



ST^AUGÜSTIII, TiiE CITY OF GOD 



- 3 - 



and marvellous discoveries v/hlch shall then kindle rational mlnds 
in pralse of the great Artlflcer,there shall be the enjoyment of 
a beauty whlch appeals to the reason •••*•. Book XXII,chapter 30 



c. God - The Rev/ard of Virtue 



• • • 



God Hirns elft'.vho is the Author of virtue, shall there be its 
reward; for as there is nothing greater or better, He has promised 
Hiinself •••'» Book XXII,chapter 30 



d» Eternity - The End of All Time 



o • • 



For we shall ourselves be the seventh day,when we shall be 
filled and replenished with God's blessing and sanctification 



o « 



^ 



" ••• There are thus five ages in all. The sixth is now passing, 
and cannot be measured by any niunber of generations,as it has been 
said,"It is not for you to know the times,- hich the Father hath 
put in His own power»" After this period God shall rest as on the 
seventh day,\7hen He shall give us (who shall be the seventh day) 
rest in Himself • But there is not noiv space to treat of these 
ages; suffioe it to say that the seventh shall be our Sabbath, 
v;hich shall be broright to a close,not by an evening,but by the 
Lord 's day,as an eighth and eternal day,coneecrated by the resur- 
rection of Christ, and prefiguring the eternal repose not only of 
the spirit,but also of the body. Thrre we shall rest and see,see 



and love,love and praise 



• • o 



Book XXII,chapter 30 



\ 



^mmmtmmm^.- 



J 



l 



ST.AUGUSTIII, THS CITY 0? GOD 



- 2 - 



d» The Peace of the Clties of God and Uaxi 

♦* »«.«v The earthly city,which does not live by faithjseeks an 
earthly peace, and the end it proposes,in the v;ell«ordered con- 
cord of clvic obedience and rulo,is the con-bination of xnen's 
v.ills to attain the things ivhich are helpful to thir^ life« The 
heavenly city,or rather the part of it which sojourns on earth 
and lives by faith,inakes use of this peace only because it Baust, 
until this inortal condition which necessitates it shall pass 
away» Conseguently,so lon^ as it lives like a captlve and a 
stranger in the earthly city,thoTigh it has already received the 
prornise of redeiiiption,and the gift of the Spirit as the earnest 
of lt,it makes no scruple to obey the laws of the earthly city, 
v;hereby the things necensary for the maintenance of this niortal 
life are administered; and thus^as this life is coirKon to both 
eitles, so there is a harmony between theni in regard to ivhat be~ 



longs to it 



Book XlXjChnpter 17 



O 



3e The Fulfillment of the City of God in Heaven 

a« The Sight of God 

•• ••• It may very well befand it is thoroughly credible,that 
we shall in the future world see the materlal forms of the new 
heavens and the new earth in such a way that we shall KOst dis- 
tinctly recognise God everywhere present and governing all 
things, material as well as Spiritual, r.nd shall see Kim, not as 
now we understand the invisible things of God,by the things 
which are made,and see Him darkly^as in a mlrror,and in parte 
and rather by faith than bodily vision of material nj/pearances, 
but by means of the bodies we shall wear cnö which we shall see 
v;herever we tum our eyer> ,•«". Book XXIIjChapter 29 



b» The Vision of Heavenly Beauty 

** «•« For all those parts of the bodily harmony, which r.re dis- 
trlbuted through the whole body,v;ithln and v;itboutj,anü of which 
I have .just been saying that they at present elude otir ä»bserva* 
tion, shall then be disccrned; and along v;ith the other great 



W^ Hl ««!■■■ 



J 



ST./UCTa3TINK,THK CITY 0^' GOD 

1, The Two Parts of tho Humftn Rece 

" ... (The humBn) roce we hpve diotributed into two p/rt8,the one consisting c 
thoae who liv? accoriing to mfln,the other of those tv lo live according to Goc 
-And these we also ^ystically call the two eitles, or ihe two communities of 
man,of -hich the one is pr^^destined to reign eternall/ with iOd,and the otht 
to suff er eternal punishm^nt with the devil . . , '\ ßoclt XV,ciept r 1 

2. The City of God on Earth 

a, The City of th'» Saints is öojoarning 

" . • • For the city of the saints is above,nl though hen below .t begets 
Citizens, in whom it sojourns tili the time of its rei^a arrive.^when it 
shall gather togother rll in the day of the resurrectici; and th n shall 
the promised kingdom be given to them,in which they shail reign w;.th the 
Prince,the King of th^ ages^timo without ena. ** Book XV,iiirpter 1 

b, Jerusalem was a symbol forshadowed by Abel 

" There was indeed on eerth,30 long as it wns needed,P symbol ^nd foresnft-o^ 
ing image of this city^which served the purpose of reminding aeji thPt s^c 
a city was to be.rather thsn of mrking it present; and this ijia^;e was i^-^ 
seif called the holy city,as a symbol of the future city, though aot it^jel 
the rerlity ... ''. Book XV,chPpter 2 

" ..p AccoKdingly,it is recorded of Ca in that he built a city,but Abel,beit 
a sojournerjbuilt none ..." Book XV^chepter 1 



• 



c. The Citizens of the City of God on Barth 

*' ... This heavenly city,then,while it sojourns on earth,calls Citizens out 
of all nations,ana gethors together a society of pilgrims of all language 
not scrupling about diversities in the manners,lpws,erid institutions whei 
by earthly peoce is secured anu. maintained,but recognizing thet,however 
vprious these are,they all tend to one and the same ena of earthly peace 
... " Book XlX.chapter 17 j 

d. The Peace of the Cities of God and Man I 



... The earthly city,which does not live by fttM faith,seeks an eartnly 
peaco,and the end it proposes,in the well— ordered concord of civic obeli 
and rule.is the combinPtion of men* s wills to attein the things which y.t 



] 



ST^AÜIÜSTIKK.THT^ CITY ÖF GöJ 



- 2 



/ 



helpful to this lifo, 'ch« hepvenly cit.y,or rPther tue pprt of it which sojourni 
on eprth end Uvea by faith,m^kes ise of this parce only bocrise? it raast, 
until this mortsl coniition which necessitPtes it shall pess away . Conse- 
quentlyjSo long es it livos lik<? a captive ani a strenger in the eprthly 
city,though it hfa alr<?ady received th© promise of redemption,nnc the gifl 
of the Spirit as 'he earnest of it,it m^k^s no scruple to obey tle laws ol 
the ea^thly city ,wher"by th^ things necessory for tha maintei^^nce of this 
mortui lifo are administered; and tnu3,a3 this life is .ommon to both cit3 
so there is a hPPiaony between them in regard to whrt belongs to it." 
Book XIX,chapter :.7 



t 



3, The Fulfillment of tho City of God in Heaven 

e„ The Sight of God 

" ... It mfy very wt?ll be,and it is thoroughly cradible,that we sx^fll in the 
fut-ire \7orld see ih^ mfiterial forms of tha now hepvens and the new enrth 

, 'Kl- 

in sich a way tha*; we shall raost distinctly r^cogniz.e Go£ everywiere pres^ 
and governing all things, material ©s v^ell as üpiritual^and shall see Rim^ 
not as now vfe undorstena the Irivisible things cf Gcd,by the things which 
are faß-de^anj. see Uim derkly,as in a mirror,ana in part^^nd rather by faiti 
than by bodily v.ljjion of mat^rial appörraücijs, ' ut by mepns of thn bodit^s v 
shall wear and which we shall see wh*>r'^ver we turn our ©yes . , „ " 
ßook XXIIjChapter 29 

b, The Vision of Ilaavenly Beauty 

" o o , i?'or all those parts of the bodily h?r.{aony ; 'v-iich are distributed throu> 
the wholp body,wi';Lin ani witnout,ana of which I have just been saying tiih 
they at present ©' ude our Observation, shall tiiea be discerned; ard^along 
with the other groat and raarvellous discovorics ?fhich shall then kinale 
rational minds in praise of the great Artif ict^r, there shall be the erijoy- 
ment of a beauty '/hich appeals to the reason ,,," Book XXIIjChaptar 30 

c. God - The Reward of Vir tue 

" ,,, G-oa Himself,who is the Author of virtue, shall there be its reward; foi 
as there is nothing greater or better j,Iie has promised llimself ..» ^ 
Book XXIIjChapter 30 



—äC 



>Jm.| l » l » ■ - ■ ' '* "**'""W»i- ■«»»■»III L. JW i. «r- 



ST.AUrxUSTIKEjTH^ CITY OF ÖOJ - 7: - 

d, ^ternity - 7he ^nd of All Time 

*' ,,. Jb'or we shPll oiirselves be the sev^nth clpy,when wo siiall be filled end 
replenish'»d with God' s blessin^ pni sanctif icatior ..." 







♦t 



.,0 There ?^re th^as f:*.ve Pges in oll. The sixKh is aow pflssing,ana cfinnot 
he mepsured by any number of g(?ndrPtions,fis il hf s been sPid,"It is not 
for you to knovr th^ times.which the t'etiier hath put in flis own power.'* 
After this period Ooa shall rest ns on tn^ aavenlfc dey,flrh©n he shPll give 
US (who shPll be the seventh dpy) rest in üizusell. ßut there is not non 
Space to trePt of those pges; suffice it to gry lb?»t the seventh sh^ll be 
cur Spbbath,which shnll be brought to e clo3?,no1 by an evening,but by the 
Lord* s dpy^rs ??n eighth ana eto?rn?5l dpy,con3acrried by the resurrection 
of Christ, find prefigiiring the eternal ä«j: ropose rot only of the spirit, 
but rlso of tho body, There we shnll rest anJ see^see eaa love,love ana 
prrise . . . ** üook XXIX,chapter 30 



•v^iWimmmrm 



n 



I 



CC 1 




('.:,) Jonn lius (lo63-l'±15) :v/as scriving for an orid of the 
rule of Germaii pr(jla;.es 

•6. The Schism (1378-1^7) 

a. Tne popes in Avignon (1305-1678) 

(1) Clement V (i:30o-lS14) , tne first of Lhem,thü French 
biShop Bercrand de Got,elected vjith the assistance 
of Philip, coinprofflised v;ith Gallicanism (French Cath- 
olic Cnu.rch) 

(..;) Urban VI, the last one elected in Fr5nce,planned to , 
rei^urn to Rome bat sorne cardinals elected Clement 
VII as a rival pope 

b. Tne Schism: two popes, one at Avignon and the other at 
Rome 

c. The Council of Cons.ance (1-114-1417) ragreod on Llartin V 
thus ending tne Schism and condenined hus to death 



i-^<> - >f*? 



I 



C. xvledieval Thought 
1, Education 

a. elemntary: Cathe-.ral schools 

b. higher: Universiti -s in Bologna, Paris, Oxford .vere as- 
sociations of teachers and sLudents givj.ng .uas uer ^ua- 
gisi:er) and doctor degrees; subjecos tought were 

(1) The seven liberal arts: 
V, a ) Quad r i viiim : g e ome t ry , a s tr onoiiiy , rnu c i c , a r i thine t i c 
(b) Tra.vium: graiiiiiiar,rhetoric,logic 

(2) Specialititis: medi eine, law, philoscpl-^' 
Scholasticisni 

a. deductive method: D8-nte,Quae3tio de A.iua et Terra 

b. nominalism and realism : 

(1) nominalism: conce- ts are -onrealistic^nominalism v/as 
leaaing oo radical empiricism as in the teaching of 
William of Ockham (1.370-1547) v/no accepted dogmas 
as mere belief ("credo quia iinpos-ibile") 

(.j) realism: cnl,' concepts are real;realism 'vas leading ■ 
to aenial of common sense and the perf ectionism of 
Duns Scotus (lr.:;74-1508) | 

■j 



o 




CG 1 



12,U- IL 



o 



5 



^\r - 



o 



- 11 - 

4. St. Paul (oonvorted at Dama.-^cus ,dicd c.67) 

a. the "Apostie of the Clentiles": oonvorsion throu^:h the 
Spirit and not through the lotter (I Corinthia2is 12:13) 

b. the transcenami^ faith;"not the Y/isdom of this v.'orld" 
Y/hich cannot be seen or heard but is revealed to the 
believnr (I Cor. P:6~10) 

c. man Is rr,ortal and im'nort-^1: "..t:he life of Je.sus mi^':ht 
be m dp n-rifest in our raortal flesh" (II Cor. 4:11) 

d. thr- or^f^a'-iiz^r of Christian congerrations : Y/arning them 
n^ninst excesses 

Ihe oarly ^pre:_.d of Christ !• mit y: throiighout the Empire 
direkte. i to;.ard home v/hore the mor-^t i;r,portM,:it con^^reei.tt ion 
7/a3 eüta.lished (Simon=I-eter ,i a" .1 martyre 1) 

Ui, II. Ghristianity in the P:;£;an World 

1. The persecutions 

a. three vaves be^inninF in 64 und er Koro 

b. reason: the uiiY/illin^ii^.-bs of the mono t hei stio Christians 
to T/orship the EiniDeror ; 

o. edict of toleration: 311 si/j:ned by Emperor Galerius ,con- 
firmed ''o^ Gonstantine in tho edict of r.ilan in 312 or i 
313 I 

2. The triuiiiph of Ghristianity j 
p., Council of Kicaea : 325 under imperial auspices 

b. t^e fail^ire to restore paranism.: Julian the Apostate 
(the Renounc^r) (3^1-363) 

c. Theodosius (379-395) made Ghristianity the offici-J. re- 
liFion of the Empire and persecuted paganism 

3. The reasons for the t'-iumph 

a. the spirituell aj^peal ; 

(1) Judaism separate! from LaT/ 

(2) the doctrine of the future liie (salvation) and the 
Liecond Coming of Christ ) 

b. the pure nnd austere morals of the Christi- ns ■ nd the j 
pracbice of the religion of love j 

c. the discipline of the Church ' .{ 

d. the superiority over the riv 'ling sects 

(1) the mystical sects Y;ere lacking in moral appeal and 
organiz-ition (priesthood) ,,| 



1 
I 



.,*. 



CG 1 



- 12 



(2) the syncreti^tic character of Ghristianity : borrov.in, 
from the iiothor cult of I:.iö,from L:ithras (Sund-.y), 
Easter etc. 



1^1 - ^ :,^^III. The or^-anization of Christianity 



0^ 



^. 



'5 



a. 



>j 



The c^.rliest or(:"'nization^ : vnryin^'; ••'ith the •■ rea it-ere leJ. 
by te-ichers , eiders , ov^rseers n:l prep,id'^n'"s 

The Rorn'^n Chnrch 

The Vulpi'^te: translated hy St.Jnron^e (34')--420) 

the Hier-^rchy: 

(1) the l0G"j.l c'-nirch: he-ided by :i pri'-rst (prer.oy tero j = 
eider) re l-?cing the bcrd of eiders (presbyt- ries) 

(2) the See (diocese): headed by a bivSliop (epi^.cjopus = 
overseer) 

(3) the bis''üp of iiorne : foll.o\;Gr of Lt. Peter (i..atthef;: 
Peter = Petros) and bt .Paul ,since 41 J the administra- 
tor of the Emi ire 

G. the oler^_;:y and laity 

(1) secular prietthood 

(2) reß'ular priesthood: monasticism orin-inc^ting in E^jypt 
(st .Anthony) v/hero hermits ^jompeting v/ith eacli other 
in sain'cliness rrathered only jTor serviles sprei.d 
throu^h St.Basii (329-379) from Gre :ce to sir.vic count 
ries Y/here monasteries vere est -iblished; St .Benedict 
founded in 329 the ^^;rer:t abbey of i.'Cnte Cassino 

(3) tension betr-een secnl-'r an ■ regulär priosthood over 
control of thn durch 

The PwOma.n -""nd the Greek Church 

a. the Roman Chjirch 

(1) or-rf^^^iz-'t iori'"il development :bet ' een Grer;ory the Great 
(590-^04) ''^.ni th^ Synod of the L'iteran Lthe besilica 
of St. John L^.teran,the o.ethp 'r'i.l cMxrch o-^ the apopej 
(1059) •vhioh set up t^ie Coll'-ge o ■ * th.- Gardinais to 
k^ep the homan nobility from influencing the eleotion 
of the pope 

(2) the hierarchical selection of irchbishops and bishops 

(3) the struggle over temporal rule bet een pore 
peror 

b. the Greek Charch 



md em- 



(1) development tovvard caesaropapi.^^ia that culminvtcd in 
1J54 

(2) unlimited rights of the pope-emperor in deciding re* 
ligious disputes .•.^,. the u^e of Images in v.orühip 



r 



CG 1 



- 15 - 



IV. 



nii 



■9 f 



he Ideas of Christianity 
1. 'j-'-ie thGolo^y of the seven saury.me'its 

(1) baptism 

(2) oonfirm.-^tion 

(3) tiiG Euoharist = 'che Goiamunion or tlie Last Su] ;.er 

(4) penance; to restore bhe sianer tu . huleneüs 

(5) extrerno unction = "the l^-st rites" 

(6) holy Orders: to ordain the prie::t 

(7) ui'..triinony 

?. The salvTtion 

n. t/o;rnu<-r^o the "^uch-.ri-t the believer is >-;a,-^,hed of th^-^ stain 
of ori-^irr-'l nin heo^iir^e 

h. Jesiis ^to^-^^-1 -""or human siii.s -i.nd ^n-i^ it no,s->i'ae for the 
bpliev'^r'=^ to '^■nt'^r et^rn'^1 '^den 

3. The horeoics 

..•. unosticism: searoh for real hno -le h'-e heyon.l f:he evil Il- 
lusion of this vvorla;the Gno'-3tics oald h -,ve .iivided the 
Ghurch iato a body of .'sophistio- t- l initiates ;nd a body 
of ij^norant faithfals 

b. Arianisra; Arius (priest of Alexaridria, d. 336) auestionod 
that God-Son "bo^a)tt. n" by uod-Fath.-r c;ould be of the same 
nature and v/as refuted by üishop Athanasius ,,ho »/as sup- 
ported by the Council of ..ioaea (323) 

c. Kestorianis:ii .aid iviOnopdysitii-.in : Uestorius ,bis}iop 01 Gon- 
3t:.aitinople (oarly 5th Century) advanc^d the th^;ory t>i;:t 
tha Ilurnan and Livine in Jesus v;ere in t - o aatures while 
the Lonopriysites mj^i :ted that Hurr n and Livine in Jesus: 
was of tvvü natures. Nestoriani:ym was condemned at the 
Council of ICphcsus (431) nnd. I^onophysit ism at the Council 
of Ghalcedon (451) 

d. Lonati.^.m and Pel^%'-!:i'-aii;-an 

(1) Donati<^rn: Donatus,4th c-ntury bi-.bop of C'irthage ,main- 
t'iinpd t^n-^t a priest in state of sin could not admini- 
st-^^r a sacra^^^nt ef -^icaciou-^^lv 

i'^) rel'v:i nism: Pela.r^ius , a British rr^onk (g.400) denied 

original r.in,rjo fin d r.-r-^or to f or,p:iveness -nd -iffirm- 
ei that man*s free will is capabl^ of the good 

e. Lanicheism: founded by thr Irrsinn f/.ani (3rd cmtury) y.'as 
a bolief in the fi^^it betv-en ÜOHd and Levil in .hich God 
±5 not all-povverful 






CG 1 - Review of Mediäval Civilization 



- 14a - 







A. The Disintegration of the Roman Empire (337 - 476) 

I. Historical limits: 337 (death of Constantine); 
476 (Romulus Augustulus ousted by Odovacer) 

II. InvÄxasions of the Goths: 

1. West Goths (Visigoths): sacked Rome in 410; after 

that the Pope took over the administration; Westgoths moved on 

to Spein 

2. East Goths (östrogoths): who invaded Italy (Theo- 

doric), disposed of the Co-emperor and ruled tili the early 6th cer 

B. The Middle Ages (c. 500 [476] - c. 1500 [1492]) 

I. The Dark Ages (500 - 1000) 

1. First attempt at new Integration: The Franks 
(based at Aix-la-Chapelle) 

481-714 Merovingians from Clovis to Charles Mar- 

tel 
714-842 Carolingians from Charles Martel to 

Charlmagne and his sons and grandsons when the Empire was split up« 

2. Reconstruction of rudimentary ancient civilization. 
II. The Middle Ages (1000 - 1500) 

ä. Political Integration along national and super- 
national lines : 

1. France (987-1314)5 The Capetians from Hugo 
to Philip (IV) the Fair; 

2. England (1066-1307): The Norman Kings from 
Henry I to Edward I; 

^^^ ^^''^^ '^ 3. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire (911-1273)^ 
Saxon (Henry, Ottonians); Salians;^ Hohenstauf en- (Freaerick I 
Barbarossa, Frederick II (d.l250), Conrad IV (d.l254) ); Inter- 
regnum (tili 1273). ^ -^ ^-.^ 



(ioa-M- W^i^) ■' hrA. 



n. 



«'^v-v-'t -c 



><' , \ 



b. The Church! 



^ /' 



•^^-^ »CVVV ( ll "ii " l 



^U) 



CC 1 - Review of Medieval Civilization II 



- 14b - 



u 



1. The Roman Church: Internal Consolidation 

and Dissension 

(a) The Vulgate of St. Jerome, ca. 400; 

(b) Secular and regulär priesthood: split 
up in 529 (St. Benedict - Monte Cassino); 

(c) Synod of the Lateran (1059)? College 
of the Cardinais and break with the Greek Church (= Caesaro- 
papism^Ois 



l [. 't V ■» 



i,.v.r.t.-v' 



2. The Roman Church and the Emperors: 

(a) Cooperation and Struggle 

(b) Reform Movements: 

(1) Cluniac Reform (910) ending in 
Cistercian Order (St. Bemard of Claivaux, 1115); 

(2) The FriarsJ Franciscans and Domi- 
nicans. 







l 



GC 1 

2. Early Liedieval Europe ( 500-1 JOO) 
K^^'i-)^ I. The Lisinte£^r:.tion of the homan Empire: 337-476 



1 



- 15 - 



n 



1. The ^'est Goths = Visi^oths: unable to exploit their victory 
over the Last Komans ne-ir Adrianople in !578 turned to Itnly 
'm;l inv.Mdüd it under Alaric (370-41 J) .Thoy cnptured and svolzeä 
Piome in 410. 



2. 



The East Goths 
after the last 



= Ostro^^.•oths : arrived in It: ly undor Theodoric : 
ivestern co-emperor homuluG Au^^ustiiilus v/as oiist- 



ed by Odovacar in 476 - the ond of the Kornan Empire. Theodo- 



ric (489-526) restored pe-vce ■ nd order hut h±3 ^uccessors Y;ere 
driven out of Italy by Justinian's gener- = 13 in the 6th centurj« 



\ ilL - ' B^ II. The Franks 



iCr - \^^ 



1. 






i]xpansion of the P'^rrmks :from their bAse :it Aaclien (Aix-la- 
Gharelle ) 

I'erovinri ns from Clovis (4^3-511) to Charles Ear-, 
tel 



-. 481-714 
b. 714-842 



2 



Carolingi'^ns founded by Charles I/.artel (714-741) 
ca. tur*-:! undor Fepin the Short (741-7^8) the Lom- 
b-ard kingdom .ind came to t erraff .;ith th'- Pope by 
handinp- over to him "the States of the Churjh" 
around navenna 

Ch'.rlem.i^ne (768-014) : i^i "the 780 's eoncaierod the Saxons and 
i3avarians convertin^,- thern foro'-'fully to Christ i-.mity ;pu3h.;d 
eaot to Elbe and Lanube -md south into C t; lonia -gainst the 
Llosleuis and setting up "marks" in the bord'rl-iads . On Christ- 
mas Lay 30 he v/as oror-ned emperor by Leo III,thus revivin^- • 
the idea of the Empire. He -^tternpted to Institute let_^',l re- 
for^ns and eult'^ral -oioveTnent s ( "C'\rolinv:ian Kenaissance" ) . 

3. Partition of the Fr-mkish Empire (T 11- -84 2) runde r.harler'a^^ie* 
son Loijis nnd '^r'^udson Louis the Gernan and Chirles thr. Bald. 

III. The Lark Ages 

1. The decline of the .rts 

■rx. primitive sculpture iMerovinri n \rt 

b. literature aid thou^2;ht iclurnsy preserv tion of anoient li- 
teriiry docume^ts 

c. Sciences / ere not pursued 

2. The Status of the Gharch: yielding to politic^.l poi^ers and 
retreat on ^thio 1 stand :rds 

3. The early feudal w:iy of life: the ruli.u^^ classes were illitoi 

te and pri itiV';ly relii;;iüus v,ariiors 



1 



GC 1 



- 16 - 



1 



liClY.ThQ Grusades (1095-1245) 
1, The seveii Crusades : 
a. 



O 



t 



the firot (1095-1139): encor-^^ed by pope Urbrai II at tho 
Council Ol Cl'^rtaont ■■^nd preceded by mobs ])lunderinfj; at.d kill- 
ing Jer;s and Citizens oi" tho 3yz ntine Empire ,üodfrey üf 
Bouillon (Luke of Loaer Lo^'rain) .nd ot" er princes caine to thc- 
help of Emp 'ror Alexius af^'iiirit thr- '"osleras Lcontiriuin^- thoij 
e :c p n n s i n s i n c e V o h n mm e d (57'-^ '3 2 ) ,'ia. d h i :> II e g i r a in G 3 2 J . 
The princes est'^blis^'^ed Crusader states -.Godfrev' s brother 
'uald-'in bec^e r^-iler of tbr- Armeni'ai ■>t ^t^^ Odessa (1098), 
the ""orm'T^^ "ioh'^'^ond rul^r of Antioch .-\nd Jerusalen (10'j9) ? 
the f3on o-^ i^avnond of 'lOuIouiv- ruler of the foTirth .nd laot 
3tatr in Tripolis (1109). 

b. the ofcond (1144) :the reoo'-iq^iest of ICdessa rnove 1 L^t .liornard, 



the found r of the Cist'' rci-vns . to c-ill 

I 
anue 1 



m 



v;hicVi KlnQ Louis VII and iCO''Lr-'l III of GeriT; 



ror anotner Crusade 

ny p '.rticip t- 
C omne nu s an l 1 o c a] 



G, 



ed;both v^ere antagonized by i/nj^eror 1 
lords and i-;ilei to cojuiuer Lainascus, 

the third (1189-92): caused by the f. .11 of Jeruso.lem (1187) 
to 3aladin;led oy Barbar ossi vvno die:l on his •^^.y, Philip 
Augustus of France nnd xtichard the ijionheart tho crusaders 
captured Acre. On his return i.ich:;.rd took Gyprus from the 
Greeks. 

d. the last four Crusades: Ghiidren*s cr-'a:,ade (1212), the fifth 
(1219-21) direjted ag :in3t Kgypt ,the sixtli U'^29) of Fredsr- 
ick II secured Jerus-dem for himself iid the .ievc.'nth (1245) 
of üt. Louis against Fgypt bec ii-vs tlie F.^y.-ti'ni sultan had 
ernployed t:e Turks to reca'-t'irn Jer -aalera in 1244 L..hich the^ 
hold tili I917J. After Loui' ;:. f ilure to retake Antioch 
(1270) the ''oslems recaptr^re 1 Tripolis "al Acre (1291) '.'las- 
s ac r inf{ t '-■ e hr i s t i • 1 1 s . 

The Impact of the Crusades 



e. 



reac^-^ful co--e"5^i3t ^nce in the Crusader st tos: of the "Franko* 
»■ - h s 1 1 1 d t h r>rr ;\ n (l the n *^. t i ve ' o s ' . r^ m s 



b. .timulat ion of tr de in th^: -'elit 



'']e-.n: V'enice ,G-enoa ''nd 



the eitles of Flandsrs flourished ,i'nproved ba"ik:n .ind ex- 
panded Import ation of luxurins from the l'ast 



n'i 



he Church g lined in the short-run hy taking the le-.dership 

in the rnovemmt but lost in the loiig-run by getting involved 

in the free ■iistri''.)ut ion of indulgence- iid v/ordly con.iidera- 
tions 



d. The üest in p:enoral ca:;;e to kno^; the 



Loslems as civilized w- 



people contrary to stat '.ments emanating from Korne 



•■■V •->:" V-- 



'■\-xrr 



CC 1 
1^15 ^iL^o 3. Medieval Feudal Civilization 

A. Political and Economic Institutions 



- 17 - 



B 



I. Peudalisni and ?vianorialism 



1. Feudalism 



1 



ä. Early feudalism: magnates= large local landlords hold- 
ing responsibility for their people 

b. Developed feudalism: 

(1) Offices appolnted by the Crown: count,duke 

(2) The flef: the public Offices of count and duke fei 
into the hands of the magnates. In times of war 
they provided the kings with money and becarae here- 
ditary holders of property and official functions 
(=benef ices, i .e.own law couts, collection of taxes) 
and thus fiefs 

(3) The feudal contract: between suzerain and vassal, 
iiaposing on the lord the Obligation to protect the 
vassal and on the vassal to aid the lord (military 
aid, entertainement of the lord on vassal 's land) 

(4) The feudal pyramid: 

(a) theory: king - Chief vassals « feudal lords - 
vassals;the king, the only owner of land,leased 
it to his vassals herediatarily 



V ■ 

C 



(b) 



practice: not all land was allotted, some was 
owned by individuals (allod) and vassals could 
become strenger than their lords by aquiring 
fiefs from many lords 



i 



I 



2. Kanorialism 



t 



a. üri gl n: the manor (latifundium) owned by magnates were 
staffed by fighters (the later vassals) and serfs (co- 
loni ) 

b. P.'fanorial Society: 

(1) Lords: lived in their castle (manor house) to which 
was attached his demesne cultivated by his own lafe • 
korersj surrounded by his private arniy of retainers 
and attended to by servants, grooms,huntsmen and ,^ 
priest j 

(2) Serfs: held stripes of land of varying quality and 
common pastures ;worked half of their time on the 
demesne and paid various taxes | 



j^^ 



V 



■ ^L. »' i »' ■* ^m>i\ 



11 - 11 In ifcaaiiiii - i « Tli ii lüai ^^ ■■ — -^-^-■^ i i iiia r — ÜJÜMI"— r — ^ ' '^^ 



r 



'■ •»■■■^»■■•«^»BfWPflBWWI^pf^fF 



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- 18 - 



I 



t 



II. Political Developments lOüO-1300 

1. France 987 - 1314 (The Capetians) 

a. Hugh Capet (987- ) : established hereditary " rule and 
cooperated with the Church (he had the right to appoint 
bishops and was boand to defend the Church) 

b. Contest with Normans, Angevines and Albigensians 

4l) the dukes of Normandy: were vassals of the Capetians 
(including Duke Williain the Conaueror) although chal- 
lenging their lords 

(2) the counto of Anjou: through the raarriage of the 
mother of Henry II of England with the count of An- 
jou England was united with Normandy, Anjou, Maine and 
Touraine in the "Anjevlne" Empire. Henry II (1154- 
1190) added Aquitaine to it. Philip II Augustus ^ 
(1180-1223) forced John, the brother and successor 

of Richard Lionheart in 1204 to surrender that Em- 
pire with the exception of A^quitaine to Prance 

(3) the counts of Toulouse: ruling the territory of the 
Albigensians (descendents of the Ivlanicheans) were 
subjagated by Louis Vlll and Louis IX; Toulouse feil 
to the French Crown in 1249 after Languedoc was al^ 
ready incorporated 

c. St. Louis IX (1226-1270): defended his rights against ; 
the Claims of the Church (1247) , established royal con- 
trol over eitles (1262) through an ordonnance (^ = royal 
command) and fostered law within his country ^ 

d. Philip (iV) the Fair (1285-1314): the grandson of Louis 
IX began substituting local justice through menbers of 
his Parlament (=curia regis) who became itinerant just- 
ices and instituted the "Estates (ieneral" , the central 
Prench representative assembly including clergy,nobili- 
ty and townsmen in 1302. He clashed with Boniface VIII 
(1294-1303) over taxation and eventually enforced the 
election of a French pope in Avignon where he and his 
successors resided 1305-1378 ("Babylonian Captivity"). 

2. The Development of Englana (1066-1307) 
a. The Period of Invasions (410-1066) 

(1) Angles,Saxons and Jutes: invaded ürittania, the Roman 
province given up by the Romans in 410-^42 which was 
threatened by the Scots , j 

(2) Northmen (=Vikings = Danes): invaded PJormandy and 
Jüritain. In Normandy they becarne the ruling class. 



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- 19 - ! 



In ijritain they met with the resistance 
ureat ( 871-899 j of 3axon-//es3ex. 
ijanish K:ing,Canate was 
the Confessor. 



of Alfred the 
The last elected 
follüwed by the Saxon Edward 



(3) r^ormans: William defeated Harold at ilastings (1066). 
He established a highly centralized governnent ,iir]pos- 
ed the feudal System on the Anglo-Saxon institutions 
and made the Church ander the Italian Lanfranc,arch- 
biöhop of Canterbiiry more dependent on the king than 
on the pope. 

b. The r^orman Kings (1066-1307) 

(1) Henry I (1100-1135): son of William introduced the 
"common law" ("laws of Edward the Confessor") = com- 
mon to the entire realm and all classes;it was ex- 
panded by decisions of the sheriffs and itinerant 
justices in the various shires. 



(2) 



Henry II (1154-1189) 



(a) the common law: Henry made royal coarts available 
to everybody through purchase of a writ and pro- 
visions' of twelve neighbors as swor-n witnosses | 
(jaries):he commanded local sheriffs to have a i 
group üf 1-cal äen report crimes and suspected 
criminals to the itinerant justices ("grand" 
juries) 

(b) "the benefit of clergy": to be tried by their 
own Courts was disputed by Henry and defended 
by Thomas a tJecket , archbishop of Canterbury, 
first appointed by Henry and then assasinated by 
his knights. Henry eventually yielded. j 

I 
f 

(3) John (1199-1216) , the brother and successor of Richard 
the Lionhearted was forced \ 

(a) to accept Stephan Lang/^on as archbishop of Gante: 
bury and to sign 

(b) the i'agna Garta (June 15,1215): conceded to the 
barone to consult his great Council before levy- 
ing taxes (Later : taxation with representation) 
and to grcmt all freeirien judgment by their peers 
(later:title to trial Jury). Underlying principi 
les: the king is subj^ct to law and night be , 
forced to observe it. j 



(4) henry III (1216-1272): John's son was first support- 
ed by the barons but was later antagonized 'vhcn he j 
requfested l/3 of the revenue as a grant to the pope 'l 



- X.V ^ - 



CO 1 



o 



f 



- 20 - 

who wanted to help hiiri acquire Sicily for his pon 
Edward. The öarons drew up the "Provisions of Oxfiörd" 
(12'-'8) which set ap a coanoil of 15 barons as coun- 
selors of the king. When Henry sapportod hy the pope 
resuiued personal rule he was attacked by the baron- I 
ial pL.rty head:.d by Simon de r. ontf ort who was defeat- 
ed and killed by prince Edward. j 



(5) Edward I (1272-1'307) 

(a) The origin of Parlianent : 

(1) regulär oeetings of the pari' ament (=great 
Council) f^ince 12''4 and three tlner- a year 
since 1258 when the barons revolted 

(2) participation in parliament by the "knights j 
of the shire" (2 merbers each .:;f the landed j 
^?entry) and of "bargesses" (townsmen) 1 

(3) the "'IVCodel Parliaihent " of 1295: to which the 
lüwer clergy was adm^ tted for deliberation i 
of taxation of personal property j 

(4) gradual emergence of the houses of Lords - 
Karl p,-yaronJ^., High er Clergy - and house of 
Conirnons - Kiiights and oargesses. 

(b) Gonnuest of Wales: in 1283 he put down a rcvolt i 
in Wales and after execution of the brother of : 
the last native prince r:.ade his own son Prince 

of '/Vales j 

(c) Invasion of Scotland : in 1296 he deSilared him- ^ 
seif King c^f Scotland and carried off the Stone ' 
of Scone against which v^illiar.i ./allaee rebelled 
(1297-1305) and then Robert Bruce ;whi]^e on expe- 
dition against iJruce, Edward I died. 

i 

(d) Administrative reforr:]s : j 

(1) King 's share in custoiriS 

(2) Iv'.ilitary duty of freen^en who had to equip 
theiiiselves 

(3) Expulsion of Jews (1290): who wrre not per- 
cjltted to return before the 1650 ' s ; It^lians 
took thei;- place as money lenders. 



','! 



V 

i 




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- 21 - 



3. The Development of liermany and the Empire (911-1273) 



o 



I 
I 



H 



a. The election of emperors: the five daches of the East 
Prankish Empire - Eranconia, Saxpny, Thuringia, Swabia and 
wavaria - in the face of a .Vagyar Invasion chose to elect 
911 Conrad, duke of Eranconia who was unable to assert his 
power 

b. The Saxon dynasty (919-1024, Henry I,Ctto I,Otto III) 

(1) cooperated with the Church thus gaining churoh and 
abbey lands ander their protection which the Church 
set up nevv bishoprjcs in Slave territories centered 
arcund T/agdeburg 

(2) aspired at reviving the Empire: Otto I went to Italy 
to be crowned an-^ Otto III restored tho Roman imperial 
palace and set up lierman officials to remove the Ro- 
man nobility 

c. The Salian dynasty (1024-1138 ; Conrad II, Henry III, Henry 
IV) 

(1) attenpted to break the rule of the dukesrfirst relying 
on Courts (which failed) and then on appointed mlnis- 
teriales 

(2) found^ national capital: Closlar 

(3) were resisted by free aristocrats who were not vassals 
of the diikes and made themselves guardians of abbeys 
belonging to the papacy. Thus developed an "arrstocrae 
tic"-monciBtic Church vs the "royal"-epispopal Church 

(4) the Investiture controversy (1049-1122) 

(a) (iregory VII (Hildebrand ) clairacd in 1075 that the 
pope could depose the emperor and deprive himi of 
the right of lay investiture = bestowal of prela- 
te's insignia involving the sale of church Offices 

(b) Henry IV declared Ifregory's election as pope null 
and void and was excommunicated but did penance \ 
in Canossa (1077) \ 

h 

(c) Henry IV defeated the anti-king Rudolf of Swabia 
and marched against Rome in 1084 to install an 
anti-pope 

(d) the Concordat of »Vorms (1122) was reached ander i 
Henry V after many years of civil war and gave | 
the emperor the right to the investiture (l) in 
uermany before the consecration of the bishop and 
(2) in Italy and öurgundy after the consecra,tion, ,; 



. -iK- 



-.>*. , 1. v»rL*i 



1 



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- 22 - 



d. The Hohenstaafen (4 Saiblings or Ghibellines) ( 1138~12f'8) 

(1) Conrad of Hohenstaufen,a Swabian prlnce: was elected 

1138 as Emperor Conrad III (1138-52) and defeated Henry 
the ProixdjDuke of üavaria-Saxony of the V/elf (=iiuelf) 
family 



O 



(2) Prederick I Barbarossa (1152-1190) acquired through inar- 

dth 3wabia and Italy (Lombardy 

:enter of his power;froin there 



riage isargandy, united it w: 
and made Switzerland the c^ 
he 

(a) 



suppotted the pope: by defeating Arnold of iJrescia 
the leader of the comriiane;he was crowned eniperor in 
1155 (first Emperor of 



(b) fought the worth-Itali 
against the Lombard Le 
iv.il an at Legnano (1176 
inside their walls but 
oath Ol loyal ty 



the Holy Roman Empire) 

an commune s: he ioit the fight 
ague undt'r the leadership of 
) which retained the rogalia 
coinmunal officials took the 



r \ 



6 



(3) Henry VI (1190-1197) : through marriage got into possess- 
ion of the kingdom of 3icily (Apulia and Calabria taken 
from the ±5yzantine Empire ;Sicily tak n from the P.'Osl ei:is) 
which were ruled by the iMorrnans; Roger II (1130) set up 

a professional administration. nenry VI had to defend 
his newly acquired kingdon against the pope and Richard 
the Lionhearted and secured besides the kings of Cyprus 
and Armenia as allies the support of the trerman princes 
by increasing their power 

(4) Frederick II (1212-1250) 

(a) neglected ü-ermany: where in his absence particular- 
ism developed ;Frederick favored the princes as his 
predecessor had done and alienated the towns which 
would have bee^ ms natural allies. 

(b) centralized his government in Sicily: after the 
pattern of Roger II,founded the Üniversity of IMaples 
as a training school of his officials and attempted 
to control the papacy 

(c) strup:gled with the papacy: which employed a mercen- 
ary arLiy and called a Council to dopose Prederick 

as a heretic. Prederick captured the churchrnen head- 
ed for the Council. When he entered Rone to elect a 
new pope,(/regory IX died (1241) and the new pope 
Innocent IV fled to France and called a Council at 
Lyons (1224) to depose Prederick 



f" 



CG 1 



- 2-5 - 



O 



(5) The end of the dynasty: Fanfred, the illegitimate son 

of Frederiok was killed by Charles of Anjou,the hrothor 
of St. Louis who set hirnscaf up as king;Conradino , the 
grandson of Prederick was captured in battle against 
Charles and executed in JNaples (126^) 



f. The Interregnum and founding of the Habnbu 

(1) The Interregnum (1254-1272) between th 
rad IV, the son of Frederick II, and Rud 
strengthened the princes,cut the links 
broke the idea of the Empire 

(2) Rudolf of Habsburg (1273-1291): of les 
lity was elected einperor and establish 
monarchy in the eastern part of the Em 
en his position he allied hi..uself with 



rg dynasty 

e death of Con- 
olf of Habsburg: 
with Italy and 

ser Lferman nobi- 

cd a hereditary 

pire;to strength- 

the French kinga 



III. Eedieval Politioal Thoug'it : St.Thom'-^s Aquinp-S , In the Governance 

of Rul^rs (cl265) 













A. The rule of one 

1. The n.-.itural ^";overnrnent : likc heart »quoen of bees, od in 
the univer se ( 3^ , 1 . 14b-13b ;|309 , 1 . ^^b -4bj) 

2. The rule of one is prcfer-ible to the rule of many 
(»2,1,12-13) because 

1-77 

a. one raan,if turning away frorn the coiiiinon good does not 
necessarily ti;rn to tyranny (':^:^,1. 21— 26) 

b. the rule of many turns more freq.u ntly into tyranny 
than the rule of one (53ä2,l. 9b-8b) 

•'77 

3. The safeguard of the multitude 

a. the king should be of no disposition tov/nrd tyranny 
n/ (5:^^,1.12-14) 

b. the opportunity for the king* s rule to become tyrannic- 
•il must be removed (5^3 , 1.17-18; 2 :)-21) 

4. l'ild tyranny is easior to tolnr-ite than the r'-^moval of 
the tymnt (^135 ,l.l9"b-l")b ) ; if the t"rant is to be rernoved 

a. to kill th^ tyrant is inalvisable (^as^ ,1. 9b-6b) 

b. th^ t-rant s' ould be rerrovei through public authority 
(»^,1.1-3) 



,^ 



CG 1 



- 24 



O 



2. ! *? ■ i ? >; 



3. The diities of the king 

1, To pr<"s^^ve thn ord'^r of :^oüi^:ty by 



/ ^ 



a. arpolnt i^"»??; siiccessors of Offices (5±3 ,l.^b-2b ) 

Td . restraining the .^/icked (50,1.2-4) 

c. keeping citiz-ns safe from the en- my (5^4,1.6-7) 

2. To provide a virtuous life of the rriultitude 

a. the virtuous life is the end (purpose) of man's society 
i^(> ('±±1,1.13-14) 

b, the virtuous living of the muititude is ostablished 
through the efforts of the ruler toward (5^,1.8-16) 

(1) unity of peace 

(2) 5Uidance to ^ood deeds 
(5) procuremont of the things required for proper livin 

3. The reward of virtue 

a. hax.)piness: implantel in the minds of all rho h.vive the 
use of reason (53:^,1.16-17) 

b. happiness of the "kiTigsrto rule .i^.stly (532,1.11-13) 

C. St.Tho.iias faid GOji"ceiLporary political thought 

1. The "organic theory of societ;^ ": John of Salishury (c.lll5- 
-1180) ,PuliGrauiGus ("Statesman^s Book") 

^. The defenaers of cne monarcrv 

a. Dante Aligräeri (1:jC5-15;J1) ,De Monarchia: urged the em- 
peror as a Solution for tne evils of v/ar 

t. Aiarsiglio of Padua (c.1<.7d-1ö':l3) ,Def ensor Pacis: found 
the true source of authority in a coiamoni/ealtii^i .e. che 
lov;er ranKS should have some influenae on the pov;er of 
the higher ranks (a predecessor of constitutionalism) . 



''^,';:^' IV. Medieval religious and intellectual developinents (lOOC-1500) 

A. The econoiiiic and political basis 



"v- 



i 

Ä.47» i.70 



1. Tne change of the manorial System: the serfs hecaine gradual- 
ly agriculuural -workors e.nc. tenant farruers ;a^'ing rnoney rent 
instead of performing dutiesjthe manors produced for the 
üiarK;et 

id. The grov/th of towns: the to.vnspeople (bou,.rgeoisie) appealed 



..^mJ 



C) 



St. Thomas Aquinas,On the Governance of Rulers (ca 1265) 

A. The Rule of One 

!• The natural government : (242.par«3: Again,whatever is in 
aocord ••• is reasonable) 

2. The rule of one is preferahle to the rule of many (243, 
1.12-13) hecause 

a. one man,if turning away from the common good,does not 
necessarily turn to tyranny (243,1.21-26: If,hov/ever, 
one man ... as has heen shovvn above.) 

"b. the rule of many turns more frequently into tyranny 
than the rule of one (243,1.9'b-8b : Moreover,it happens 
. . . rule of one . ) 

3. The safeguard of the multitude: 

a. the king should be of no disposition tov/ard tyranny 
(244,1.12-14: First it is necessary ... fall into 

tyranny. ) 

b. the opportunity for the king*s rule to become tyrannical 
must be removed (244,1.17-18: Then,once the king ... be 
removed.; 20-21: Finally, Provision ... into tyranny.) 



4. Mild tyranny is easier to t olerate than the removal of the 
tyrant (244,par.3,1.12b-10b : Indecd,if there be ... than 
the tyranny itself.); if the tyrant is to be- removed 

a. to kill the tyrant is inadvisable (245 ,1.9b-6b : It v/ould, 
moreover,be dangerous ... even tyrants.) 

b. the tyrant should be removed throu.f^h public authority 
(246,1.1-3: Furthermore it rather seems ... public 

authority.) 







B. The Duties of the King 

1. To presprve the order of society by 

a. appointing successors of Offices (254,1.6b-2b: First of 
all ... to take their place), 

b. restraining the v/icked (255,1.2-4: In the second place 
. . . from wickr^dness , . . ) , 

c. keeping Citizens safe from the enemy (255,1 »6-7: The 
king's third Charge ... from the onemy. ) 

2. To provide a virtuous life of the multitude 

a. the virtuous life is the end (purpose) of man's society 
( 252, par. 1,1. 10-14: But it is clear ... men form groups.) 



.; _» .^g^rrJ' i»-:- ' ' « » ' 



w-*' 



st •Thomas Aquinas,On the Governance 



- 2 - 



4./ 



b. the virtuous living of the raultitude is estahlished 

throu-h the rfforts of the ruler (254.1.7-16: Theirefore, 
to establish ... to its conservation. ) tov/ard 

(1) unity of peace 

(2) guidance to good deeds 

(3) proGurement of the things required for proper living. 

3. The reward of virtue 

a. happiness: (248, par. 2 ,1.16-17: This is also ... is happi- 

ness) 

t>. happiness of the kings : (249,1.7-15: For,as Augustine 
says, ... come to pass.; 19-20: Theref ore , ... reward 
for a king*) 



u 



*4 ■ ilTiW^-""'"' 



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- 25 - 



B. The m--^dievßl Church 



( ^ 



1. The clPims of the popes to be e superior power in mundane affpirs 
("the sun ageinst the moon of the royal power" as ßonifpce VIII pat 
it) led to clashes between popes and kings: 

a. the Investiture controversy (1C49-1122) 

(i) Gregory VII (Kildebrand) clfimed in 1075 tha t the pope could 
depose the emperor rnd deprive him of the right of Iry investi- 
fure (besto'.val of prellte's insignia involving the sale of 
church Offices); 

(2) Henry IV of the Sali^n dynasty d^clared Gregory' s '^lection rs 
pope null and void Pnd wps excoimiiunicated but did penrnc? in 
Canossa (1077); 

(?) Henry IV defeated the enti-king Rudolf of 3wabip and marched 
against Rome in 1064 to install an anti-pope; 

('-^^ ) the Concordat of Worms (1122 ) was rerched under Henry V pfter 
many years of civil war pnd gave the emperor the right to the 
investiture (l) in Germany before the consecration of the bish- 
op and (2) in Italy and ßur^uniy after the consecration. 

b. the clash between Philip IV of i?'rance (1285-1314) with iioniface 

VIII (1294-1303) over taxation; after failing to h'^ve the pope 
assäisiinated, Philip IV enforced the election of a French pope in 
Avignon where he pnd his successors resided 1305—1378 ("ßabylonian 
Cpptivity**). 



O 



2. Reform movements 



a, the Clunica Reform: 



(1) Seculrr and re^^^ular (monastio) priesthood: monasticism origin- 
ated in Rgypt (St. Anthony^ where hermits competing with epch 
other in saintliness gs thered only for Services; spread 

(a) in 3rst Rome; through St.ßasil (329-379) from Greece to 
Slavic countries where monasteries were establisned and 



CC 1 



213 p - 



U 



(b) in West Rome; through 3t. Benedict who founded in 529 the 
grept ebbey of i^ionte Cassino 

(2) The Clunißc Reform: originrted in the Benedictine monastery 
in Cluny, founded in 91Ü; this Puritanicel movement, supported 
by Gr-gory VII (hildebrend, 1073-1085) instituted 

(*) the College of the Cardineis in 1059: which split the 

Church into the Latin find Greek churches; the Greek church- 
es developed cpesaropepism (l054) which geve unlimited 
rights to the pope-eijiperür in deciding religious dispute s 
e.g. the use of Images in worship 

(b) the clerieal celibacy 

(c) the Prohibition of simony ( Simon, Book of Acts,ch,8) 



b. The Cistercian Order: After by the 12th Century the Cluniac houses 
and their abbots had become rieh and powerful ,ßernard of Clairveux 
founded in 1115 e monastery in Citraux (Cistercium) in burgundy 
which helped to orgsnize the Crusades ana defied the Church policies 
of the dukes; their decentrr 1 ized abbeys ,how(?ver,became also wealthy 
rnd po'verful. 

o. The Friars: mendicant Orders revived the Ideals of early Christiani- 

ty 

(1) franciscans: organized by Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) as so- 
cial workers; they first refuted learning and monasteries but 
later compromised on both; 

(2) Dominicans: founded by St.Dominic (Jomingo de Guzeman,] 170-1221) 
to spread »»the word" and learning in general. 



I 



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<•)'■ 



o 



to higher feudsl lords (dukes snd kinns) for protection 
acainst the local lords ?.iiü reoeived chart^irs as co:anunes j 
Civiiig theiii the right of a markGt,ov.'n couts and local gov- 
erniüent, 

i 

I 
Tne eLaei'.zeiioe of cenoral authority: national kinfts in France 
ana England, regional auohoriti-js in German^' and Italy , 



E. The üiedieval Church 

i 

1, The claixiis of the popes to be a superior pov;'er in niundane i 
afiairs (- the sun against the luoon of the ro^' al jio.er as | 
Eoniface VIII put it) was counterea by I 

i 
L.. Keforia iiioveuients j 

a. the ClUiiiac iiefürm : spreaaing from the Benedictine mo- j 
naster^ in Cluny ,fou.iued in c.lO,this Puritanical movs- 
iüent,su,.porced by Gre^^or^ VII (Plildebrand, 1073-108:.) 
instituted 

(1) the College of the Cardinais in lO;;^/ 

(2) the clerical celibacy 
(S) the proliibition of si-ion;/ (Simon, Book of Acts, eh. 8). ! 

Hovvever,b^ tae l<:th ce.xtur:/^ the ClLUiiac houses and their 
abboos becarrie rieh and pov'/erful, 

b, The Cistercian Order: fou.i...ed by Bernard of Clairvaux 
in 1115 in Cicraux (Cisterciuni) in Burgundy helped to or- 
ganize the crusaaes and defied the Church policies of 1 
the dukes; their decentralized abbe,, s,too,beGarne wealtry.! 

c. The Friarsrmeiidicant orders revivid the ide^ls of early 
chiristianity 

! 

(1) Franciscans: organized by Francis of Assisi (118:::^- 
l^ue) as social i^'orkers; ihey first refuted learning ( 
and monasteries but later compro^uised on both 

• • I 

(.3) Domini c ans: founued by Domini c (Domingo de Guzeman, 
11?0-1^-.^:1) "CO spread '^the v^ord" and learning in j^en- 
eral ^ j 

i 

d, Lollards and Hussites: Black Death,decline of manoriali^^n 
and wealch of the Church in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries p;ave rise to 



(1) Lollnrds ('^babblers^O : arou-id the i:nf;-lish priests 
John V/iclif (d.lo84) stirred up a Peasants» revolt 



■,-*^' 



CC 1 



- 27 - 



(3) conceptualism: Abelard (107l--114^) tried to effect 
a Gomproiaise between noiiiinalisin and realism by bis 
theory that ideas are less than realistic but rnore 
than mere narnes 



Zi. {^ <> - ^ « i 



5. Jyli^ stiel sin 

a. St •Bernard: had Abelard condeinned in 1140 as a ratio- 
nalist 

b. St, Francis: "Canticle of the Brother Sun" 

c. St.Thomas a Kempis: "Imitation of Christ" 



Part III. The Renaissance 
un^"^'^ ^-- ^^"^^ si-~nificance of tne concept 

!• Tue perioa from 1500 to 1600: froiii Dante to Shakespeare or 

I,Iilton 

2. the revival of anti^uity: partially supported by the fall of 

Constantinople in lio5 

ö. the civilization of "man and the ph^ sical universe". 



1 



Hvo - u:.f. 



O 



B. The nenaisance in italy 

I. The Italien States 

!• The Sta^^es of the Church: politically v:eakened by the "Ba- 
by loni an Captivity" and the Schisia the popes üiade Rome a 
cultural cencer^leading in this iTiovement ?;ex'e jJicholas V 
flx47-l'±55), Alexander VI (Borgia,l.:9S-1503) , Julius II 
C150O-1513) 



% ^u^ tUL! 



Id. 



Milan: the liitii Century rule of the great Council (Parla- 
mento) together ivith the aristocracy v;as destroyed by the 
Visconti, sppportea by tne archbishop of r;Iilan,in 1.7j77;they 
W'ire follov/ed in lj:':r7 by the condotoieri Sforza, Francesco 
(1450-I4bb) a.id Ludovico II Lloro (1474-1500) iv ho died as a 
prisoner of the French. Ludovico made liis court splexidid and 
eiaploj' eu Lonardo da Vinci. 

Florence: in the labe li.j00^3 the Guelf plutoer ats, busine ss- 
men anu baiikers^def eated txie Gi'iibelline olu feudal no':.ility 
and set up a fiepublic in 'wri^ch ofiices went to the seven 
guilds controlled by v/oolen masters,bai.iker3 cuiu exporters. 
Social unrest aiuong tue v/oolen v;or-.ers reached a cllniax in 



CG 1 



28 - 



n 



u Li : - ü '- 1 



^ i, ., - ^( "t 



1678 faid bankruptcies ^oinciding with military defe^ts in- 
fiic'Ged on Flor^^nce by Milan and Lucca weakexied the ruling 
cli-^ue. Cosiiüo de» Medici Liade himsolf in 1434 the Champion 
of the poor and controlled the biiaont"rJ.y elections- to the 
municipal ofiices. Ilis grrjidson Lorenzo the Magnificent 
(l^o9 - 14i>;j) abolished the elective Offices ana made a per- 
manent Council Ihe center of administration, 

4. Venice: an oligarcr:^' of bui^inessinen that s-.^t up the Great 
Council, a closed corporation of üiemb-irs of the ola f amilies 
listed in the "Goluen Book". Tne Great Council elected the 
Doge - the Duke '.vno was originally appointed by the Byzan- 
tine Einperor - and some lue^nbers of the 300 man Sena.te, Poli- 
tical decisions v/ere in fact made by the secret Council of 
Ten, 

II. Political Thought:The Nev/ Realism 

Niccolo .MachJ-avelli (lcC9-15^,-7) served Florence as a diplomat 
14'.'8-1d12 and v/as exiled in 1512 after the restoration of the 
Medici. In exile he 'i-roce the 'Trince'^ aiid "Discourses on the 
Fir .t Ten Bocks of Titus Liviu:;". In the fir ;t he expounded riis 
pessimistic vie-.v of man in the s täte, in the second he glorifiod 
the people of civic virtues. Maciuavelli believed t/aat the pur- 
pose of governüient is to prepare the "City of i\ian",a national 
State. 

C . Huraani sm 

I. The concept : 

1. The education of classical scnolars: versed in tne"liberal 
arts" or "huiüanitieo" and cultivating Latin as v/ell as a 
vernacular langua;;^e 






O 



The transfonri':. oion of che meo.ieval heritage inte Lhe secul- 
ar spirit of ti:.eir own 1:11110 :it v;as a gradurd evolution and 
not,as Ficino claimed,a suu.^en restor-aLion. 

II. Leading huiiianisos 

1. Petrarch (Francesco Pe orarGa,l.i-0^i-lt:vV4) :s tudied at Montpel- 
licr and Bologna; collected rns:: of the v;orks of ancient auth- 
ors,particularly Cice.o but failed to learn Greek, The Senate 
of Rome crovvned him poet laureate for nis Latin poenis on 
Scipio Africaaius in che st^^'le of Vergil^s Aeneid and liis 
poeiüs to Laura, the first sonneus. Kis nature experi'^nce: 
of Mount Ventoux: Alps and St. Augustine, 

2. Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1675): Decajiieron (I3tfi8) 




V 



I ' " ' , ■ I Ol 111» m • 



'<'' '"r. , >i •.", , I -pij.»,iiw^w)'»ii. IUI I ■■«1 



im'^^m''"^ ^- 



o 



\ 



Q 



V 



CC 1 



- 28a- 



Niccolo Machiavelli,The Prince. 

A. A study of reality: 5^,1.8b-2b (But my Intention, .preserva- 

tion) 

B. The nature of man: he is 

1. faithless: 5S2,l»5-9 (Therefore. .with them) 

Lf-71 

2. ungrateful,voluble,disseniblers : 5033^, par. 3, 1.10-14 (For it 

may be said..they revolt ) 

3. greedy: *5SQr,par.4 (Still, .fleeting) 

C. The prince: how to establish and maintain power 1 

1. To establish power in a civic principality t 

a. the prince may get into power either through populär ^ } 
favor or through support of the aristocracy: i52i,F?3 ^^'^^ i 
1.7-11 (But we now. .aristocracy) i 

b, but it is better to do so through populär favor: 533 > 
1.22-33 (He whc.but few) 

2. To maintain his power against adversaries from without: 
the prince should 

a. have his city fortified: 3:^, par. 2, 1.11-14 (A prince.. 
..armies idle) and 

b. study warf are : 377,par.2 (A prince. .the same) 

3. To maintain his power v/ith his supporters: the prince shoul 

a. learn not to be good: 3:78,1. 2b-5f^, 1.3 (A man who.. 
of the case) 



b. be feared and be cruel: !b79,1.6b-lb (A prince.. only 
individuals) 

c. be a fox and a lion: 1^3,1.1-5 (A prince. .underst and 
this) 

d. be a deceiver: by disguising his being a fox ^2,1.14- 
18 (But it is necessary. .dcceived) and instead 

Hm 

(1) appear merciful etc.: S2,par.3 (It is not..if 
constrained) and 

(2) make according Statements: 3^,par.4,1.4b-2b (A 
prince. .religion) . 



I 



CC 1 






1 



o 



2. Later humani^its 

a. the clrsr:ical schülr..rs: v.-ere engaged in 

(1) colleccion of mss of Latin enu Greek clas.:ics ond 

founding libraries (Cosirao do» ;;iedici,Vatican,UrTDino) 

(<i;) study ing Greek: und er the guidance of Byzantine Schol- 
ar s such as Manuel CJnry soloras 

(ö) iaprovi-..g Lftin elo-iuence: Loronzo Valla (c, 1405-1477) 
living in Naples pnd Home '.vrote on the ■•Slegancic-s of 
the Latin Language", translated Thucydides and exposed 
the ^^DonaLion of Constantine'' as forgery 

b. the narrative v;ri"Gers: Geoffrey Chaucer ( c, 1340-1400 ),Can- 
terbury Tales, anc^ Frcincois Rabelai3 (c .l^x.,-4-l;355),Gargan- 
tua and Pantagruel 

c. tne Piatonic Acadenv : founaed 14c2 at Fl rence was headed 
hy iidarsilio Ficino (I4o'3-14'^9)vvho translated Plato and IL-o- 
Platonic au-chors (Plotinus) a^^d aLtemptea to bring ab out a 
iii^'stic synthesis of philooopr^' ancc religion;his pupil Pico, 
Couiit üf j.Iirandola (l::uö-lx..4) contixiued tliis tradition. 

u. Erasiaus (l'±66-lböü) : pr epared a criLical edition of the 
Greek New Tescament^collecced Latin proverbs and samples 
in :iis "Adages" and '^Collo^j^uies" and satirinied huiaan na- 
Cure in the "Praise of Fclly'^, He Jcdned love of "Che das- 
sics A'ith resvect ■ or Criri;:tian values. 






o 



V. 



III. Pico and Pomponazzi 

1. Giovanni Pico,couiit of Miranaola (1^^63-34): .vrote as intro- 
duction to the ..00 Lheses ne pla/ined to discuss the ^*Oration 
on the Dignity of Man", 

a, the uni'-iUeness of huiaan n'-ture: 

(1) human nature aoes not correspond to any archetype 
(p.-3S&,J:i±i:dbii) but 

(2) man v/as put in the c enter of the world to observe the 
'.vorla (p.-rötj,!,^ - ^) so tnat 

(5) he may shape himself (sc:j6,1:;^Öj."""- Ib) . 

b. the four ways of life,i.3. outg rowt hs (tiS7,1.10-lt'.) 

r«??., i.C ^ - i h, 
(1) plant - vegetative 

(,j) brüte - sensii:ive (sensual) 



L 



CC 1 



- ZQ - 






(S) heavenly being - rational 
(4) angel - intellectual 

c. the Cherubic life,accordixig to St. Paul ii the interpre- 
-d - tation of pseudo-Dior\/' sius Areopap;ite (S3^;-yX,Ji=iQ) : " . , 

by taiüing the iuipulses of our passions vvitli moral scien- 
ce,by dispelling the darkriess of reason 7;ith dialectic." 

d. the exaltaiion of the Cherubic life: the exper'ierice ('Un- 
most hearing") of heave.il^' riar:ao/v (tp±e,i,.-^iiE) r^d,^^'^ 

<J. Pietro Pomponazzi (l-±üL^-15.J3^ concluded in his ^^Ön the Im- 
mortali ty of the Soul'^ (lolö-; -cnat Aristotle had not allov;ed 
for a separate and imiuortal existence of the soul: 

a. virtue as a revvard for a good life seeias Co be more of an 
incenLive than fear of punishaent (Deti5iyivS.b^--ii:)) r^aä there- 
f ore r^"« . - . -.0 - i i~ 



b. the assertion tüat "che soul is luortal seeiiiS better to pre- 
serve the principle of virtue (r^ri^;-^-:*:--^-^ ) rjio ^ i ~j 4 - ^--^ 

c. since man, the microcobm^can change into ivhatever he pre- 
^'^,0, 2.^3 --ic fers (critr/l.&b--- "tb) , he v./ill not chcose to be a beast 

D. The Expansion of the I^enaisssnce 

I, The national monarcnies of Vestern Surope 



O ) 



f-^ • 



The Munurea 
',vho claimed 
tian,had di 
his mo eher 
refuted Edv/ 
cannot succ 
a Cousin of 
v;ere ineffe 
gained Fron 
Englisn v;ho 



Years* VJar (1638-14üo): starcau by Ed'.vard III 

the French throne after Louis X,the last Cape- 
ed in 161l witnout a son; Edward III ?;as through 
Isabella a grandscn of Piiilip the Fair. The Frone 
ard III on the streng th of the "Sclic'' laiv (vvoman 
ed to the throne) and accepted Philip of Valois, 

Louis X,as successor. Altliough the Valois kings 
ctive and the English v;on all great battles and 
ch territory , the French eventuall;," expellea the 

retained mereV Calais. 



■1 



France 1^x53-1483 

a. Charles VII (l4;o*j-l4Cl) : rebuilt the royal prestige by 

(1) niaA'ing the French church practically autonomous (Gal- 

licanism) , 
(^) expanaing tne State *s finaiicial resource^i: .vith the 

help of Jacques Coeur anu ., 

(3) establisiiing a standing army. 




o 



CC 1 -Gi- 

bt Loais XI (l-tül-1483) : contiriued the policry of his father 
caiiu helpfid the Säss Feaera-cion to aestro^ the dnric^or of 
a "miaule Kingdom" taaz the uukes of E.ur^^unay - Prdlip the 
Goou (I4li^-14L.7) aad Chc^rie^ the Bola (l'.eV-liV?) - had 
plaiined to buila, V/heri Charles v;as slain in battle,Burg"an- 
ay and tne Free County (Franc h Comte) feil to France, the 
Low Countries v.'nich hau b'jlon^ed to Burgund;^' v;ent to the 
Habsburgs (ivlary of Bure^uiiuy marriea i.laxiüiili'.n) . 

'6. Englana I4o5-1509 
a. 




b. Kexiry VII (1465-Io0b*,found6r of the Tuaor aynasty,1485- 
1603): married to Elizabeth of York 

(1) forbade uniformea private armies 

(2) enforced royal justice th..'ouf^h the '^Star Chamber ",a 
coiiiiuittee of the King^s Council 

(3) strengthened the finances trirough Cooperation vith 
the merchants '.vhorn hs protected against the Hansea- 
tic League aiid Sharp practices carried out by his 
favorite. Llorton,archbisnop of Canterbury^-'^nd thU3 

(4) became ix^dependent from parliament vjhich he needed not 
to asA for taxes. 



4. Spain 






a. The recon^uest from the xvlooleins ('c>10-1^'lü2) : 7;nile the litt- 
le soates of Galicia,the Asturias,Leon,Navarre and Ara- 
gon (Barcelona) pressed against the Moslems, out of the 
State of Leon grevv Castile^flRn^ed bj Portugal and Aragon, 
aoüiinated oy the interests of the sheepraising mestas. 

b, Tne unification of Spain (1469-1492): Fredinand of Aragon 
married Isabella of Castile v;ho 

(1) established absolute rule: based on the alliance with 
the miuule class agaiiist the nobility 

(2) enlisted the support of the Church: 7;hich was pur g od 
of ecclesiastic corruption -'nd made half-independent 
of Rome through Cardinal Ximenes (or Jimenes),the Ini- 
tiator of the^Spanish In,,uisition (1478) and 

(3) triuiüphed in 1492: by the persecution of the Jevvs (Ma- 
ranos),con4uest of the last l';Ioslem foothold (Granada) 
and the discovery of Columbus, 



\- 



v^ 



o 



o 




CC 1 - 32 - 

Part IV EAR1.Y mODERw WESTSRW CIVILIZATIOw 
1. The Reformation or Protestant Revolt 
A. Pre-Lutheran tJackground 

1. i^lack death, dccline of manorialiiSLi and wealth of the Church 
in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries gave rise to 

2. Lollards ( "babblers" ) : a Peasants* revolt rallied around John 
V/yclif(fe) (c. 1320-84) who taught at Oxford and advocated 

a. resistance to papal collection of tribute prorniGed by king 
John of ISO years ago, 

b. Subordination of prievsts and sacraments to indivif^ual ' s re-' 
lation to God, conceiving of a body of those who were destin, 
ed for salvation (St .Augustine) instead of the Ohurch 

c. the Bible as priiriary authority (he supervised first comple- 
te English translation of the Bible). 

3. Hussites: a nationalistic movement of Czech peasants lei by 
John Hus ( c. 1373-14 It; ), rector of the University of Prague who 
dcmanded the replacement of Cxerman prelates ;af ter his death 
at Const:ince,hic f oll owers fou-ht for eight years against the 
forces of the Emperor ISigisinund and the pope. 

ü, The Lutheran Revolt 

1. i'.-artin Luther (1483-1546) posted 

a. the 95 theses: on October 31,1'317 on the door of the court 
church of .vittenberg protesting not only > 

(1) the sale of indulgences : by the Doninic^n John Tetzel 
to raise funds lor St. Peter, bat also 

(2) the theory of iniulgences: that 

(a) indulgences could help to remit part or all of pun- 
ishraent in purgatory although they aseure forgive- 
ne^s of sins and 

(b) indulgences permit men to secure extra good works 

by drawing on the "Treasury of Lerit" stored up by j 

the saints , j 

"■ ' ' 
b. defied the authority of the Ohurch: 1518 m Augsburg (Gajetaö 

1519 at Leipzig (John Eck), 1520 (burning the bull of Pope 1 

Leo X),lt)21 at //orms (at a speciel diet con^ocetj by Charles. 

V: "Hier stehe ich. Ich kann nicht anders. Oott helff mir. 

Amen. " ) -\- V...., ^ ^ . .v- 



t-. w^ 



■k'\ li- 



.X I 



lA-— ' \ 






translated the -bible into C^erman:on the Wartburg, protected 
b.y Elector Frederick the 'Visi^ of Saxony . 



CC 1 



- 33 - 



i ; 



o 



2. Heasons for Luther 's success: 
a. Gerrnan nationali^in 

D. Support üf the Geriüan princes: who 

(Ij gained econoi.iicaliy from the di Gcontmuaoion of the 
outflow of rnon«-;/ to Italy and the confiscation of 
Church propcrty and 

(2) received political help fron Lutner in tJi.?ir fi{^ht 

against the upricin^: Knights (1^22, Ulrich von Hütten) 
and peasants 

c. A'eaknes^. of the opponents: the low morale of the Church 
and Charles V inahility to ansage in a strugple with the 
Protestant princes while hein^T involved in other strug^- 
les 

3. The Lutheran Church: conipromising his extreiiifist ancJ anarcliist' 
io Views, Luther instituted a church with a carried clorgy, 
ritual::- , dogmaHS . 

iq ' "7 3 

4. Luther's theology: Cn Christian Liberty (1520, SH I ^r^l--62|:?) 
A. The two natures of man {^^),\.^^) (i'^-^^""'^^ 

1. The inward, "new" man - soul 

2. The outward , "old" inan = flesh 
±i. The liberty of the inward man 

r."an needs justif ication which he can get onl. 



1 
2 



t only 
the Word oi Cjüd = Gospel (^^',l.lb - 6:^,1.1; 



throufch 



Faith cannot consist with workrj (&^,1.6b): 

a. man becomes guilty not by outward sin or work but 
by incredulity (^?,l.il~^) 

b. the "Cid" and the "New Testament": precepts vs . pro- 

mise 

(a)the purposo of precepts: to prove man 's impotence 
to live up to precepts ( "thou shalt not covet") 
(-^ 33 , 1 . 11 - 1!5 - 3rd p -ui r -r-) (7^«^-^^^^^ o^' ^^-^r-^^i 

ib)the promise of grace (.(rfrt^, 1.16-20, par.4 ) 

c. the Christian ddcs not need work or law,this is his 
?xx,-~' liberty ("S:^ , 1 . 6-12 ) t4i4-s— S-04A-1 becomes a bride of 

Christ and his faith is the most periect marriage 
{M^, 1.5-1 3-, p«rT'2^ 



\ 



C. The duties of the outward man 

1. The good works of a Christian : , . ,;7i 

a. while in flesh, man is preparing (wi,1.8b-6b) Äft4 



V C . \ . 



.^i 



4^ß^ the -g^odr- w orks (642, 1 • i^~10 ) , b u t 
b. works do not justify man ( 642,1 .4b-643, 1 . 6, par.4) 



CC 1 



- 33/34 - 



V ^ - 1 



o 



4. Luther' s theology: On Christian Liberty ,1520 (SB I 717-730) 

A. The tTTO natures of man (718,1.5-9) 

1. The inward, "new" man - soul 

2. The outwflrd,"old" man - flesh 

B. Th«- liberty of the inward man 

1, Man needs justif ication which he can get only through the word 
of God - Gospel (718,1. Ib - 719,1. 1 ) 

2. Faith cannot consist with works (719,1. 6b): 

a. man b^comos guilty not by outward sin or work but by incredul- 
ity (720,1.8-14) 

b. the **01d*' and the "New Testament"; precepts vs. promis© 

(1) the purpose of the precepts: to prove man' s impotence to 
live to precepts ("tho shalt not covf?t'0 (720, last par.- 
721, 2nd par. ) 

(2) the promiFe of grace (721 , 1. 16-20, par. 4) 

c. the Christian do^s not n^^ed work or law,this is his liberty 
(722,1.6-12) 

C. The duti!=s of thp outward man 

1. The good works of a Christian | 
a. while in flesh, man is preparing (724 , 1.8b-6b) but 

. b. works do not justify man (725,1.4b - 72*0, 1.6, par. 4) 

2. The need of good works 

a. liberty is no license: those who eat while others fast are 
es culpable as those who fast without belief (728,1.13b - 
729, 1.3, last par.) 

b, ceremonies and works are necessary in this world (729,l,7b-lb) 

3. Good works are manifestations of a good Christian 

a. evil works do not make a person bad (726,1.6b - 2b, par. 5) 

b. the Christian performs c^ood works because h<^ is a b'liever 
(726,1.12b-10b,par.4) but his works do not make him a Christ- 
ian . 



< 



■ ■- - ■ 



CC 1 



- 34 - 



2. The need of good works: 

a. liberty is no license : thooe who eat while others fast 
are as culpable as those who fast without belief 
(fiafc^, 1.13b- 64^, 1.3, last par. ) 

b. ceremonies and 'works are necessary In this world 
(^3t^,1.7b-lb) 

3. Güüd works are manif estation?.; of a ^rood Christian : 

a. evil works do not niake a person bad ( 644i' 1 > 1 3b- IIb , 
par.5),önd ther'efore 7^''^^i^i-^^ 

b . th e Christian performs fr^ood works because he is a 
-y-i^Coi beiirver (^64^, 1 .12b-10b,par. 4) bat his works raake 

no Christian out of him. 



O 



C. The Spread of Protestantism 

I. Switzerland 

1. Ulrich ::wingli (1484-1531) ,a hurnanist scholar and pupil 
of Erasme 

a. rejected the "s-iperstitions" of the Church: thesaints, 
incense and candles,the use of iiuages, indulgences 

b. advocated a congregation disciplineri by social con- 
science and led by a pastor 

c. abolished the Catholic liturgy and transformed the 
church into an undecorated hall where the Service con- 
sisted of a sermon and responsive reading of the bible 

d. interproted the Eucharist as a comniemoration of Christ' 
last supper (while Luther modified the transGubstantion 
into the consubstantiation) . 

2. John Calvin (Jean Cauvin,lbC9-l'p64 ) founded the "Center" 
of Protestantisii; with Lutheranisin as the Right and the 
sects as the Left;he 

a. broke with Catholic ritual and Church Organization, 

b. forinulated his doctrine of predestination in his "In- 
stitutes of the Christian Religion" (1536) and 

c. organized in Ib^l ueneva as a "City of God". I* 
II. Expansion of Calvinism 



1. English speaking countries 

a. Scotland : John Knox 

b. England; 

c. New England 



;# 



^^ 



CC 1 



- 35 - 



o 



III. Th« Doctrins of Calvinism - Calvin' s "Institutes of th9 Christian 

Religion" 

li Providence and Predastination: 

a. Providence: guiding men's action (732,1.4-b - 733,1.9: "..It 

iSyindeed.a ridlculous madness ••• to belong to 
himself.»») 

b. Pradattination: (Jod* s d^cree of eternal life or damnation for 

everybody (740, par.2, 1.15-20: »•Prädestination 
we call ... to life or to death*».) 

2, The election of those destined for eternal life: 

a. man is not possessed of free will for good works unless he 
be assisted by grace (736,par.2,1.16b-14b: "This being ad^ 
mitt^d ... in regeneretion**, ), therefore 

b, election is an act of pleasure and not a reward to whlch there 
is a Claim (739,1,6-9: "In ascribing the salvation ... can be 
no Claim". ) 

3, The desirability to know God' s will : 

a. the realization of man' s calamatity is helpful (738,1.1-8: 

"..that he who feels ... which belongs to Grod. ") because 

b. it induces him to acknowledge God' s glory (736,1.6-10: " What 

then,remains for him now ... of his blessings ?") and 

c. to learn God's will in His word (734,1.2b- 735,1,3: "That man 
obeys God ... ,to his precepts.") and to aspire to the good 
and to liberty'\735, 1.12b- 7b: "Therefore, to avoid striking .. 
... of the greatest strength. ") without 

d. trying to penetrate the secret of God' s will except as far as 
is revealed in His word (739, 1.8b- 740, 1.3: "First, then,let 
them ... conducp to our advantage. . . ". ). 

4, The need for a church (741,1.25-34: "Here are three things ... 

Lord has placed it."): 

a. Man cannot stand before God without remission of his sins, 

b. remission of sins is a benefit of the Church and 

c. is dispensed by ministers (through the gospel) or by priests 
(through sacraments). 



■^;>e^ .^ J-L ^LT - 



GC 1 



- 35 - 



O 



2. Low Countries: aiüalgamatirig with Dutch patriotisin and re- 
siötance agairiöt Philip II 

3. France :the Hugaenots in southweBt France who rec<^ived no 
Support from Francis I (1^315-1547) "because he adherecl to 
the Ghi^rch as a unifying elernent of France 



O 



III. The iJoctrine of Galvinism 
ian Religion" 

1 



Calvin * s"lns±itutes of the Chr:ist- 



Prov'.dence and Predestination: nian's dopendence on the will 
of God is demonstrated by 

a. God ' s providence guiding inan's action (ii^ß, 1 .4b-6äi, 1 . J ) 
ana ^granr- 6- - wea 1 t^h—e-r - pov er4;^ y ao - i3-fat^^:-^^e9^-ed b y-S-olonon 
(6^7,1.9 - 16) 

b. God ' s decree of eternal life or damnatlon for everybody ' 
= predestination (6525,1.15-20) 

7W-0 

2. Ihe election of thoGe de^tined for eternal life: 

a. man is not possessed of free will for gooi works unless 
he be asnisted by grace (fe4 , l.lbb-14b, par . 2 ) , theref ore 

b. election is an act of pleasare and not a rewar^" to which 
thore is a claim ("6^,1.0-9). 

3. The desirability to know üod's will: _,^^ 

a. the realization of ii.an'o calainity Is helpful (i^:^, 1.1-8) 
because , 

b. it inducec hira to acknowleJge God's glory (j654 ,1.6-10) j 

^"^ mi, ->r i 

c. to learn uod's will in Ilis word ( tj55,l .2b-6#^3',l .3) and 
to aspire to the good and to liberty (6:^, 1 ,12b-7b) 
without "^^•^' 

d. trying to penetrate the secret of (iod ' s will except as 
far as is revealel in Hio word (6:1^,1 .8b-65ß,l .3) . 

4. The need for a church (,&?c^, 1.25-34, par.3) : 

a. Iv.an cannot stand befora U-od without reinission of his 
sina, 

b. remission of sins is a benefit of the Church and is 

c. dispensed by ministers (through the goapel) or ihraagla 
by priests (through sacrauients ) . 



■■■4 



ff M^ ^ i . -tj a-K^ja mBi ■ ■ 






^ 



CG 1 



- 36 - 



IV. The Foundation of the An^^lican "Hi^h Church" 

1. The pretext : Henry 7ITI (15C9-1547) wlis not per:.'iltted to divor- 
ce Gatharine of Aragon arid to inarry Anne Boleyn: df- fyl np- the 
pope,he was excor.iriunicated , to whlch he respond»Ml vvith 

2. The Aot of oupremacy of 1534 that 

a. abolished inonasteries whose land was dlstrdhuted amon^ the 
nobility and landud gentrj^,anu 

b. denied the authority of the pope 

while retaining Gatholic doctrines and ritur-ls 

3. The Gatholic Opposition was supprest:e^l by execuition of its 
leaders (Thomas * ore),the Protestant radicals. by reaff iriu^ng 
üuch Gatholic doctrines as the celibacy of the prieh^ts (the 
Statute of 3ix Articles,1539) . 



V. The Sects 



Anabaptists: lower class people who undertook to ii:.itate the 
early Christian coiiiüiU.fiities ,prac-ticing brotherhood (John of 
Leyden,I..uenster, 1!?3C' ' s ) ,quiotisiu and ascetisiü ; their descen- 
dants are the Baptists, Quakers, Hutterites (founded hy Jacob 
Hutter in I^oravia) ,rennonites, Ajiiish . 

iJnitarians: denying the Trinity and füll divinity of Christ, 
were followcrs of the opanish physician Servetas (burnt by 
Calvin in 1553) and the Italian theologian Socinus (Sozzini, 
d.l604) who gained followers in Pola.nd, Hangary , Transylvania. 

General ch^iracter: 

a. emotional in worshipping and response to sermons on the 
hope of heaven and fear of hell, 

b. distrustful of the state : ref using to take oaths, 

c. pacif istic : "conscientioas objectors" 

d. tolerant of religious practices. 



D. The Gatholic Reform ( Counter-Ref ormation) 

1. The Jesuits:the üociety of Jesus, initiated 1544 by Ignatius 
Loyola, taught and practiced absolute obedience to the Church 
and emphasized free will against too mach stress on predestina- 
tion. 

2. iiie inL^ulbition: an ecclbsias tical court established in papal 
form to put down the Albigensian heresy vl3th Century) coinbat- 
ted deviations froiu actual or supposed doctrines 

3. The Council of Trent:called 154 5 by Faul I.II was in sesrion 
until 1564 ;it reaffLrrued 



a • 



the essential role of the priesthood, initiating senilnaries 
for the education of the clergy, 






1 



üC 1 



- 37 - 



( 



b. the iiijportance of faith and work,and 

c. the authority of the Church and the Scrlptures, setting up 
the "Index". 



CG 1 



- 38 - 



C) 



() 



IV EAELY MODERN WSSTKRN CIVILIZATION 

3. The Development of Modern Science 
a. Pre- Co pernio an Backgrounds 

The Ptolemaic System : The Hipparchian-Ptolemaic System 
(Hipparchus - 3rd Cent. B.C.; Ptolemy - 2nd Cent. A.D.) 
was mediated to medieval thinking through the Latin 
Version of the Almagest ,the Arabic collection of Pto- 
lemy 's work,in the 12th Century (Gerhard of Cremona) 

1. The terrestrial and celestial parts of the universe: 

a. the terrestrial; the earthly things are composed of fire, 
air, water and earth and each element tends toward rest in its sphe- 
re; there are,including the heavenly bodies,five spheres: 

(1) the two inside spheres: water and earth; the heavy 
elements tend toward them,they have gravity; 

(2) the two outside spheres: fire and air; the light ele- 
ments tend upward to them,they have levity; 

(3) tlfaie celestial and invisible spheres: composed of a 
perfect and incorruptible fifth element, the quintessence. 

b. the celestial: the heavenly bodies are imbedded in invis- 
ible rotating spheres moving in circles: 

(1) first sphere: moon whose sphere moves aroiind the 
earth in 28 days; 

(2) second to seventh sphere: sun and planets (Mercury, 
Venus , Mar s , Jupiter , Saturn ) ; 

(3) eighth: sphere: fixed stars; 

(4) ninth and last sphere: the primum mobile carry ing no 
bodies but wheeling the celestial System around the earth from east 
to west every 24 hours. 



w. 



CG 1 



- 39 - 



2. The motions 

a. terrestrial things: have no natural motion; if compelled 
to move they would move upwaxd or downward and come to rest as soon 
as some external body ceases to impel them (the earth,the heaviest, 
has no motion at all); 

"b. celestial things: ha-ve no motion but the spheres are mo- 
ving in circular fashion. 

3. The Problems posed by the Ptolemaic System: 

a. the motion of celestial bodies such as planets: when act- 
ually retrograding required the assumption of epicycles; 

b. the motion of terrestrial bodies: was explained if a body 
was pulled (horse pulling a cart) but not if a projectile was in 
flight - an arrow should drop dead from the bow but it moved because 
the packed air in front of itself pushed the arrow by filling the 
vacuum. A xBtggRxiRot Solution suggested in the 14 th Century: the 
arrow (projectile) was imparted by the bow with Impetus and would 
stop if the Impetus was spent. This Solution was accepted until the 
Scientific Revolution in the 17th Century. 



O 



l 



b. The Copernican Theory and its Consequences 

Development of a new theory of motion (1543-1687): from 
Copernicus's Concerning the Revolutions of the Heavenly 
Bodies (1543) to Newton* s Mathematical Principles of Na~ 
tural Philosophy (168?) the theory was developed by Nico- 
laus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler basing his work on the 
observations of Tycho Brahe , Galileo Galilei and Isaac 
Newton, 

A. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) 

a, The heliocentric theory 

replaced the Ptolemaic geocentric and geostatic theory with 
a heliocentric and heliostatic one «ftr as already suggested by Aris- 



CC 1 



- 40 - 



r 



o 



tarchus (3rd cent. A.D.) by 

1. removing the earth from the center of the universe and set- 
ting it whirling atoout the sunt, and 

2. placing the earth spinning on its own axis once a day. 

b. The implication of Gopernicus* theory for astronomy 
The "celestial geometry" of Copernicus 

1. aböilished the primum mobile and 

2. posited a better circularity: the planets were moving in 
successive orbits - the smallest was the one of the earth - and 
bec^iuse the earth and planets were circling the sun at different 
speeds and in orbits of different magnitude,the planets appeared 
occasionally to be standing still or moving erratically backward 
just as the sun "rises" and "sets". 

c. The implications of Copernicus* theory for physical theory 
The "celestial geometry" of Copernicus 

1. supposed the »'natural mobility" of heavy bodies,first of 
all the earth, and thus contradicted Aristotelian physics which as- 
sumed that the earth was not moving and Ptolemy's astronomy which 
asserted tj^iat planets were weightless substances, 

2. without,however,providing a physical theory supporting his 
speculations on the "naturalness" of spherical motion. 

d. The psxt of Tycho Brahe (1541-1601) 

Brahe brought de Script ive astronomy to a new level of perfec- 
tion by exact observations on the assumption that the planets circle 
the sun while the sun circles the earth (applying his mathematics to 
an observer on the earth while Copernicus was applying his mathema- 
tics to an observer on the sun). 



CC 1 



- 41 - 



C) 



O 



B. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) 

8et out to discover regulär nuraerical or geometrical 
relations in planetary movement observed by Brahe . 

a. The three laws of Kepler 

1. The orbits of all the planets including the earth are 
elliptical (not circular) and the sun is one of the foci of each 
of these orbits; 

2. The planets do not move in their orbits with uniform 
velocity bu,t in equal times every planet sweeps out equal areas 
between itsölf and the sun; 

3. The Squares of the periodic times of the plajiets (i.e. 
the times (T) they reuuire to traverse their orbits) are in the 
same ratio ks the cubes of their respective mean distances from 
the sun (PS.) 

tVt*^ = PsV^'S^ when one planet (P) takes time 

T to complete its cireuit of the sun and the second (P* ) takes T'. 

b. The implications of Kepler 's laws 

1. The mathematical uniformity of the heavens: while Coper- 
nicus assumfed still 34 epicycles besides numerous excentrics , Kepler 
showed that the planetary System is regulated by simple mathemati- 
cal relationships; 

2. The helicentric System: all planets were related to the 
sun moving about the sun in elliptical orbits at velocities regulat- 
ed by the position of the planets respective to the sun; this Sys- 
tem justified Copernicus. 

C. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 

a. The exploration of the solar System: 
Through a telescope Galileo observed 



CO 1 



- 42 - 



C) 



O 



1. the moons of Jupiter: which contradicted the Aristotelian 
physics that all celestial bodies nnist circle around the earth, and 

2. the surface of the moon and the sunspots: the wrinkled 
surface of the moon contradicts the iiristotelian tradition that 
heavenly bodies sre perfect unblemished spheres and so did the exist 
ence of sunspots indicating that something was chnnging on the face 
of the sun which disproves the perfection ascribed to celestial 
bodies, 

b. The new science of motion: ^ 

Near the end of his life Galileo accomplished a science of 
motion different from the one set forth in Aristotle's Physics . 

A. The main points of G-alileo's physics: It 

1. dissolved the notion that earthly and heavenly bodies 
are subject to different rules of motion: all bodies, whether a can- 
non ball (earthly) or a planet (heavenly), are subject to the same 
laws of mo tion; 

2. changed the objective of inquiry into the nature of 
motion: instead of questioning why a projectile is moving he asked 
when a projectile is stopping to move. Thus he demonstrated 

a. the rate of fall of a body to earth is proportional 
to the Square of the time: a body dropped from a given height and 

a body fired horizontally from the same height will stop - i.e. hit 
the earth - at the sajne time because a pro^ectile is a body as any 
other and thus subject to the rule of all bodies; 

b. if a projectile has no place to fall to: it wouldnot 
stop at all but go on forever at the same rate of speed; since the 
earth and the planets are made of the same stuff they are therefore 
circling through space forever-r 



( ^ 



CC 1 - 43 - 

B. rhe differences between traditional and Galilean physics: 

1. The objective of investigation: was not the explanation 
of motion but the change of motion; 

2. the MSfiiJxxK of investigation: was not to establish ra- 
tional fitness but to develop explanations corresponding to control- 
led Observation (= experiment) ; the rate of fall (acoeleration) e.g. 
is proportional to the Square of time because Observation taught 

so and not because it is fitting a principle - thus,the rate of 
fall might be proportional to time or the cube of time or to no time 
if observ'itions would so show; 

3. the starting point of investigation: was,contr;iry to tra- 
tional Aristotelian physics, Observation; up to G-alileo the science 
of motion was a commentary on Aristotle with possible exceptions 

to the basic doctrine (e.g. Impetus theor;y). Aiso,±t k his theorems 
were consistent elaborations of initial observations or interpreta- 
tions of them whether correct or incorrect. Thus,his erroneous as- 
sumption that the orbits of the plane ts ^ire circular stems from his 
original error in presuming that the inertia (inertial force) regui 
lating the motion of bodies was circular and not from the notion 
that circular motion is particular^Jexcellent and thus befitting 
heavenly bodies (as in Aristotle 's qualitative physics). 



o 



D. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 

brought about a synthesis of quantitative physics as 
expreifsed in Galileo* s law of falling bodies and mathematical astro- 
nomy as expressed in Kepler* s laws of planetary motion. He first 
postulateö a hypothesis as to a physical explanation of planetary 
motion and then, 20 years later ,inil687, transformed it into a 
»'scientific law", i.e. a demonstrated theory that placed his explana- 
tion of planetary motion in the framework of a general theory of 
motion. This theory maintains: 



CC 1 



- 44 - 



i ) 



1, Inertia works in a straight line : Galileo* s notion of a cir- 
cular direction of inertia was already disproved before Newton; 

2. Gravi ty,the "irapressed force" that checked continuouely the 
continuous inertial tendeney (straight line) of bodies is the Single 
force that 

a. maintains the planets in their course, 

b. determines the rate at which terrestrial bodies fall to- 
ward the earth, 

c. operates betv/een every particle of matter in the universe 
and every other particle , and 

d. can be precisel^ defined in a simple mathematical formula: 
G = mm' / d or ^(ravity) = m(ass) x m(ass)' / d(istance) . 



irmmf^m^mmm^tm'^'^' 



CC 1 



- 57a - 



IV, 3 The Rise of the Moaern State 

a. Absolatism in Practice and Tncory 

(1) Absolute Monarchies on the Continent and in England 

(a) Austria and France 

(b) iijigland 

IV,3,a, (l),j;b) Absolute Monarcl-iy in England (1603-1649) 

A. The Role of the Crown 

1, Limite tions of the Crown : 

a, Par3ia]]ient: in the house of CoiHirions -'The Knignts of the 

Shire" allied themselves ivith the '^burgesses" 

b, Local Magistrates: the justices of the peace in the parish- 

es e.g, administered the Flizabcthan Poor Law 
of 1601 

2. Issues bet-veen Crov/n and Parliamant: 

a. Taxes: needed by the king for running a modern state 

b, Religion: High Church vs. Low ChurGh,in its^lf split beöween 

iüoderates Presby terians ana radical Puritans 

ö, Tendencies in settling the issues: 

a, The Crown: tried to bend the Cooperation of Crown and Par- 

liamont tovvard Continental "Divine Right Monar- 
ch.y" 

b, Parliament: tovvard the establishiiient of a body .naking and 

enforcing the lav/ (Constitutional MonarcJn^') 



( 1 



B« The Reign of James I (I60ö~16?^5) 

1. The TrrePt Protept^'tio'n riC^l): of the ParlinrüGnt r^^j^lr^^.t the 
intended marriage of Ja^es^ son Charles with a npnnir-;h princ?- 
ess tPar.li^fi^ent wns disso!1ved "hut ChaJe? ;vfs m^rried to a French 
Catholi«^ ririnr?ep.«='. 

^.. Enfornement of relirrieus conformity: insintinfr on the ;nonarch~ 
ic«n T>o^/ers of the Mshops Jaines nad 47 Ministers translate 
the Bible (lüO-^-lüll) . 



CC 1 



- :57b - 



n. 



C. The Troubles of Charles I (1685-1649) 

1. Charle»s Rule without Parliament: (16P9~1640) : 

a. The Petition of Right (16c8):ara\vn up by Parliaaent ciuririg 
the v/ar v/ith France in protest against Charle^s quarterinr; 
scldiers in private houses stated,among oth-:rs: no billeting 
of soldiers in private houses,no martial lav/ in time of 
peace. 

tj. Dissolution of Parliament (lf':30) : Charles accepth^d the 

Petition but dissolved Parliaüient after it protestcd against 
the collection of unauthorized taxes;reigning without Par- 
liament Charles used to the füllest his power of taxation 
(ship lüoney in Inland areas). 

2. The Short ajid the Long Parliament (1640-164;:) 

a. The Short Parliament (1640): deniod Charles the money for 
a campaign against the Scots who rebelled again:>t IVilliam 
Laud»s (archbishop of Canterbury) suppression of vScot Pres- 
byter ianism, 

b, Tne Long Parliament (1640-49): callea to authorize ü^oney 
for aaother carupaign against the Scots v.ho had üefeated 
Cnarles. The Parliament enacted lav;^ restricting the CroAn. 

'6. The Civil War (164^-1649) 

a. Charle^s fuoile vmr against Parliament: when Parliament ' 
withheld money to put dov,n the rebellion in Nothern Ireland, 
Charles orderd his opponents in Parliament to be arrested; 
after they had taken refuge in London, Charles ralJied an 
army at Nottingham. 

b. The Victor/ of Puritani^m riü44-45) : In the battles of 
Morston fvioor (16 ^^4) ana Maseby (1645) the royalist "cava- ; 
liers" were defeatea by Oliver Crom\vell»s ''Roundheads^ or 
"Ironsides'* organized in the "New Model ATu\y-\ 

c. The end of Charle's I: the wScots sirmy to ;uioni Charles had 
fled turned him over to Parliament, then s"Uill under con- 
trol of the moderate Presby terians (Low Church Anglicans), 
When the Scots attempted to help the English Presbyterians, 
the Roundheads,radical Congregationalists,beat tha Scots, 
purgeu the Parliament of the moderates and as "Runip Parlia- 
ment" trled Charles ivno was beheaaed in 1G49, 



*'i' 



CC 1 



- 37c - 



IV,5,b,(l) Toward Constitutional Monarchy in England (1649-1689) 
A. Croiüv/ell and the Interregnum (1649-1ü60) 

!• The Interregnum: since the radicöls did not dare call a Parlia- 
ment after the death of Charles IJEnglanü beatme a republic in 
constant struggle with tha Catholicü in Ireland ana the Presby- 
terians in Scotland. 

2. The suppression of the rebollions in Ireland and Scotland: 

a. The '^Cromvjellian Settlemunt" (lb54): aftcr a victorious cam- 
paign in Irelana Cromwell aisposüebsea Irisn landholders in 
favor of r^nglish Protestian-cs. 

b, The defeat of Charles II: tne son of Charles I returnea from 
exile on Lhe Continent to Scotlana as Charles II ana guaran- 
teea freeaoiii to the '^Scoti:i^h Kirk'^ (Presby terian) but bis 
army was defeateu by Cromwell ana Charles II flea to France. 



3, 



Tne Co.üiaonwealth (lcoÖ-lb60): in lbb3 Cromv;ell set hirn^zclf up 
as Lora Protector of the Co^uuionwealth ;ith a writtcn Constitu- 
tion (the only English) which provided for a Parliament, After 
Cromwell »s death in 1655 the "Long Parliament" v/as reconsti tuted 
ana restorea Charles II to his reign. 

B, The Restoration (1660-1086) 

1. Charles II (1(:60-1665) : not only restored Parliament and the 

Angllcan Church in England aad Ireland but also rnoved closcr to- 
ward Roman Catholicism through his alliance ^^ith Louis XIV and 
embracing it snortly bofore his death, 

childless Charles II, 
gious freedom 
KU OCX ö ■' ^ xiiv-;xu.u.xii^ v^d oxiuxxv^:^ ^ kyiii uu.^11 xii s '^Declo.ration 
cif Inaulgence" of 1687 which arousea tne Opposition of Parlia- 
ment a.id the prevailing anti-CaCholic sentimt^nts. 

C. Tne Glorious Revolution (lü88-1689) 

1, The lanaing of William of Orange (1688) :in face of Jaüies' at- 
tempt to restore Catholicism tne Whigs (t-he moderates of the 
"Long Parliament": "Che great loras ima the prosperous Lonaon 
merchants) negotiated .vith the son in l§vv of James II - William 
of Orange, married to Mary, the Prouest'^d'augther of James II from 
his first marriage - ana inauced him to land in Eagland '.';ith an 
arm^'jJames II realizing that he hc.u no su^rort flea to P'rance, 



^^'^*' ■ ■— l«fca 



X imifM 



■irr»*^^^"* 



CC 1 - -7d - 

^. The establisiHiifJiit of coas-Litutionr:! juonfjrch^^ (1CB9): Parliruu-.it 

G. ot'fcr'^u niliatü the crov-n ••.hich ho \voro as Villiam III froni 
lüfc9-till 17o:c am 

b. enacted the ^'Bill of Rights*^: & kin«. of rritton con;;titution 
aating back to th^ '^P<^~tition of Rigiits" (icr^S) and leylng 
dovia tho üS3ontial principlc;. of pc.rliri.icntr ry ruprriürcy 'v hieb 
(-:v^.ntually,in the LOth c- nbury ,goV'' lop'.a inte' Enrlish parlia- 
meritary deuiocrricy. 



^ 



-^■»■j- 'f 



"1 
I 



CC 1 



- 38 - 






IV, 3 Absolutism and Constiiitationalism 

B, The Consolidation of National Ivionarchies 

3. The Theory of Absolutism and the Concept of Sovereignty 

Thomas Hobbes,Leviathan (1651) 

A. The nature of the state: an artificial creation of man 

(öS2,l.tlD-li>:"Por by art. .body natural") 

B, The reasons for setting up the state: human nature 

«7 > ~ 

1, Man is an enemy to his fellow man (0:^,1.1-3 .* "Hereby it is 
manifest, «every man") 

a. three causes for auarrel : competition,dif±'idence,glory 

(aM,l.öb-lb) 

b. the conseq,uence of warfarerno Justice (ä9^,par.3: "To 



this war,.no injust 



:no ni 
ice") 



(:> '.. 



2. 



The need for power to keep man in association (&i4,par.4 
"Again,men have . . overawe them all") 



C. The natural law 

1, The natural right:the liberty of man to preserve himself 

(8:9^,1.2b-S^,1.3) from which follows 



Jf 3 



2. the natural law that is 

a. found by reason (S^,par.3: "A Law of riature. .best 

C'^-"' preserved") and 

b. eternal (5es,1.5b-2b) 

3. The two fundamental natural laws: 

a. to seek peace or war to preserve oneself (897,par.4, 

1 .13b :". .that every man..of war") 

b. to grant fellow man as much right as he desires for 
himself (§^, par. 5 •* "From this fundamental law..against 
himself" Kafe the Gospel states (aiB, 1.3-4 : "whatsoever. . 



..to them"). 



^/u^ 



4. Justice: 



a. follows from the third law: that men perform their co- 
venants (962, par.2 : "From that law..of war"), 

b, covenants (or pacts) being mutual transferring of right 
(ö^,par.2: "The mutual transferring, .of faith"); 



f^(J'<'i 



c. justice can be established only if there is a coercive 
pov;er - the comuionwealth (902,1.4b-903, 1.3: "Theref ore 
. . . Commonwealth" ) o .. . 



'n\ 



CC 1 



- 39 - 



D. The rights of the sovereign: 

1. A Commonwealth is a covenant of the multitude to have one 
man or an assembly represent it (5tÖ9,last par, ) ^ wheref ore 

2# certain rights are connected with sovereignty: 

a* the covenant cannot be changedra monarch cannot be 
deposed (9W, 1.11-19: "And theref ore. .injustice") , 

b. the covenant is onconditional (^M, 1.12-18: "The opinion 
..in him united") 

c. the sovereign cannot commit in.jastice (^3ä,1.2b-93^,1.2: 
"Pourthly. . in justice" ) 

d. the iJKÄgK sovereign is judge of what opinions are averse 
(5±2,par.4: "Sixthly,it is annexed. .published" ) . 

E. The liberty of subjects : 

^. Only the coimnonwealth has liberty: not particular men as the 
ancients claiuied - that would be anarchy (918, last par. : 
"The liberty.. at all"); 

l* the individual has liberty insofar as 

i d, the sovereign permits (praetermits) : (fi8, 1.7-11) , 

X Jo» certain rights cannot be transferred through a covenant: 
e.g. to refuse to incriminate onself (;t20,par.4 : "If a 
man. .himself"), *?^=» 



-? 



^\ the law is silentrthe subject might sae the sovereign 
(522, 1.3-7: "If a subject..by the sovereign") 



i 1 



John LoGKe,Cf Civil Governiucnt (lüi.0) 

A. Purpose of oiie treatise: 

1, Refutstioa of absolute uionarcjry aad ^ustific-- tion of the 
iüiuule-clciss Devolution (e.f^, .Aiijc^rican Revolution) 

<:. Defense of natural rights of man - lif e, liberty , es täte - 
regard'^d as self-eviuent iueas contrary to Locke's gen^^ral 
Position tnat experience is the source of iueas. 

B. Txie Lav; of Nature (-Reason) 
1. Freeuoiii i.nd E^^uality: 

lOtl 

a. Respect of each other's frceucm (isss,l.lCb-ob: "The state 
of Nature . . , ano Lner ' s pleasure'') 



ik 



/ 



o 



K. 



CC 1 



- 40 - 



oi\ 



b. Freedom (54^,par.3: '^To uiiderstanci. .any othor raan^) 



c. E4.uality : 



(t:>il 



(1) political e^uality (ÄÜ,par.4:"A State also, .Subordina- 
tion or subjection") 

(k.) ''jUst preceaenc/^^ (- natural ine^uality) of age,virtue 
(zi'^C ,pa.rs,'ö 6c 4:'^Though I have saiü abovG..free aispo- 
sal^' 

(in conLrast to Hobues (bJü,ch.XIII-8j4,l,^': '^^Jature has 
maae.,v;ith his share'') ) 

C, LcLfe,Libjrty ,Property 



1. Liberty : 



lotV 



*^ • 



a. natural liberty ifreeUom from superior pov;er (iSns,par,3: 
"The natural liberty..for this rule'') 

b. liberty of man in society :unuür properly cnacted lav; 
(^^,par.ö:"Tne liborty of män,,thG trust put in it") 

Proper ty : 



a, tv;o aieaxiings of the t-c-rm : 



<3 i 



(1) everything bclongmg to a person (iĀ),par.::;: '^Thou^h 
the earth..but himsc-lf '0 > ther^^if ore proporty - lif^. 
lib'-:rty,estate (5^,par, ■''^': '^Afan being born. .estate'^J 

(^) the '^•.■■;ork" of his hands (^3,par.»3: "The »IrbourT.. 
üiakes it his prop^.rty'') 

b, the appropriation of property (^50,par.o: "Ile that is., 
notüiiig eise coula'^) 

c, the extent ana lijiitation of propcrtyrspoilage (i^'51,par. 
o:'',,As much as aiv c^ne..3poil or ae^troy^') ..hich has 
been overcoiiie ''by consent" {.hrough 

d, the invention of money r.aiich enables iücJi to enlargo his 
possession be^-onu 7;nat he uses up (^J.'.5,par.^,l,l;;i-par.4, 
l,&b:"He that gatherea. .Lna enlarge them;.." 

D. State of I^ature ana Political or Civil Society (-Coünaonv^ealth) 

1. Essence of political society :la;v ana judicatur'j (^r5ö,p:ir..5, 
l.l'--Lb-llb:'Those vvno.. .ith anothcr") 

k:. State of Naturo and Civil Society : 



'•.•\r 



CG 1 



- .1 - 



a. 



the reason i'or instxtuting a civil ^ocicty: 



( ) 



o 



f0^2. 



(1) tht natural right of puiiisi'im;nt (oa^S^par.o: "ana thu.^,, 
u.e call puriijhiüent'O .hich,hO'.V:ver,shoula be c:;rried 
out by 

(*v) civil goveriHüGnt (S35?s,pr.r.6: ''To this stränge ...octrinc.. 
to Gonaeiiin himsslf xor if) 

b, civil govsrninent as a state of nature: 

(1) in ''indepGnuent'^ gov'-rnm'vnt men are in the state of 
Naüure (946,par.i::: '^It is often ask^^'d..in that state '0 

(^) ..hureas absolute ruonarchy is not a politic'^l oociety 
(959,par.3 k 4:'^ And henGe,,at all.,,Fox^ he boing..or 
by bis Order") 

c. civil government as oj.posed to the st-ite of n/:. ture:se"'.ting 
up a judge puts man from the st'-.te of N: ture into that of 
Co^üiüonvvealth (v5;j,par,^: "''/herever, t-rrefcre, . ,in the state 
of ilaturc'O 

E. The purpose,the beginaing and the di.::solution of poliLical 
Society 

1. The puroose of oolitical ^oci .ty: mutual preservation of pro- 
perty,ile,life,iibert:,,estote ($^,par .d: ''The gre-t -na cnief 
enu..many tnings v;anting")by '«^^ 

a, liiaKing proper laws to preserve that property (t:cf"/,par.k', 
first sentonce:"Ab..caute arbitrary poiver . .pe: ce üna ,uiet"; 

I037 

b. iiot taAing it (property-estate) ■ ithout consent (ri^,p-^v. 
^,last scntence:"For a man^s prGperty.,he thinks gooa'^;, 
particularly ihrough taxation (:si:;ö,par.^:': ^'It is true govern 
iüonts^.to himself ?'0 ""^^ 

;.. The beginxxing of poliT:ical socioty: 

a. the consent of the individual (5^=,par,e:,1.5-e: "That ^hich 
iuake s • . one ui s tinc t c OuMonv.eal zh ''^ ) : 

(1) e/.press consent 

tacit consent (:5i3l,l.i^l-'^^,~^ria of par.l: ''There is a 
coiuiiion..of that gevurniuent") ;no-. vor,submitting_ to the 
laws of the coun-:ry is not consent if the inaividurl 
declares o .her'..lse (j^i-^^^par.ii: "Eut submi tting. .proLiise 
and compact.''') ''^^^ 

b. the consent has to be that of a majority ^:5E©,par .4: "For j 
vvhen any numbcr..of the majority '^ )',therefore 



(-) 



■?.% 



CC 1 



- 42 - 



c, the consent obligeü the inuiviaual to i:ubmit tc the d?tG'r- 
iidnation of the luajoriuy (^l,par.;i,l.t>-ll: "Anu thus, . :::t.':tte 
of Nc.ture"), io>o 



b. Th^ dis Solution of politiccl society: 



ItDUH 



a. froiü without: con.iUejt by foroign po:;er (2??^,par,4,l,L-8: 
"Tiie UoUc.l.,ULon thcm^'.) 



b. from \.;itnin: 



(1) 1 



i\i 



utWO C4. 



T'r. made by those vho arc n^t appoint'^d by the 



people (^tl,^)£Lr..^a.^l^l7.-^^ ; ":Vhim aiiy -ono, .upon thcifii 



) 







■•uch as hereuitary rul^jrs,as^;embly of h^Tedit^ry nobi- 
"^^ lity or asse^ably of representatives ohosen t^mporarily 
/ by the p-ople (^7b,par.4,1.8b-4b: 'Tirst,a sin^le..by 
'^ the people.") 

(^c) ■■:aen the legislative or the prince cct ontrary to 



their tru^t (^:fc,par,l 
the p'ople.") '^^^ 



timi 



(o) Lhe p'^'Ople have a rigat to set up 
! 04 1? ( 3fe , par .0,1. i:--iJl : ^'"'h .nso jve r , the r ef or c 



here is , theref ore . . . of 



their o'"n .^overriüiont 



are in so- 



Giet 



V • 



eoellion and 



(a) becausc the legislative is guilty of r 
(OTo ^'■'•O't those uvno set up a nee governiuent (ntd^per.'j., 

l,^b~:.;.b:"In both the lormcntionod ce3es..ruilty of 
rebellion'^. ) ana 

(b) -che people navo a i'-i-gnt lo defend th-mselve 



10^! 



par.c^iirst oentence: ^^But if they..or bloodshed 






F. Tne po/;ers of coiaiaoneeal Lh (- the Iranehes of government) 
1. The supr eine por;er : 

a. outeiüe gov rmiient: the GOüLi.unifry (e7.3,p; r.1,1, '"-&: "And 
t hus • . b e di s s ol V '~.d '^ . ) 

b. in government:the legislative (C:7:;,p^:.^.<J,l.'e-lC: "In all 

w i -. k^ '.^ o • » j,' v' 1 . 'i. » J 



^, The legisleeive pov^rzan assembly of t omporarily elected p'^r 
^ons (aV0,par..:.,l,l'4d~üb: '^Thercfore in 7;ell-order -d. . the 



r»_ 



public gooa. 



TT>. 



tJ 



. Tne feuerative po^v-Gr:to regulate the r jlations boteeen the 
coiumon -ealtii .uiu ehe re^t of iaain.ina (j70,: ar.'.._,l. .eb-.. 71,1.5: 
"there is anocher, .rest of manKlnu'^ inu 'd71,p";r. j) . 



..■;i 



o 



■ww^^W^DP" 



CC 1 



- 43 - 



■i, The executive power: .hich shoulu al.vays be in h''yiag (l37ii, 
par.c) 

5. Tue fedorative anu executivo po'.:er3:shoalu "be in the sr;me 
noiias (■oVl,par.;5: '^Thes : t'.vo poivers, .dis einet per -ions, '^ 



«•nvm^ 



WBSfPPPP^WW»«!"«^^"^"^''"»"''"""»" 



J- 1 1 1 iJIÖ^*«Wi^wl»"^w»^vi^^*w«^"W^^WF^ 



I III i j I. lu iiiiJi I iv|i 



j > ■ » «i TPii^ii^«» - » ■ ■ \ f iyt^mmmmuartf 



"n 



Plato - Republic (SB I (2ni ed,) ,125-152) 

a, The ideal 8 täte: 138,l,16b-12b (♦'Granted, then,tliat they are convinced 



... not a Single one coula be saved ?) 
b. The knowledge of the Good 

(l) The four atates of mind: 146,1.2b - 147,1.4 (»»You have 

understood me quite well ... objects possess truth and reality**) 



:> 



(2) Imagining versus knowledge 

(a) imagining: 145,1.21-24 (»»Now consider how we are to divide 

... but down to a conclusion. . .") 

(b) knowledge: 145,1.24-27 (" ... In the seconci the mind ... 

solely by their means.**) 

c. The rule of philosophers: 136,1.20-26 (»'These, then,were the obstacles 

... genuine passion for true philosophy ..♦•) 



) 



l"w 



/j> 



mm 



^mf^r 



CorAtomporTv Civil izfltion I 



?lato,THB liKPUüLlC 



r 



\ 



The Idefll. Ruler: "' .», no one -'."ill dispute our oth^r point,thnt kirip.a ^n^ 
h^»re.iitflry ral'^rs mi-^jht hflve sons with a philosophic nffiTe.f^tii thps? 
uxight conceivflbly escpp^ corruption. It "»ould be hnrd to sovh th^m,w? 
adiBir,~but cftii nnyon'? sPy tiint,in the whole coarse of time^not e\ aingio 
on^ could be s?^vod ? ,,," 



ß« The Knowledge of the Good 

(1) The i'\)Ur Stetes of i/liad: '*You larv understood mp quite wall enough,! 

repl:.ed. Ani nov.' you mny t«ke,as corresponding tc th« four sections, 
thes«-' four st.Ptes of mina: intelligence for the highost» thinking for 
the se-cona, belief for the thira,rna for the l^st impgiiiing .. These yoii 
iuay rrrfinge as the t^rms in p proportion,fiS3igD3.ng to <if>.ch a dagree oj" 
clefli^noss and certainty corresponaing to the measure in wiiich their oh- 
jects possess truth Pixi renlity^'' 

(2) Im^t^ining versus Knowledge 

(fl) Im^gining: *^':)w consiJier how we pr'? to divide the part wüich stflnar. 
for the in%»>lli^ible world, There Pre two seotionsc In the first 
the miR-i ises as iarges those rcturl things vvhich tiif?mselves Lad 
im^cjes in i-he visible world;rnd it is conip^»ll'.M to parsue itsiri- 
quiry by stPrtin;^ from rssumntions rni tr^vel liTig,nct up to a pri/i- 
ciple^bJt down to a conclusion. .. o " 

(b) KKOwledge: " ..« In the seconi the minj moves in the oth- r directicnj 
from an assiartion up towPi'ds a principle wnich i3 nov. hypoth^tic^l ; 
pna it mpkes no use of the imf^gc-s employed in the oth;r sectionjbut 
ünly pf i*'orms,rna con iUcts its inquiry sal-ly by th*»ir ineans»" 

C, The liule cf Philosophors: "Those j then,wero the obstrcles I for.-^aw WAjen,in spite 
of my ferrSjtrulh coranelled me to declrre th? t xh^r^^ will nev^r bc- a P'?r- 
f-^ct stat^* or Constitution, nor yet a perfect m/^n, until somo apppy circam- 
st^nce compels th'=>3'? f<?~r philosophers who hr^ve escpp 'd corruption but no?? 
' re cr-lled uselcss,t.i t^k'» Charge, wnetner tney lik^ it ur not,©-^ a sf'te 
^7hi:ih will subwit to txieir authority; or eise until kinc^s rwix rilers er 



r; 



th^iir sons r^re aivinely inspir^d 



itn r .^enuiri? paasion i'or true'^niloso- 



o 






M t :.V-i. T -" ^ - — •»" 



-^r " ^ «-— « 



CC 1 



- 1 - 



:'') 



I. INTKOLUCTION 

Souroes of Iviedieval and L:Odern Civilization in Antiqiity 

A. üreek Tho ^f^ht 

1. The Socratic Sack^^round (Socrates ,469-399 i5.G.): 

a. the ob.iective of lif e : happiness = apprehension and pur- 
suit of the "Good" (=virtue) 

b. Virtue (moral excellence ) = balance of Aeason,v;ill nnd 
the various appetites 

c. Moral excellence is identical with Itnov.'ledge 

d. l^Vie pursuit of the G;)Od cannot be taw:ht but man can be 
raad'.* to reco^^nize it in hirnseif (=can be learned through 
selfexaminat ion) * 

2. Plato (427-347 B.C.) on the Philosopher-King (The Kepublic 

/ , VI , VlI ) 

r<. Th*^ Ideal St^t*^: the Vinf^dom in v/nich v/ouli yuIp. the son 
(fi^ of a Vlv^ or >^^r^ditary rul^r (VI, 138,") who is not cor- 

riintpd h^it wo^ild hive "the ^^novvl^'dge of the Good" . 

b. The knov;lel,iTe of the Good: 

(1) The i'our states of rnird (VI ,14^^-147) 

(a) imcigini :g 

(b) belief 

(c) thinking: study of the art s,r. .g.geometry 

(d) intelligenoe : knowledge 

(2) Imagining versus Knov/ledge 

(a) imagining: the mind uses as irnages those actual 
things which themselves had Images in the visibl« 
v/orld ('»first shadows" ) ,p-arsuing inquiry by star1 
ing frorn assumptions to reach conclusions (145) 

(b) knovjle'lge:treatings assumptions as hypoth ses 
and moving through unaided reasoning ,using Forms 
to first principies,beint- Forms (146) 

(3) The Forms and the Good (144): the Forms v/ithout be- 
ing identical with the Go d derive from it 



(q) t^*^ rower to be knov7n,i.e. to be intelligible 
(b) t^.eir being and reality 



mc 



^ ^i? 



GC 1 



- 2 - 



l.i-l -2,V 



T 1 



O 



'3. Aristotle (384-322 3.C.) on trie real a^xd idcax State (Poiitics 

1 , 1 i I , I V ^ 

a. l^he Ivüethod: in terms of x^latonic termir.olüry -md dcfinition 

a corabination of 

(1) Icnowledge: aspirinr at first principles ,Form3 which Tor 
Aristotle are t-ie purpose of visiblo thirxgo or the Oood 
for vvhich they exist^-^nd 

(2) thi.nVlnfr, rr' A ima-^ir.irxg:arrivin- at conclnsionn from Ob- 
servation of th(= visible things 

b. Th*^ T'ntnr^ o-^ th« State and Citizen 

(1) th'=' natnrp of the 3tate: 

(a) generic definition : an association of villages cora- 
prising viiiag^s honse^-^olds for the reali.^ation of 
a ''gooä life"'which is its'hirhest Jood" (l,2,p. 
157/) consisting of .iustice to its Citizen I,p.l58} 

(b) teleological definition: an asnociat ion. . 'in a iife 
of felicity and noblenoos" ( lil ,9 ,p.l7i; 

(2) the naturo of the Citizen: 

(a) definition; '^those w-io partici] ate in judicial and 
\.v<, -3a, 'ip, ? 4t >^U; deliborate Office" (III,l,p.l61J 

(b) the virtue oi a Citizen: '♦. .to be both an excellent 
il ruler and an excellent subject" (III ,4 ,r. 164/) v/hich 

can be measured by the degroe of participation in 
and contribution to the association ( III ,9 ,P-171 ) 

G. The Types and Forr.s of G-overnrnent 

(1) the two types ( III ,r^ ,p.l^6') - ';,(./, -^-i 

(o) t^v,^ normal: "such politif^s as regnrd the r^^ood of 
the cori unity. ,'^ccording to the principle of ab- 
r.tract .last ice" , i.e. a society of fre^^ prrsons 

(h) t^-.p corriipted or perverted: "s^jch as regarl the pri- 
vvite good of thp rulers" , i.e.ruler-sifoject j^eyrxk 
relation is thnt of master-sl 've . 

(2) the 3ix forms ( III ,7 »p.l'^?!) ' "-. ^i - ^o 

(a) the normal: Monarchy (Kinrjship) ,Aristocracy and Po- 
lity 

(b) the perverted: Tyranny ,31igarchy ,LernoGracy 

('3) the nature of perverted governments (III ,8 ,p. 168) 

(a) lyranny: m.'.^.jter over slaves 

(b) Oli^'archy: v/here wealth constitutes the title to 
ri;-le regardless of whether the ruler s are a majorit^ 



I <? <• 



l l i > V.0 



l (]l ' ^ ^ 






CC 1 



- 3 



( 






(c) Democracy: where the poors are the rulers 

(4) The perversion of Jli^archy and Lemocracy (III ,9 ,FP.1^9 

- 170) 

(a) jli;;^archrj : bein^ superior in money assurne themselve: 
to be superior alto^echer 

(b) Lemocrats: bein^- eq al in personal liherty assurne 
themselves to be equil alto^^ether 

(c) The perversion: the purpose of such states is to 
live v/ell ,i.o.thny nre concerned exclusively with 
military security ,comrTierGe and Prävention of rnutual 
iniuries v/hile the real State is concerned with the 
virtne of its Citizens 

d. The B-st Possible St^te (III, IV) 

(1) the best polity under actual conditions ( IV,1 ,p.l79') i 
the life the majority of pr ople is capable of realizing 



IT 



a 



1^ — ^ 






in an associ/-.t ion ( IV, 11 ,183-151') '/oll be found m 
üombination of Aristocracy r^nd Polity 

(2) the least bad of the perverted forms iLemocracy (IV, 2, 

(3) the supreme authority in the State ( III ,1J ,11 ,173-175) 

(a) the supreme authority: should be the lri.ws,_if ri£];htly 
enacted 

(b) the officers of the state 

( a.a. )function; should decide in individual cases 
v/hich are not provid^^d for in a (?:eneral law 

(b.b. )claimant s to the Offices: the Good ( cornmoners] 
the ^^ealthy nnd the Kohles should be admitt:;d 
accordin/5 to administrative ability (111,13," 
177) but no ,p:roup excl^-sively nor the few if 
the masses collect ivply should be better (178] 

t (c) the Citizens: should be admitted to deliberative anc 
.iudicial functions 

(d) th^ import "nee of the middlp class: it makes for 
social stability:in actual states the middle class 
t^nds toward Lf^'^ocracy or Jligarchy ; (IV, 11 ,181-183) . 
dependinf: on wbether the poor (f armers ,artäsans and 
wage-ecirners ) are numerically superior to the quali- 
tatively superior rijh or vjhether the superiority of 
the rieh in ouality is greatcr than its inferiority 
in quantity (IV, 12 ,184) ; in any event,the miadle das 
will play the role of arbitrator. 



GC 1 



- 4 - 



•> 



4. Ilellenic üiviiization Jl^OOVj- 3'^^" B.C.) 



f 
V 



a, Changin^ forms of ^overnment 

(1) Ll'^'^0?]- R">0: patriarchical monarchies 

(2) 8^0 - ^5^^: oli.^^archies 

(3) ^53 - 5)0: tyranni-^s follov/in^p; th^ oli?"'r chins that werc 

u'nahle to co-pe with thn Opposition of de"bt- 
riiien peasants and commo rcial classes 

(4) 5J0 - 53S: Jl±^,i.xohy and Lemocracy 

(a) Sparta: isol-ited militaristic olig-iroliy 

(b) ^'.ttiens; Imperialist ic comrnercial deinocracy 

b. Lecline of Oreek Givilization 

(1) '2]ie Peloponnesian ""ar (431-434): the clirnax of city-sta- 
te strife from v/hich,particr.l.vrly after the death of 
Pericles in 42'3 aiid the dis^^^lädous attenipt to capture 
üicily (415-413) and the defeat in 434 Athens omer£;ed 
as exriausted as the Victor ious Sj)arta. 

(2) Le'feat of Sparta: in 371 by a coilition of city-states 
under the leadership of Athens 

(3) The 13 attle of Ghaeronea in 338: in v/hich all Oreek city- 
states V'/ere overtaken by Philip of ['■aoädonia and lost 
their independonce. 



B. Hellenistic Civilization (323 B.C. - 



1. The Hellenistic States 



r~^ 



a. the three StatCo: 

(1) i-acedon proper and Greek Satellit es 

(2) E(;ypt : rule i by the Itole-iies v/ith O'ipit--^ Alexandria 

(3) Syria: ruled by the Seleucids >j.;verninij from Antioch 

b. the character of the states 

Greek-oriental despoties in v/hich Greek settlers (merchant: 
and civil servants) demaiided self-government . ivhodes, Ale- 
xandria and /uitioch became the centers of international 
trade while agriculture continued its progress that had 
Started in 4th Century Attica. 



2. Hellenistic culture 



CG 1 



- 5 - 



( 






n 



2. Hellenist ic Culture 

a. Art: theatrical ^vA n-^tur'-?list ic "^rohit ecturo and soulpture; 
li.^ht oonedy 

"b. SoieT^c?: Iii'b-'"^r:^^ collect ion.s and r^ysteimti^ study of the 

Gre^V r^lnsslcs; prop;ress of astronorny ^nd rnathemat- 

c. PhiloGophy: cent^rei around individu-^.l happinnss 

(1) ii;picurean.\i : pleasare (=abs'^'nüe of pain) to l)e aohieved 
by Spiritual ple^sures and rnodoration of bodily appetitej 

(2) Stoics: a universalist ic (=brotliorhood) philosophy on thi 
triumph of spirit ovor the flesh and reason over emotione 

3. Cicero (106-43 J.C.) on I'atural Lav; (The Lav/o) 
a. Law of .U:iture and Law of iJor »Is (Civil Lo.w) 

(1) K'-^tural and civil law are differentias Socrates stated 

(19ir^ :. ii- . x/-^ 

(2) natural law is ^oofl because it preserves peace and bene- 
fits Society (1987' . i^-u x i^- :: , ..rw -'-^ 

(3) Civil laws are not necessarily j^ist (tyrannical laws) 
and .iust is not what is decr^^od by civil law (193)^ ^ -j^- 



1 L 



b. The Ess^nc^ of Tatural L'iw: it ^^mhraces both the 

(1) Groek conc^pti eq^iitable distribution of ."-oods (187') = 

to participate cur f^oods with each other and supply each 
othor*s wants (191), 'md the 



'? 



(2) homan concept: discrirnination br^fvoen r^ood and evil (18?! 

c. Lav; is natural (=divine) and not man-raade 

• (1) The Epicurean claim that Utility is the foundation of 

justice is erroneousrif the will of the people constitut- 
ed justice ,then ju-.tice were a matter of majority vote 
C193r* l '^-'^ 

(2) Law is divine =iiid -.^iniversal: 

(a) the divine character of law is cont-lned in its ra- 
tionality : 

(a.a.) reason and conscience enable us to distint^uisi 
between good and bad (194) and 



1 



•^.vil 



^_«.5*i'^ VÜlNKI^Htir 



CG 1 



'• 1... 






- 6 - 

(b.b.) man was endowed v/ith reason by tho Deity (=I\a- 
ture) (190^i^i-{; 

(b) the universal character of law is testified by the 
equality (=unif ormity ) of man in 

(a,a.) tbe facnlty to acquire knov/lodn;e (190) ^-i-'i-J-^" 

("o."^.) e-^rors a d d^lusions ^uoh as fear of death and 
t,hp thourht that pain is the ,p;reateGt evil 
a^.d S'iperstit ionn (191)"''-'^ 

((6.0.) th- respect of virtue (19l)' ■■^'•i-i 

(d.d.) tho GO^nmon ooouren.;^^ of vice ( =volupt iousness) 
(l9or^ i.n. • 

d. Natural Law and Justice 

(1^) Jmstioe Springs from the Lav7 because 

(a) Justice is the voice of conscience or moral prudence 
(187) -nd 

(b) Justice, the restraint from wickedness ,is motivated by 
the fear of penalty of conscience (1927 and desirable 
for its own sake and not lor re\v rd (195T »o^^'^^^^rwise 
the iust men were cunning and the wie .ed men iraprud^nt 
(192-193) 



T ) 10 ->' 



(2) Justice is divine because 

(a) the suprrme rr.ind (or law) ■.vhich hns to bn assumed as 
Vee-nin.p- the univ^^rse in rnotion and governirig our act- 
ions (199^ is the Spirit of God enjoining virtue and 

• vvsj >^<».«v , restrain-n^r vice (197) and 

(b) t^.e ' urnan law ^vhich ,p:ov-rns the partic^ilar relation- 
ship of ;-indr--d trihps (188) has the ri^-ht reason in 
GOT/^on with the suprem^- law. 

(c) The participation of man in the d^^vine l'iw is mediat- 
el through the soul which r^^t ias cn- iaea of i^oity 
.'\s e '-presse! in th^; universal worshipping of God 
(188). V i ,,»4. ... i 



O 



«^ 



'■<■ ü 

m 



CG 1 



- 2 - 



^ :^ C> , "»- . ^ o G 



2* Plato (427-347 B.C.) on the Philosopher-King (The hepubiic) 

a. The ideal State rthe kingdora in which would rule the son 
of a king or hereditary ruier (138,1. I6b-12b) who is not 
corrupted but would have "the knowledge of the Good" 

b. The knowledge of the Good 

(1) The four stages of mind (146, 1.2b-147, 1.1-4) 

(a) intelligenceiknowledge 

(b) thinking: study of the arts,e.g.geometry 

(c) bplir'f 

(d) imagining 

(2) Imagining versus knowledge 

(a) imagining: the mind uses as Images those actual 
things which themselves had Images in the visible 
World ("first shadows) ,pursuing unquiry by start- 
ing from assumptions to reach conclusions (145, 
1.21-24) 

(b) knowledge rthe mind moves from assuwptions toward 
a principle which is not hypothetical and makes 
no use of Images but only of «Forms« (145,1*24- 
27) 

(3) The Forms and the Good (144,1.8-16): the Form or es- 
sential nature of Goodness gives 

(a) to the ob.lects of knowledge their truth and 

(b) to v/hom who knows them his power of knowing,thus 

(c) making knowledge and truth like the Good but not 
identioal with it. 



r 



«.'} 



,\ß^. ■» 



\ 



J 



3. Aristotle (31b4-322 B.C.) on the Real and Ideal State (Politic: 

a. The Method: in terms of Piatonic terminology a combination 

(1) knowledge :aspiring at first principles (Forms) which 
for Aristotle are the purpose of visible things or 
the Good for which they exist ,and 

(2) thinking and imagining : arriving at conclusions from I 
obeervition of the visible things j 

■i 

b. The Nature of the btate and Citizen 

(1) the nature of the state:an association of villages com« 
prising households for the reaiization of a "good 
life" which is its "highest Good« fi^-? , 1 .^i-24-) ^ 

/ 



1 



CC 1 



o 



- 3 - 

(2) the nature and virtue of tne Citizen 

(a) the nature: *'thpse who participate in judiciaal and 
deliberative Office" (X£X^l= ,g 6" '59 ,4b gb ) (i<et»,L.^'^(>) 

(b) the virtue of a Citizen: ". .to be both an excellent 
ruler and an excellent subject»* ( l64^-iOb:=s53r) 



c. The Types and Forms of Government 

(1) the two types (i66^ifei?ib) ^^<>i , 1^^-'^ c'^ 2 



(. i- ^^^ 



"^ <: , z . 1 i - i s 



(a) the normal : **such polities as regard the good of 
the Community. .according to the principle of ab- 
stract justice** , i.e. a society of free persons 

(b) the corrupted or perverted: "such as regard the 
private good of the rulers" »i.e.ruler-subject re- 
lation is that of master-slave. 

(2) the six forms 

(a) the normal :Monarchy (Kingship) ,Aristocracy and 
Polity ( 1 6 7,1.13 20) i^^o, K^^-zd? 

(b) the perverted:!ryranny,01igarchy and Lemocracy 
( 167,1.9b - 4 b ) -^^0 . ^^^ 3 

(3) the nature of perverted governments (168 ,1.3-7, i2b-4b) 

(a) Tyranny:master over slaves 

(b) 01igarchy:where wealth constitutes the title to 
rule regardless of whether the rulers are a majo- 
rity 

(c) Deraocracy:where the poors are the rulers 
d. The Best Possible State 

(1) The best polity (i7^-ri-iO^-7b) :the life the ma.lority 
of pr^oplo is capable of realizing in an association 
which would be found in a combination of Aristocracy 
and Polity ( 100 , 1 tM>-1B1 , i .~^ [^02, u.,. ^, «....} 

(2) the least bad of th'= perverted forms :I>emocracy (-iöQ, 

1*20 23 -) (30z, [^^ l, 1..6» -:l3^ 

(3) the importance of the middle class:it makes for social 
stability;in actual states the middle cImss tends to- 
wards Democracy or Oligarchy ( iaxLyX»^£-22 ,depending 
on whether the poor ( f armers ,artisans and wage-warners 
are numerically superior to the qualitative super ior 
rieh or whether the superiority of the rieh in quali- 
ty is greater than its inferiority in quantity(184, 
1.10-21);in any event,the middle class will play the. 
role of arbitrator ( lQ4,l>9 b -7 b) (z^o^ ,.0. > 



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I 



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f) 



CG 1 



- 38 - 



Thomas Hob"be g , Levi athriri (1651) 



A. The nnture of the Gt'te: nn n.r-bificir.l crer.bion of ^lan 

(962,1.5-13: "Por by art ... body natural") 

B. The re"sons for setting iip the state: human natura 

1. Man is -m enemy to his fellow man (965 ,1.1-3: "Hercby it is 

manifest . . . every man" ) 

a. three c-'UseG for quarrel: compGtition,diifidence ,slory 
(964,1.8h - Ih) 

h. the consec[uerjce of warf-re: no Justice (966,prir.3: "To 
this war . . . no in justice") 

2. The need for power to keep man in associ'-tion (964,par.4: 

"Again,men h-ive ... over.'-3v/e them all") 

C. The n- tural law: 

1. The naturcl right: the liherty of m-'n to precerve himself 
(966,1.2h - 967,1.3) , fr om which followG 

2 . The n a tur ■ : 1 1 • ' v/ t h--: t Ig 

a. found oy reaGon (967,P-r . 3: "A Law of hature ... oect 

pr e s er ve d " ) and 
h. etern-.l (978,1. 5b-2h) 

3. The two fund'jment"l n- tural Ir-ws: 

a . t o G e e k pc ac e or w-^ir t o pr e g er ve one g elf (967, par . 4 , 
1.131d: " ... that evcry m':iii ... of wpr" ) 

h. to grant fellow man r-s much right ac he decircG for him- 
self (967 , par .5 : "Fron this fund* mental 1-v/ ... ■ g- ir. t 
himGGlf" ) ,■ .G the GoGpel st-ateG (968 ,1. 3-4: "whatsoever 
... to them" ) . 

4. JuGtice: 

a. follows from the third l::w: th-t men perform bheir vo- 
ven.-nt£ (972,p-'r.2: "Prom that law . . . of war"), 

h. coven- nts (or p ctG) heing mutu-a br'.nGf erring of right 
(969,p-ir.2: "The mutual transferring . . . of f-ith"), 



V 



CG 1 



D. The rights of the covereign: 



- 38a - 



1. A commonv/ealth is a coven'int of the multitude to hr^ve one 
man or an assembly reprecent it (979,laEt par . ) »whcrefore 

2. certain rights are connected vvith sovereignty: 

a. the covenant c.'nnot be changed: a monarch cannot bo 
deposed (900,1.11-19: "And therefore ... injustice"), 

b. the covenant is unconditional (981,1.12-18: " The opinion 
... in him united" ) , 

c. the sovereign cannot coimnit injustice (981,l.?b-982 ,1.2: 
"i'ourthly ... injustice" ) , 

d. the sovereign is judge of whrrb opinions are averse 
(982,par.4: "Sixthly,it is annex^d ... published"). 

E. The liberty of subjects : 

The iindividual Citizen has liberty insofar as 

1. the sovereign permits (praetermits) : (988,1.7-11) 

2. certain rights cannot be tr-msferred tlirough a covenant: 
e.g. to refuse to incrirninate one seif (999,par.4: "If a 
man . . . himself " ) , 

3. the lav/ is silent: the subject might sue the sovereign 
(992,1.3-7: "If a subject ... by the sovereign"). 



O 



c. justice CCD be est^';!blished only if thcre is a coercive 
power - the coirmionwealth (972,1.4- - 973,1-3: "Therefore 
... CO , Tuao nv/ e 'j. 1 1 h " ) . 



mPT ■! . «. mmmntim 



CG 1 - 39 - 

John Locke, Of Civil Gover7iment (1690) 

A, The Law of Nature - Freedom and Eauality 

1. Respect of each other's freedom (1011 jl.lOb-^b : "The State 

of Nature ... another*s pleasure") 

2. Freedom (1011, par. 3: "To understand ... any other man.") 

3. Equality (1011,par.4: "A State also ... Subordination or 

sub;jection ...") 



O 



B. Life, Liberty, Property 

1. Liberty 

a. natural liberty:frredom from superior power (1017,par,3: 

"The natural liberty ... for this rule.") 

b. liberty in society: under properly enacted law (1017, 

par.3: "The liberty of man ... the trust put in it.") 

2. Proprrty 

Tv/o meanings of the term : 

a. everything belonging to a person (1019, par. 2: "Though 

the earth ... but himself"), therefore proprrty in- 
cludes life, liberty, estate (1027,par.2: "Man being 
born ... estate,...") 

b. the "work" of his hands (1019,par.2: ". . . The »labour' 

... makes it his property.") 

C. State of Nature and Political or Civil Society (=Commonv7ealth) 

1. The reason for instituting a civil society: 

a. the natural right of punishment ( 1012, par. 3 : "And thus, 

in the State of Nature ... we call punishment.") v;hich, 
however,should be carried out by 

b. ^ivil government (1014 ,par .3: "To this stränge doctrine 

... to condemn himself for it.") 

2. Civil government as a State of nature: 

^ a. in "independent" government m.en are in the State of 

Nature (1015 ,par.2: "It is often asked ... in that State."] 



< ^" ■' «i n~ i i r i ia aa^iaKigajmtBlM, 



CG 1 (John Locke) 



-•39 a- 



(1 



b. whereas absolute monarchy is not a political society 
(1028,par.3 & 4 : "And hence it is evident ...at all." 
"For he being supposed ••• or by his order.") 

D. The purpose,the beginning and the dissolution of political 
society 

1. The purrose of political society: mutual preservaticn of 
property,i.e. life,liloerty ,estate (1032 .par.4 : "The great 
and Chief end ••• many things wanting."; by 

a. making proper laws to preserve that property (1056,par.2, 
first sentence : "Absolute arbitrary power ••• peace and 
quiet • " ) and 

b. not taking it (property ^ estate) without consent (1037, 
par.2,last sentence: "For a man*s property ••• he thinks 
good. ") ,particularly through taxation (1038 ,par.2: "It is 
true governments ••• he pleases to himself ?"). 

2. The beginning of political society: 

a. the consent of the individual (104-4 ,par. 4 ,1« 3-6:" .. .That 
which makes ... one distinct cor:^monwealth. . . " ) 

b. the consent has to be that of a majority (1029, par. 4: 
"For,when any nuinber ... of the majority. ") ,theref ore 

c. the consent obliges the individual to submit to the de- 
termination of the ma^ority (1030, par. 2, 1.6-11: "And thus 
every man ... in the State of ITature ..."). 

3. The dissolution of political society 

a. from without: conquest by foreign power (1044 , par. 4 ,1.6-8: 
"... The usual . . . upon them. " ) 

b. from within 

(1) v/hen the legislative or the: prince act contrary to 
their trust (1048, par. 1 & 2:"There is ,therefore , . . . 
of the people.") 

(2) the people have a right to set up their own governraent 
(1048, par. 3, 1-13-21:". . . Whensoever ,therefore ,the leg- 
islative ... they are in society.") because 

(a) because the legislative is guilty of rebellion 
and not those v;ho srt up a nev; governme^nt (1050, 
last par. ,1.5b-3b :"In both the forementioned cases 
... guilty of rebellion.") and 



■**i^"MiMiaK 



CC 1 (John Locke) 



- 39 T3 - 



(b) the people have a right to defend themselves 
(1051,par.2,first sentenoe:"But if they •..er 
bloodshed. ") 



n 



-- ^— ~- " -•- •-- 



•PMI /'.'.ff 



i i l . "' • ' 



EXAMS 




.«• « ■■■^.jfc- •»%;«%»« 






( ) 



CC 1 - Spring 1970 - Final Examina tion [Draft] 

1. Identifications L20 out of 24] 

2. Peace and iinity were assumed to be the aims of St. August- 
iners City of God, St. Thomas 's ruler and Machiavelli*s prince. 
Explain, why these authors agree on the aims, tut disagree on 
the ultimate purpose of pursuing these aims. 

3. In the opinion of all thinkers discussed happiness or 
salvation is the ultimate goal in man 's life. iKxwkatxwxyxÄH 
S±xxAHSÄıiÄB:^xStxx5hamÄx:^xSiÄfixaÄÄx£Bmji8Rj[XZ±xy±BWxtkKxreaiiza*xx 

t±BHXBfxtkiÄXgaaixa»xxBwaxäxBfxxix±Ä«xf3c>'T0ywkat>L8xtÄHt^ daxtheaBxxx 
aÄihBxxxaBERplxBBÄaagtsxÄKXBiBifBiixkyxBithKixAxiEtHtifixBix^iaiB 
oxxßiBÄiBx« (a) Contrast the thoughts on the relation between 
and salvation of St. Augustine and St. Thomas with those of 
Luther and Calvin. (b) Indicate to what extenx §t? Augustine 
and Pico would agree on man^-s most exalted state (whether in this 
life or in the hereafter) and Cicero, Pomponazzi, Luther and Calvin 
on man 's conduct in ordinary life. 

4. Compare the views of St. Thomas Aquinas, Locke and Hobbes 

on (a) the principle from which authority in a civil society is 
or ought to be derived and (b) the pxÄkiaiii right of civil society 
of resistance to tyrants. 

OR 

In what sense may each of the folloving three thinkers 
be classified as a "Renaissance man": Machiavelli, Pico della 
Mirandola and Pomponazzi ? 



n 



o 



CG 1 T - Spring 1964 - Examinations 

First Midterm Make-up Examination 

1. Identify 12 of the following terms : 



i 



Cleisthenes 

Solon 

Demes 

i^erioikoi 

Battle of Plataea (479) 

Allegorical Cave (Plato) 

Antioch 



Tribßl Assembly 

Fabius Cunctstor 

Cato 

Gracchi 

Sulla 



t> / 



•■\ '. ■. 4 



<Maro4is Aureiius 
Equites 



2. Aristotle criticizes ii'lato's Republic for overlooking "the 
experience of ages". How does this criticism reflect the dif- 
ferent approaches of Plato and Ariatotle to the ideal state ? 



3. "Cicero 's exposition of a ^'natural law" is correlated .. with 
Roman universalism ... but Cicero also shares with ir'lato and 
Aristotle ... a belief in reason as man 's highest Instrument 
Ol' self-perfection**. Comment, 



^•^*nmr,xi3n^j 



^ 



( 



CC 1 T - Spring 1964 - Examinations 
First Midterm Examination (3/10/64) 
1. Identify 14 of the following terms? 



Pisistratus 

Areopagus 

Lycurgus 

Ephors 

Metics 

Battle of Chaeronea (338) 

Allegorical Cave (Plato) 

Seleucids 



Tarquin the Proud 

Centuriate Assembly 

Scipio Africanus 

Marius 

Praetor 

Optimates 

Lucretius 

Marcus Aurelius 



o 



2. »»Plato embodies the utopian dream of the ideal stete wherein 
all individuals may perfect themselves ... Aristotle is the 
realist who takes account of man and history as he finds 
them** . Comment. 

3. According to Cicero, a law is "not a roere establishment of 
opinion, but an Institution of nature". What does this mean ? 
Would Plato and Aristotle agree with Cicero 's views on law 
and justice ? 



\ 



CC 1 T2 - Second Midterm Examination (12/12/63) 



1. Identify 14 of the following terms! 



('> 



Galerius 

Theodosius 
Alaric 

Clovis 

St •Jerome 

Gregory the Great 

The Rule of St. Benedict 

Cistercian Order 



Commune s 

Edward I 

Simon de Montfort 

Visconti 

Lorenzo Valla 

Elector Frederick the Wise 

"Knights* War" (1522) 

John Knox 



2. Peace and unity were assumed to be the aims of 3t .August- 
iners "City of God", St. Thomas* ruler and Machiavelli's Prince. 
Explain,why these authors agree on the aims but diagree on the 
ultimate purpose of pursuing these aims. 

3. In the opinion of all thinkers discu^sed happiners er sal- 
vation is the ultimate goal in man 's life. (a) Contrast the 
thoughts on the relation betv-een virtue and salvstion of St. 
August ine and St. Thomas with those of Luther and Calvin, (b) In- 
dicate to what extent Plato, St .Augustine and Pico would agree 

on man*s most exalted State (whether in this life or in the here- 
after) and Cicero, Pomponazzi, Luther and Calvin on man*s conduct 
in ordinary life. 



O 



C) 



CC 1 T2 - Second Mdterm Exrmination - Make-up (12/19/63) 



1, Identify 12 of the following terms 



Julien the Apostate 

Theodoric 

Vulgate 

St.Basil 

Pepin the Short 

Donation of Constantine 

Einhard 



Metaysge 

Stetute of Mortmain (1279) 

Grert Schism (1378-1417) 

Ludovico il ivioro 

Erasmus 

Charles V (retLuther) 

Peasrnts* Rebellion (1^24-25) 



2. Compare St. Thomas* ruler v;ith Machiavelli*s prince. What 
are their respective duties toward their suhjects ? How does the 
realm of St. Thomas* ruler compare with St .August ine * s "City of 
God** and Aristotle's best possible government ? 

3. Contrast the thoughts on the relation between virtue and 
salvation of St .Augustine and St •Thorras v/ith those of Luther and 
Calvin. Compare their ideas on salvption with those on happineFs 
of Pico and Pomponazzi. To what extent v?ould Plato, St. Augustine 
and Pico agree on the one hand and Cicero, Pomponazzi and Calvin 
on the other ? 



O 



o 



o 



CC 1 J - Spring 1963 - Examinations 

2nd Midterm Examination 

1. Identify 12 of the following terms 



Julian the Apostate 

Theodoric 

Clovis 

St. Louis IX 

Henry I (England) 

Thomas a Backet 

Lombard League (1176) 



Frederick II ((Jermany) 

Allods 

Subinf eud a t i on 

Provisions of Oxford (1258) 

Vulgate 

Synod of the Lateran (1059) 

Lorenzo Valla 



2. Peace and unity were assumed to be the aims of St • Augustine » s 
City of God, St. Thomas» ruler and Machiavelli» s prince. Ex- 
plain,why these authors agree on the aims,but disagree on 
the ultimate purpose of pursuing these aims. 

3. In the opinion of all thinkers discussed happiness or salva- 
tion is the ultimate goal in man* s life. In what way do St. 
Augustinei St. Thomas, Pico and Pomponazzi view the realiza- 
tion of this goal as reward of virtue ? To what extent do 
these authors accept concepts developed by either Aristotle 
or Plato or Cicero ? 



b. 



C01^Er;iIP0KARY CIVILIZATION I 



2nd L'idterm Examination 



November 1962 



Group A 



1. Identify 12 of the follovvin^ terms 



j Theodosius 
Alaric 
Clovis 

Strasbourg Oaths (842) 
St. Louis IX 
Henry I (England) 
Thomas a Becket 
Frederick I (Germany) 



Henry VI (Germany) 
Concordat of ^orms (1122) 
St .Benedictes Rule 
Sub Inf eudat ion 
Provisions of Oxi'ord (1264) 

Allods 

Gregory the Great 

Septuagint 



2. St .Thomas Aquinas "represents mcdieval attempts to reconcile the con= 
flicting elements of the Judaic-Ohr ist ian and Graeoo-Roman traditions 
•.. Ilis whole method of approach is Aristotelian while his concluGions 
are in large measures spccifically Christ ian**. Comment on this State- 
ment and indicate in what ways St .Thomas» choice of governmont follows 
ideas presented by Plato and Cicero and the purpose of his ohosen gov- 
ernment those by Aristotle and St .August ine . 

3. In the opinion of all thlnknrr» discussod harpiness or salvation is the 
ultimate goal in man 's lifo* How do St. Paul, St .August ine and St .Thomas 
viev/ the realization of this goal as rev/a:i d of faith or virtue V To 
v/hat extent do these authors accept concepts developed by either llato 
or Aristotle or Cicero ? 



O 



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j mmmmifimiftmaf^» 



( )■ 



o 



CG 1 U - Spring 1962 - ICxaminations 

2nd Midterm Examination 

1. Identify 12 of the follov;ing terms 

[Group a] 

Civitates (Rome) 

Theodoric 

Clovis 

St. Louis IX 

Henry I (England) 

Thomas a Becket 

Frederick I (Germany) 



Henry VI (Germany) 

St.Benedict • s Rule 

Subinfeudation 

Provisions of Oxford 

Allods 

Guelfs 

Lorenzo Valla 



[Group B] 

Julian the Apostate 

Vulgat e 

Synod of the Lateran 

Alaric 

Pepin the Short 

Albingensian Crusade 

Henry II (England) 



Richard I (England) 

Lomnard League (1176) 

Frederick II (Germany) 

Robert Bruce 

Curia regis (France) 

Ghibellines 

"Praise of Folly" 



2. Peace and unity were assumed to be the aims of St .Augustinus 
City of God, St .Thomas» ruler and Machiavelli* s prince. Ex— 
piain, why these authors agree on the aims,but disagree on 
the ultimate purpose of pursuing these aims. 

3. In the opinion of all thinkers discussed happiness or sal- 
vation is the ultimate goal in man's life. In what way do 
St .August ine, St .Thomas, Pico and Pomponazzi view the reali- 
zation of this goal as reward of virtue ? To what extent 
do these authors accept concepts developed by either Aris- 
totle,or Plato or Cicero ? ... 



.. .. - ■— ^^^.*-*« - ■■ ih »i II -« 1- ■■--, aä rf^ 



CONTEi:POixAKY CIVILIZATION I 



2nd r.idtGrm Examination 



Novembnr 19S2 






1. 

O 



Group B 



Identify 12 of the following terms 



Julian the Apostat e 

Vulgate 

Synod of the Lateran 

Theodoric 

JepiB the Short 

Alblgensian Crusade 

Henry II (England) 

Richard I (Sn^land) 



Lombard League (1176) 

Fredoriok II (Gerrnany) 

Robert Bruce 

Curia rc.'^is (Franco) 

Franklins 

Lonation of Constantin (740-750) 

Cistcrci:^n Order 

Philip II August US (Frenoh) 



» St «Thomas Aquinas »»represents mr^dieval attempts to reconclle the con- 
flicting elcmcnts of the Judaic-Christian and Graeco-Rorüan traditions 
... Ilis whole method of approach is Aristotelian v/hile bis conclusions 
are iE large measures specifically Christian". Comment on this State- 
ment and indicate in what ways St «Thomas» choicc of gcvernmcnt füllov/s 
ideas presented by Flato and Cicero and the purpose of bi:- cho^en ^^ov- 
ernrnent thooe by Aristotle and üt .Augustino. 

3. li" the opinion of all thinkers discussed harpiness er salvation Is the 
uljimatc f;oal in man's life. IIow do 3t .Taul, St .August ine nnd St »Thomas 
View the realization of this goal as reivard of faith or virtue ? To 
what ^xtent do these authors accept concepts developed by either Plato 
or Arl.'.totle or Cicero ? 



Q 



\ 



CC 1 CIV - Fall 1961 - Exeminfttions 



Second Midterm Exflmination (l2/l5/^l) 



- 2 - 



1, Identify 12 of the following terms 



c 



./ 



Julian thp ApostPte 

Alflric 

Clovis 

(St.) Louis IX 

Thomas h ßpcket 

Richard I 

Henry VI (German) 



St, Benedict' s Rule 

Synod of the Lateran 

Lombard League (1176) 

Allods 

Latifundia 

Curia r^gis 

Visconti 



O 



2. Pesce and unity were assumed to be the aims of St. Augustin' s City of 
God, St. Thomas' rulf?r and Machiavelli' s prince, Explain,why these authors 
agree on the aims but disagree on the ultimfite purpose of pursuing these 
aims. 

3. In the opinion of all thinkers discussed heppiness or salvetion is the 
ultimate gopl in man' s life. In what way do St. Sugustine, St. Thomas, Pico 
and Pomponazzi view the realizftion of this goal as rewfrd of virtue ? 
To what extent do some of them accept concepts developed by either Plato 
or Cicero ? 



liMBiaii aiiii 



i w p W u rw ^ i M ' M.H IWM " '^' W ' -r' "" ' 



m i^>i i iiii-»»)^^i»n^ I» » 



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CG 1 - Spring i960 - 2nd Mid-term Examination 



ee 1 c 



1. Identify 10 of th^ foll.O'.ving terms 



< ) 



o 



Galerius 

Vulgate 

St .Benedict *s Rule 

Allods 

Fief 

(St.) Louis IX 



Common Law 
Knirhts of the Shire 
RolDert Bruce 
Investiture Controversy 
Cluniao Reform 
Visconti (Milan) 



2. Peace and unity v/^re assumed to "br the aims of St .August ine* s 
"City of God" , St. Thomas» ruler and Machiavelli» s Prince. Ex- 
plain,v/hy these authors agrec on the aims iDut disagree on 
the ultimate purpose of pursuing these aims. 

3. sSSEiilt the rev/ards of Pico*s "Intellectual'^ and St .Augustin 
Saint s and contrr^st them v/ith the rev/ard of St. Thomas* and 
Pomponazzi*s g virtuous Citizen. 

CG 1 G 

1. Identify 10 of the follov/ing tr.rms 



Julian the Apostate 

Preshyteries 

Regulär clergy 

Clovis 

latifundia 

curia re,c:is 



Benefice 
Lom.'bard League 
Synod of the Lateran 
Council of Constance 
Petrarch 
Lorenzo Valla 



2. Compare St. Thomas* ruler v;ith lÄachiavelli* s prince \ "^^hat 
are their respectlve dutins tov/ard their su^bjects ? Hov; does 
the realm of St. Thomas* ruler compare v/ith St .August ine 's 
"City of God" and Aristotle*s best possihle government ? 

3* What is the reward of Pico*s "Cheru.bic life" ? Compare it " 
with the one envisioned for virtuous Citizens by St.Augustine 
St .Thomas and Pomponazzi. 



rmmmmmrnß'im 



ii -| i .. i .i >ii i - 



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1 



CC 1 - Fall l'jc38 - idnd Mid-term Examina tion 

CC 1 CCC {rc:/8) 

1. Identify 10 of zhe follovjing terms 



Presb>' teros 



Frederick Barbarossa 



\ 



Subinfeuaaticn 



St.BernaPQ 



Demesne 



Mendicant friars 



Knights of the Shire 



Schi sin of the Church 



Model Parliam^int 
Cape ti ans 



The PlatoniG Acaderny 
Lorenzo Valla 



<,. Peace and unity were assuined to be the aims of St. August ine »s 
"City of God",St.ThOuias ^ rulor and .lachiavelli »s Priiice, Ex- 
plain,v;ii;y- these autiiors agi'ee ou th':. aims but disagree on the 
ultiiaate pur^^ose of pursuiiig these aims« 

S, St. Augustine, Pico and LuLher viewea man 's nature very much like 
Cicero ana St. Paul, But v;nile St.Augc^s Line anu Lutner expecteu 
man to bt^ concernoa .äth his splritual nature in one v;ay and 
for one purpo.-.e Pico reco..m]enued to man anotner v;c,y ana purpose. 
Contrast tnese v/ay s and purposes, 

CC 1 ICK (lk,/lij) 

1, luentify Ikj of the follo/.'ing 'terms 



Episcopus 



Prohibition of Simony 



Alloas 



Doixiinicans 



'^Franklin.;" 



Dukes of .ülan 



Philip IV 



Petrarch 



Edwara I 



Durgesses 



O 



Frederick. II 
St. Benedict 



Shire Courts 

Loüibard League (11 Vt) 



;^. Compare St. Thomas' rul'-r with I.Iachiavelli 's prince. '"hat are 
their respective dutios tov/ard th';ir subjects ? Hov; does the 
realra of St, Thomas' ruler compare 'vith St, Augustino 's ''City 
of God" and Aristotle's best possible gov-^rnm .'nt ? ilov; uov-s 
i.lacniavelli 's '^lioan ana fox" compare ith Plato's philosoph^-^r- 
king ? 



.^^ 



Pf 



^«Wrf- ■' Vi 



— — '— * ■ T" 



CC 1 - Fall 1358 - :and r/[id-torm ^xaüiination 



o 



U m 



i 



In uhe opiaion of all thinktrs discusseci hrijpin ss or salvation 
iis the ultimate goal in xuan^s lifo, Go^pare the thoughts cn the 
T'-latioa botween virtue anu :i;alvai>iOxi of St.Augui.tine aacl St. 
Thomas with chose of Luth-r and Calvin. Cona^ast tn'-rir ideas 
on salvacion jitn tno^rj on ha^^piness of Pico ond Pomponazzi. 
xo w'hat exte^nt -.oulu Plato^St.Paul^St.Augustine ana Pico agroe 
on the one ha^iu axiu CiC'jro,Poaiponazzi ana Calvin on the other 
iiana ? 



(■; 



\ 



CC 1 - Fall term 1963 - Ist midterm eyemination - Avrich 



( 



1. Aristotle ctiticlzes Pl£to*s Republic for overlooking 

"the experience of ages" . How does this criticipm reflect 
the different approaches of Plato and Aristotle to the 
ideal State ? Is Cicero 's approach,in his essay on law, 
closer to Plato 's or to Aristotle *s ? 



O 



2« According to Cicero, a law is "not a mere establishment of 
opinion, but an Institution of nature". V/hst does this 
mean ? Would Plato and Aristotle agree with Cicero 's views 
on law and justice ? 

3. Aristotle calls virtue "a mean betv/een extremes". How does 
he apply this notion to the state ? Would Plato and Cicero 
agree with Aristotle 's conception of virtue ? 



CÜITTEMPOIvARY CIVXLIZATIOIl 1 



First Liidterm Ey.aminstion 



October 1965 



!♦ Identify 14 vf the following terms? 

Pislstratus Tarquin the Proud 

Areopagus Centurlate Assembly 



LyoTirgus 

Kphors 

Lietics 

Battle of Chaeronea (338) 

Allegorlral Cave (Plato) 

L'iithrld'tes 



Sclplo Africanus 

Llrrius 

Praetor 

Optlmcites 

Lucretius 



Liarcus Aurelius 



2» "Platf embodies the utoplan dreaiB of the ideal State whereln all 
Indiiiduals may perfect themselves ••• Aristotle Is the realist 
7<rho takes account of man and history as he finds them." Coaimento 

3» »*'ioero*s exposition of a '»natural law** is correlated ••« with 

.Oman imiversallsm ••. hut Cioero also shares with Plato and Aris- 
totle *•» a helief in reason as man's highest Instrument of seif- 
perfectlon«*' Coxmaent* 



C 



V 



)■ . V. ■ ' 

■-*,■■' 



V .•=. 



-\t i.j..'- 



COKTEMPORARY CIVILIZATICN 1 



V 



First Mldterm Examina tion 

Group A 



1. Identlfy 12 of the followlng terms: 



March 1962 



Plslstratus 

Lycursus 

Ephors 

Metlcs 

Battle of Chaeronea (338) 

Allegorlcal Cave (?lato) 

Mithridates 



Tarquin che Proiad 

Centuriabe Assembly 

Scipio Africanus 

Marl US 

Praetor 

Optlmatea 

Lucretlus 



2* "Plato embodles the utoplan dream of thc ideal state 
whereln all Indivlduala may perfect theidsolves* . « 
Arlstotle is the i\^>alist t*ho takes acccurii; of man rnid 
history as he finds them." Gomment,^ 

3* "Cicero* s axpcsitlon of a "natural lavj^' i^ wiorrelatod..^ 
wlth Roman unlversalism««, (but Cicero eise ^hares with 
Plato and Arlstotle) ^ ,« a bellef In reeson as man's 
hlghest Instrument of seif -perfect Ion." Comment. 



O 



'■<*. u. 



^ 



CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION 1 



First Mldterm Examlnation 

Group B 

1. Identlfy 12 of the followlng terms: 
Clelsthenes Pym^hus 



March 1962 



Themistocles 

Areopagus 

Demos 

Periolkol 

Battle of Plataea (479) 

Allegorlcal Cave (Plato) 



Pabius Cunctator 

Cato 

Gracchl 

Equltes 

Clvltates 

Marcus Aurolius 



"Plato embodles the utopian dream of the ideal state 
whorein all individuals may perfect themaelves 



» • • 



Aristotle is the realist who takes account of man and 
history as he finds them»" Comment, 
3. "Cicero's exposition of a "natural law" is correlated .«. 
with Roman universalism .». (but Cicero also shares with 
Plato and Aristotle).., a belief in reason as man's 
highest Instrument of self-perfection," Coranento 






CC 1 U - Spring 1962 - Examinations 



- 2 - 



r 



,o 



Ist llidterm Examinfftion - Make-ups 

A (Miss Cox) 
1. Identify 10 of the following terms 



Solon 

Pericles 

Pelopennsian Wars 

Spertan Oligarchy 

Ptolemies 

Antioch 



Twelve Tablets 

Battle of Canna© 

Sulla 

Latifundia 

Centuriete Assembly 

Lucretius 



2, How did Aristotle distinguish between good ©na bad governments ? Which 
one is bis ideal government 7 How does it compare witJa Plato* s ideal 
State ? Why did Aristotle reflect on the best possible government only? 

3. Why is,according to Cicero, Natural Law just ? How does Cicero* s concept 
of justice compare with Plato's knowledge of the Gooa 7 What is the re- 
ward of acquiring the knowledge of the Good and of obeying the Netural 
Law respectively 7 

B (Mrs. Miliner) 
1, Identify 12 of the following terms 



Helots 

Draco 

Archons 

Battle of Thermopylae 

Delian Confederation 

Thucydides 

Seleucids 



Cioinnatus 

Tribal Assembly 

Censor 

Sulla 

Populäres 

Pompey 

Polybius 



2, How would laws be made in Plato* s ideal stete and in Aristotle» s best 
possible stete 7 How can they be judged to be gooa,according to both 
authors 7 How would Cicero evaluate them 7 

3. "Virtue evidently lies in perfect rational ity,ana this resides in the 
inmost depth of our nature ,.• Such is the "preamble of the law*»,to 
use the expression of Plato«** Explain this Statement by Cicero and 
his reference to Plato, 



»!»•««»•••»••• 



CC 1 CIV - Fall 1961 - Examinations 



( 



First Midterm Examination (10/20/61) 

1. Identify 12 of the following terms 
[Group A] 



Pisistratus 

Ephors 

Metics 

Battle of Chaeronea (338) 

Allegorical Cave (Plato) 

Mithridates 

Antioch 

[Group B] 

Cleisthenes 

Solon 

Demes 

Perioikoi 

Battle of Plataea (479) 

Allegorical Cave (Plato) 

Larvae [= Lares] 



Tarquin the Proud 

Centuriate Assembly 

Scipio Afrioanus 

Marius 

Praetor 

Pont if ex maximus 

Lucret ius 



Py rr hus 

Fabius Cunctator 

Cato 

Gracchi 

Civitates 

Jurisconsult ant 

Marcus Aurelius 



O 



2. "Plato embodies the utopian dream of the ideal State wherein 
all individuals may perfect themselves ... Aristotle is the 
realist who takes account of man and history as he finds 
them". Comment. 

3. "Virtue evident ly lies in perfect rationality and this resi- 
des in the inmost depth of our nature . • • Such is the "pre- 
ambl^ of the law",to use the expression of Plato". Explain 
this Statement by Cicero and his reference to Plato. 



■t»|. »«^ 'R?»."''' "m" 



f) 



CG 1 - First Midterm Examination 

Group B (corrected Version) 

1. Identify ai2 of the following terms: 

Pyrrhus 



Cleisthenes 
Areopggus a 



Demes 



Perioikoi 



Xerxes 



Battle of Plataea (479 BC) 
Allegorical Cave (Plato) 



Fabius Cunctator 

Cato 

G-racchi 
Equites 
Civitates 
Marcus Aurelius 



Additional terms 



Censor 



Cincinnatus C 
Tribal Assembly 



Sulla 



Solon 



Archons 



Toga Candida 
Tribüne s 



M 



■«•^wnF»'"»""" 



■^^•^w^^iwr<«^p*p««i»»m»» 



■^w* 



CG 1 CC - Fall i960 - Examinations 
First Midterm Exam (10/17/60) 



!• Identify 12 of the following terms: 



1. Pisistratus 

2. Cleisthenes 

3. Ephors (Sparta) 

4. Demes (Athens) 

5. Metics (Athens) 

6. Battle of Plataea (479) 

7. " " Chaeronea (338) 

8. Antioch 



9. Tarquin the Proud 

10. Centuriate Assembly 

11. Twelve Tables 

12. Scipio Africanus 

13. Gracchi 

14. Marius 

15. Lucret ius 



2. '^Plato embodies the utopian dream of the ideal State wherein 

all individuals may perfect themselves. . .Aristotle is the 
realist who takes account of man and history as he finds 
them". Comment. 

3. **Cicero's exposition of a "natural law" is correlated. . .v/ith 

Roman universalism. . • [hut Cicero also shares with Plato 
and Aristotle]. .a belief in reason as man*s highest In- 
strument of self-perfection". Comment. 



( 






CC 1 C - Spring 1960 - Ist Mid-term Examina tion (s/ll) 
1, Identify 10 of the foUowing terms: 



Solon 

Feloponnesian War 

Bpttle of Chperoneo 

Ptol erries 

Antioch 

Tsrquin the Proud 



Twe]v9 Table ts 

Gracohi 

Battle of Cfnnae 

Cato 

Marcus /."cire] ius 

Lucretius 



2. "Plato embodies the utopian drear*' of the ideal stote wherein all in- 

dividuals may perfect themselves. . . Aristotle is the rerlist wxio takes 
account of man and history as he finds them". Comraent. 

3. "Cicero' s exposition of a "natural law" is correla ted. . ,with Roman uni- 

versal ism, .. (but Cicero also shares vfith Plato ana Ari::totl t^O • •« belief 
in reason as man' s highest instrument of self-perfection". Comment. 

CG 1 G - Spring 1960 - Ist ..lid-terra Expminf'tion (3/l4) 
1. Identify 10 of the fullowing terms: 



Pericles 
Pisitra tas 
Perioikoi 
Fabius Cunctator 
Mar ius 
^ Seleucids 



Scipio Africanus 

Praetor 

Lucretius 

iiiiarcus Aurel ius 

ShedOTs (Pl^to) 

Justice (Greek concept - Cicero) 



8, How lid Aristotle distinguish between ,?00vx ana bad ;^overninents ? Whijh 
one is bis ideal government ? How does it compare with Plato's iaeal 
stPte ? Why iid Aristotle inquire into the best possible ??overnment 
only ? 

3. Why is,accordin/;; to Cicero, Na tiral Law just ? How aoes Cicero' s concept 
of justice compare with Plato's knowledge of the Good 7 Wnat is the re- 
ward of Pcquiring the knowledge of the Good ana obeying the Natural Law ? 



( 




r; 



CC 1 CC - Fall i960 - Examination questlons not used 



1. Identifications: 

16, Solon 

17. Perioikoi 



18. Cato 

19. Sulla 



20. Marcus Aurelius 



3. "Virtue evidently lies in perfect rationality ,and this re- 
sides in the inmost depth of our nature. . .Such is the "pre- 
amble of the law",to use the estpression of Plato". Explain 
this Statement by Cicero and his reference to Plato. 



CC 1 CIV - Fall 1961 - Examination questions not used 



1. Identif ications : 

15. Lycurgus (p.60) 

16. Areopagus (p.65J 

17. Themistocles (p.67) 

18. Thermopylae (p.67) 



19. latifundia (p.l07) 

20. Optimates ^p.l09) 

21. Equites (p.l09) 

22. Populäres <,p*109) 

23. Pompey 



^Ifelteji 



CC 1 CC - Spring 1959 - Ist Mid-tsrm ExaminPtion 
1. Identify 10 of the follo^^ing terms: 



Pericles 

Bettle of ChPeronea 

Ftolerai'?s 

CPto 

Grecchi 

Praetor 



Lucretins 

ja] erius 

Image (Plato) 

Jj'irst principles (Aristotle) 

Civil Lew (Cicero) 

Spirit (St. Paul) 



2. Ilovr did i^ristotle distiiiguish between good end baa governtnents ? "/^hich 
one is bis ideal government ? How does it compare with Plrto's ideal 
State ? Why did Aristotle reflect on the best possible government only ? 

3. Why is,accoriing to Cicero, Natural LaTT just ? How does Cicero» s concept 
of justice compare vtith Flato's Knowledge of the Goo^ ? What is the re- 
ward of ecquiring the knoiirleage of the G-ood or obeying the Natural Lavr 7 

Make-up Fxarai^rtion 

1. Identify 10 of the follo-ring terms: 
Solon Theodos i-is 
Seleucids Fontifex maximus 
T'ielve tablets Civitates 

Sulla Allegorical cave (Plato) 

Punic lars Polity (Aristotle) 

Marcus Aurelius faith ( St. Paul) 

2. Ho^ would laws be maae in Plato' s ideal stPte pyij. in Aristotle' s best 
possible State ? How crn they be judged to be goOa,accoraing to both 
a ithors ? How would Cicero evaluate them ? 

3. To what extent rre Plato's concept of intelligence ena Cicero' s concept 
of reason similar ? How would Plato have characterized Aristotle' s methoa 
of refleoting on government 7 l/?hy is,in the opinion of all three autiiors, 
virtue connected with man' s reason 7 



o 



^TMUt«Js:^V4KKJ9^^Hl^i^W«. . 



CC 1 KKK - FbU 1959 - "FlxPrainations 

Ist Midterm Kx^mi^Ption (10/2^59) 

1. Identifv 14 of the following terms: 



Solon 

Pericles 

Bflttle of ChPeroner 

Ptolemies 

Seleucids 

Twelve Tfiblets 

CPto 

Scipio AfricPnus 



Sulla 

Praetor 

Marcus Aurelius 

Lucret ius 

Shadows (Plato) 

First principles (Aristotle) 

Polity (Aristotle) 

Civil Lpw (Cicero) 



2. How did Aristotle distinguish between gooa ana bad governments ? 
Whifih one is his ideal governraent ? How does it compare with Plato' s 
ideal state ? Why iid Aristotle reflect on the best possible govFspn- 
ment only ? 

3. Why is,according to Cic^e^^o, Natural Lr-n .just ? How does Cicero» s con- 
cept of justice compare with Plato' s knowl eage of the Good ? What is 
the reward of acqiiring the kno^-^'ledge of the Good or obeying the 
Natural Law ? 



\ / 



^ 



CC 1 - Fall ltJ58 - Ist Mid-term Examination 

CC 1 CCC 

1. Identify 10 of the f ollo ing terms: 



Pericles 

Ptoleiüiüs 

Cato 

Twelve Tables 



Gracchi 



Justini an 



Lucretiub 

Galerius 

Pontifex ina::imus 

Images (Plato) 

Pervertod governinent (Ari^totl-O 

Faith (St. Paul) 



;i. ^Vhat woula be an ideal gov ;rnment according to Plato as conpared 
to Aristotle ? What class vould be tht; inost important in Plfto's 
ideal State and v/hich one in Aristotle »s best possible state ? 
V/hy ? 

5. What ^Torm" ..oulu Plato ^s iaeal ruler have to knov/ ? Hov; does this 

Form compare v/ith Cicero »s "Natural Lav/" ? To 'hat extent are the 

Forms aiiu Natural Law universal anu divine co.iCepts ? Hovv are both 
related to virtue ? 



C 



CC 1 ICK 

1. Identify 1*^ of the follo wing t^rms 

Solon Julian the Apostate 



Battle of Chaeronea 
Seleucids 



Marius 



Marcus Aurelius 



Punic l'/ars 



Eaict of Milan 



Theodosius 



Praetor 



Civitates 



Allegorical cave (Plato) 

Citizen (Aristotle) 

Justice (Cicero »s "Roman Concept") 



2. Hov; aid Aristotle distinguish between good and bad governments ? 
WTiich one is his ideal government ? Hov; does it compare v/ith 
Plato 's ideal State ? V/hy aid Aristotle rcflect only on the 
best possible government ? 



-i 



K 



CC 1 - Fall 1958 - Ist Mid-term Examination 

S. Why is^according to Cicero, Natural Law just ? How ^o^f^^^n^'^^'o 
concept of justice compare .vith Plato»s knov;ledge of the Good ? 
What is the reward of ac^uiring the knov/ledge of the Gooa or obey- 
ing the Natural Law ? 

Ä. How ao St. Paulis teachings illustrate that in Christianity ^Reason 
gives way to Faith as the supreme principle of human salvation" 
(Student Manual) ? 



C 



CG 1 - Spring 1958 - Ist Mid-term Examination 



( 



( 



'■^ 



CG 1 C 

1. Identify 8 of the following terms 



Pericles 

Peloponnesian T7ar 
Seleuclds 
Alexandria 
Jurisconsultant 



Marcus Aurelius 

Images (Plato) 

Intelligence (Plato) 

Perverted governraent (Aristotle) 

Law (Epicurean concept) 



2. What is Plato* s ideal government corapared with firistotle's 
best possible government ? Which class would be the most im- 
portant in Plato* s ideal State and which one in Aristotle 's 
best possible State ? Why ? 

3. Why is,according to Cicero, Natural Law just ? What is the re- 
ward of practicing justice and what is the punishment of viol- 
ating it ? How does Gicero's concept of justice compare with 
Plato' s knowledge of the Good ? 

CG 1 K 

1. Identify 10 of the following terms : 



Solon 

Peloponnesian War 
Pt olemies 
Antioch 
Macedon 
Twelve Tables 



Gracchi 
Marius 
Lucret ius 
Images (Plato) 
Happiness (Stoic) 
Civil Law (Cicero) 



2. 



How did Aristotle distinguish botween good and bad governments 
and how did he subdivide both types of governments ? Which is 
his ideal form of government ? How does it compare with Plato*: 
ideal State ? Why did Aristotle reflect only on the best pos- 
sible government ? 

3. What •♦Form»' would Plato' s ideal ruler have to know ? Why ? 
How does this Form compare with Cicero 's "Natural Law" ? To 
what extent are the Forms and Natural Law universal and divine 
concepts ? How are both related to virtue ? 



, .•■■^i: 



CC 1 - Spring 1j58 - 
CC 1 K (5/5) 



lind 



Mid-term Examination 



!• 






Coinpare the break-up of (a) the Roman Empire, (b) the Frankish 
Empire ana (c) the Empire of the Hohenstauf en. How i-ere they 
aividecL and wno were the successors of each empire ? 

What is the ultimate goal of St. Augustiners "City of Goci" as 
compared with the ultimate goal of St. Thomas» governance of a 
good ruler ? How do the Citizens of the "City of God" prepare 
for this goal and v;hat does the good ruler do to accomplish the 
purpose of his governance ? 

3. What is the reward of (a) Augustiners Citizens of both eitles, 
(b) St. Thomas» good ruler, (c) Pico»s "intellectual" and (d) Pom- 
ponazzi's vituous man ? Compare the respective rev;ards v/ith the 
concept of reward in the philosophies of Plato and Cicoro. 



CC 1 C (5/9) 

1. Compare briefly (a) the triumph of Christianity 
Empire with (b) the relation of Papacy and State 
1300 and (c) the Cluniac Reform. 



in the Roman 
between 800 and 



id. What i3,accora^ng to St. Thomas, the aim of the governance of good 
rulers ? How does it compare v/ith the aims of St. Augustiners 
"City of Man" ? Does St. Thomas agree v;ith St. Augustine ivhen he 
maintains that the state is a "necessary evil" ? 

o. What is the rev/ard of Pico^s "Cherubic life" ? Compare it with 
the one envisioned f^r virtuous Citizens by St. Augustine, St. Thom- 
as ana Pomponazzi. 



.'/ 



CG 1 - Fall 1957 - 2nd Midterm Examination 



( 



CG 1 CO 

1. Identify 10 of the following terms 

Theodosius Demesne 

Presbyteros Pief 

Cluniac Reform Suzerain 

Dominicans "Model Parliament" 



Holy Roman Empire 
Edward I 

Venetian Oligsrchy 
Cosimo de* Medici 



2. 'iVhat is the ultimate goal of St.Aagastine * s "City of God" 
as compared with the ultimate goal of St .Thomas* governance 
of a good ruler ? How do the Citizens of the "City of God" 
prepare for this goalat and what does the good ruler do to 
accomplish the purpose of his governance ? 

3. Pico assumed that man has a choice to shape hiraself. vVhat 
can man make of himself ? If he chooses the highest form 
what will be his reward ? Compare this reward with the one 
envisioned for virtuous Citizens by St. Augustine, St. Thomas 
and Pomponazzi. 

CG 1 E 

1. Identify 10 of the following terms 

Constantine I.Iagnate Seven liberal arts 

Council of Nicea (325) ^oloni Capetians 

St. Benedict Chief Vassais Ludovico Sforza 



Francis cans 



House of Cominons Lorenzo de*Tviedici 



2. Y/hat is,according to St. Thomas, the aim of the governance 
of good rulers ? How does it compare with the aims of St. 
Augustiners "City of iiian" ? Does St. Thomas agree with St. 
Augustine when he maintains that the State is a "necessary 

evil" ? 

3. \'7hat is the rward of (a) St • Augustine * s Citizen of the "City 
of God",(b) St. Thomas* good ruler, (c) Pico*s "intellectual" 
and (d) Pomponazzi *s virtuous man ? 



C 



/ 



• ■I I I III • i^,)i 11 ifffr^mmr^fryrvyiff' 



ir w ^ w ww^'i'»^1w»WWr i| i . ' ,H i |l' l WWTwy^ W ' I "J ' » « i J i m i « ■■ n, ii|»i I B l» i m^w»y 



( 



CG 1 - Fall 1957 - Ist Mid-term Examination 

CG 1 E 

1. Identify 10 of the follov/ing terms 



Peloponnesian ^ar 

Ptolemies 

ratricians 

Marius 

Epicureans 

Marcus Aurelius 



Virtue (Socrates) 

Virtuous Citizen (Aristotle) 

Normal govf^rnmpnt (Aristotle) 

Lemocracy (Aristotle) 

Natural Law (Cicero) 

Justice (Cicero* s '♦homan Concept»*) 



2. 



Plato's philosopher-king would have a particular knowledge. 
?/hich of the four states of raind is it ? V'hat does this knowl- 
edge relate to ? Compare the king with the various inhabitants 
of the allegorical cave. 



CG 1 CG 

1. Identify 10 of the follovving terms 



Battle of Chaeronea 

Hellenistic States 

Plebeians 

Sulla 

Pax itomana 

St . Paul 



Forms (Plato) 

Belief ( Plato) 

Justice (Cicero *s "Greek Concepf) 

Kewarded Virtue (Cicero) 

Stoics 

Lucret ius 



2. Aristotle distinguished "between two forms and six types of 
govRrnment. "^hich are they ? What is Aristotle *s basis of 
distinction ? ^^hich is the ideal form of government and why ? 
Which is the best po^^sible govprnm^nt and why ? 



t 



"l: 



>W^ 



■T? vyr- \ffpir 



V 



CG 1 - Spring 19-^7 - 2nd I/.id-term Exaraination 

CG 1 D (4/26) 

1. Identify 10 of the following terms 

St. Paul Demesrie 

Westßoths ^.agnates 

Capetians 



Theodosius 
Clovis 



Edward I 



Loiiibard League 
House of Goi:inons 
Ivlagister Art i um 
Cistercians 



2. What does St . Aagustine mean by the "Gity of üod" ? 'Vho belongs 
to this city ? In what sense does thia city "sojourn" ? 



3. 






The political Organization of medieval society was f eudalistic. 
vVho wäre the sapreme rulers (suzerains) of France, England and 
üex-üiany and how did they assert their rule in dealing with their 
Chief vassals V 

1 C 14/29) 

Identify 10 of the following terms 



Presbyteros 
Eastgoths 
Iv.erovingians 
Charles I.'artel 



Suzerain 
Goloni 
Hägh Gap et 
Hohe ns taufen 



ilouse of Lords 
Baccalaureuso 
St .iienedict 
Dominicans 



( 



■vii 



/ 



2. How did St. Thomas justify the "rule of one" V »Vhat is the main 
purpose of his rule ? .»hat are the chief duties of the ruler ? 

3. Compare brieilv (a) the triumph of Ghristianity in the Roman 
Empire with (b) the relation of Papacy and State between 800 
and 15QC and (c) the Gluniac Reform. 

CG 1 R (4/30) 

1. identify IG of -cne following terms 

Romuluö Aagustulus Gathedral Schools 

Carolingians IMorman Kings 

Chief Vassals Frederick I 

i/emesne i.lodel Parliament 



Seven liberal arts 
Gregory VII 
Glu^-jiac Reform 
Eranci Scans 



«hat is,according to St .Augustine, the relation between the "city 
of (iod " and the "cit^/ of man" ? How '//ere both eitles "foreshadow- 
ed" in history ? What is the ultimate date of human history and 
by what is it preceded ? 

Compare the break-up of (a) the Roman Empire, (b) the Erankish 
Empire and (c) the Empire of the Hohenstauf en. How were they 
devided and who were the successors of each Empire ? 



CC 1 - Spring 19.^7 - Ist Mid-t'^rm Exaiaination 

CC 1 C 

1, Idenuif/ 8 of the folloiving terms 

P'-loponnesiaii IVar Virtue (Socrates) 

Ptol&mies Normal gove-rnrüent (Aristotle) 

Tvtfulve Table L-s Democracy (Aristotle) 

Pax ÄOiddixia. Nai/aral Lav; (Cicero) 

Diocletiari Justice (Cicero ^s '^Piouian Coacept'O 

*i, Plato^s philüsopher-Kiiig ivoulu have a pa.rticular knoivledge, V.'hich 
üf txie four suat.es of uiiiia is it ? '.".'hat aoes Zid3 kno-..vleage relate 
to ? Coi/ipare "Che king Jizh the various inhabitants of che allegoric- 
al cave, 

CC 1 R 

1. Identify IC of the followir'g terms 

ijattle of Chaeronea Images (Plato) 



iielleniötic ütLites 



Patricifins 



f. arius 



Constantine 



ivjithras Cult 



Phil: sopher-king ( Plato) 
Perverted Governr'ent (Aristotle) 
Ar i s t c) G racy ( ;Vr i s t o 1 1 e ) 
Juris- Consultant 
Epi eure ans 



2. 



Cicero distingui shed between \'atural and Civil Law. V^'hich are 
the sources of i^iatural Law V How did Cicero "prove" that T'latural 
Law is divine and universal V 'Vhat i.':' the reward for acting in 
accordancc with Katural Law ? 



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CC 1 - Sx-)rlng 1957 - ist rid-term l^xaraination 

CC 1 D 

1. Identil'y 10 uf tiie i'uliov\ing teriiiS 

Peloponnesian *Var Ponas (Plato) 

Seleucids Belief (Plato) 



Punic ,Varü 



Sulla 



Lucretius 



Pax Romana 



Matural Law (Cicero) 

Justice (Cicero's "Greek concept") 

Civil Law (Epicureans) 

Stoics 



2. Ariötotle distinguisheci between two forms and six types of ^'•overn- 
inent. A'hich are thcy ? Which are the criteria of Aristotle's dis- 
tinction ? .Vhich is the ideal form of governnont and "Vhy ? v'/hich 
is the best possible governrr]';nt and why ? 



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CG 1 - Fall 1956 - Ist Liid-term Exnminrition 

CG 1 DD 

!• Idontify 10 of the follovin^ terms 



reloponnnsi?^n '^ar 
Pt olninips 
li;:acedonia 
'xY;elve Tables 
Pax Kom:ina 
Epicureans 



Virtue (Soor t es) 

Citizen (Aristotl" ) 

Normal ^o- ernment (Ari^totlc) 

Democracy ( Ar ist ot In) 

Na.t ur ^il Lav. ( G ic n r o ) 

Lav; (Cicero* ü "Kom- n Gor;cept " ) 



2. Plato'G philo3opher-kin^' v;oul.l h ve a partiv;ular knov/led^e. Y.'hich 
of the four states of mind is it ? V/hat does this knov.lod^e relate 
to ? Compr're the kin*' to the v';.rious inh,-bitants of the alle^oric- 
al cave. 

CG 1 K 

1. Identify 10 of the follo, in^- terms 



Pericles 

Hellenistic States 
509 3.0. 
Tv/elve Tablets 
Llarc Aur^lius 
Pax Kom-'^na 



Epicureans 
Ima.^es (Pl-^to) 

Philo s o p '--. o r -!<: in/*; ( P 1 -i t o ) 
Citizen (Aristotl'.) 
Pervert«^d Governinont ( A.rist otl*-^ ) 
/Jurist ocracy (Aristotle) 



2. Cicero distinfaiished b^tv'een 'Tatural and Civil Lav;. ^'ha': consti- 
tutes Katural Law ? Hör 1id Cicero '^prove" th;it I. tural Lav/ is 
divme ;nd universal ? What is th*^- rev/ard for actin^; in aocordance 
v/ith I\\'itural Lav; ? 

CG 1 CG 



1. Identify 10 of the fo^lov;inß terms 



338 3.G. 
Seleucids 
Twelve T-blets 
Punic ";ars 
August US 
Hellenistic Science 



Stoics 

Forms (Pl-ito) 

Philo sopher-kin^^ (Plato) 

Civil Lav.' (Epicureans) 

Natural Lav; (Cicero) 

Lar; (Cicero' s "Kotft^ coneept") 



I 

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2. Aristotle distin^uished between tv;o forms and six types of govern7^ 



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CG 1 - Fall 1956 - Examinations 



K 



C 



. ^'hioh are they ? Y/hich aro the critoriri of Aristotle*s dis- 
? Uhich is the best ideal form of governiMjnt and why ? Y/hich 



ment 
tion 
is the best possible government and v.hy ? 

2nd llid-terrn Examination 

CG 1 ED 



1. 



2. 



3. 



Identify ''^ of t^<^ following terr^s 

Sadduoeos The First Crusade 

St.Basil (329-379) "Sabylonian Captivity" (1335-1373) 

Y/estgoths "The Benefit of Clergy" (Henry II) 

läerovingi-'ns Invasion of Scotlaiid (1296) 

Suzerain Frederick I üarbarossa (1152-1190) 

Gornpare briefly the stru^^^^le betv/een the French kings and their 
dukes with the struggle betv/een the Eiiglish kings and their 
barons. 

Li s GUSS the three reasons why Gt. Thomas Ac^uinas preforred the 
rule of one to the rule of niany. 



CG 1 CG 



1. IdOiitify 8 of the following terms 



Pharisees 

Council of Nicaea (325) 

St. Benedict (5'^9) 

Eastgoths 

Fief 



Carolingians 

Angevine Empire 

The Council of Barons (1258) 

Invasion of ^"ales (1283) 

Frcd^rick II (l'^12-1250) 



2« Cornpare briefly the strugglesbet --een papacy and te'-nporal rulers 
leading to the "Babylonian Captivity" and to thr ♦' Investitur e 
Controvpr^y" . 

3. ^"hat are ,according to 5t.Thom:is Aq.uinas,the duties 01 the ruler 
tovvard his country and his Citizens ? 

CG 1 K 

1. Identify 3 of tho following terms 

Essenes "Babylonian Captivity" (1305-1378) 

HoiLulus August iilus "Gorinnon Law" (Henry II) 

Arrnenian Edessa "Llodel Parliament" (1295) 

Lernesne The Invcstiture Controversy (1377) 

The Capetians Interregnum (1254-1273) 



CG 1 - Fall 195^ - Kxaminations 



- 3 - 



I 



2. Compare bric fly the oxpansion of the Frankish kin^dom with the ex- 

p 'nsion of Engl'i.nd under Kdv/ard I and of the Holy Koman Krnpirc under 
Frederick II. 

3. rhat is,a(;cording to ;:t .August ine , the relation iDetween the two Citie 
of God and v^hat is the reward of those belongin^ to these cities ? 



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Queens College 
Division of tho Social Sciences 
Contemporary Civilization 3 
1944-45 



1, Notes on the Course 




i<T ., 



, In this Segment of Contemporary Civilization we shall analyze and appraise 
he Position of the United States in the world order. More specifically, we shall 
Bview the hackgronnd of contemporary international relations, in order to inqiiire 
luto the causes underlying this war - the second world war in a quarter Century. 

In Order to develop a more adequate understanding of the contemporary inter- 
national relations, the course opens with a section on the evolution of the inter- 
national Order of the 19th Century; the effort, after 1918, to establish a League of 
Nations; and the "breakdown of the League system of international Organization in the 
1920* s. The relation of the United States to the general international Order is 
considered primarily from the point of view of American efforts to avoid "foreign 
entanglements" in 1793-1812 and 1914-18. 

The second section leals with certain domestic prohlems and policies herc and 
in Europe during the 1920' s and 1930» s, especially as they affected international 
relations after World V/ar I. 

The third section traces briefly the course of events in Europe during the 
1930» s and analyzes the fund.^imental cleavage in attitudes toward the basis and 
Organization of an international order between the European states - democratic and 
totalitarian. 

The fourth section cons^iders the for®. gn policy of the United States during 
this period. Attention will again be focused on the conflict between democratic 
and fascist concepts of the international order. 

The final section of the course summarizes the development of United-Nations 
policy and Organization, The question will be raised as to how far programs for 
establishing a more stable peace after Victory have progressed to date. 

2. Texts 

Each Student will purchase: 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Third Report of the Commission 

to Study the Organization of Peace (International Conciliatic 

no. 389). 
Kevins and Hacker, eds., Tlae United States and Its Place in World Affairs, 

(N.y. , Heath, 1943). ^ 

Sharp and Kirk, Contemporary International Politics , and Supplement , (N,Y. , 

Farrar and Hinehart, 1940). 

The Library will have: 

American Council on Education, American Isolation Reconsidered , (Washington. 

The Council, 19417^ ' 






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CO. 3, page 2 



3. Outline 



Session 



1-2 



3-4 



5-6 



7-8 



IQ 



11 - 12 



13 

14 - 15 

16 

17 - 18 

19 



20 - 21 






^3 
24 



Topic Readinfi 

I. Tlie Background of Contemporary International Relations 

Sharp and Kirk, chs. 1-2 



Introduction; a general viow of the 
international Order. 

Ingredlents of international relations; 
geography and natural resources; map 
study. 



ibid., eh. 3 



:.>) 



Ingredlents of international relations; ibid. , chs« 5-6 
nationalism. 






Imperialism in the 19 th and 20 th 
centuries. 

Efforts to stabilize international 
relations in the 19th coatury. ' 

The First World War in retrospect: 
causes of the breakdown of the löth 
Century international Order. 

The United States in the international 
Order, 1793-1920: the search for 
neutrality. 



ibid., chs. 10-11 



ibid., eh. 20 



Kevins and Hacker, chs. 3-4 



Am. Council on Edueation, pp. 
1-41 ;pp. 42-72, and doeuments 



The United States stake in the Far East. Kevins and Hacker, eh. 20 



The Versailles Treaty system: an over- 
view. 

"The League system of international 
Cooperation. " 

"The quGst for öecurity." 



"The Illusion of peace without 
security." 



Sharp and Kirk, eh. 21 
Kevins and Hacker, chs. &-6 

Sharp and Kirk, Chi . 22 



Kevins and Hacker, eh,^ , 7^ ^L 
Sharp and Kirk, eh. 23' 



Sharp and Kirk, eh. 24 



II. The Impact of Domestic Conditions on International Relations in the 



rx 



^i m 



1920' s r 1930' s 

The American dj-lemma - domestic erisis 
and international policies. 

The European economic erisis. 



Kevins and Hacker, chs. 8, 
(1>,22. 

ibid. , eh. 14 



"^hB Position and politics of the U. S. S.R. ibid., eh. 18 
"The small nations of eastcrn Europe." ibid. , eh. 19 



^L^ 



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C.C. 3, page 3 



1 



Session 



25 - 26 



' r 



y 

27 
28 
29 
30 



Readin^ 
ibid., ch, 15 



Topic 

"Hitlür's Germany." 

KOÜH: One additional session is 
assigned for additional reacling and 
for discussion on the "background of 
Nazi Germany, 



III, The Oonflict of the 1950' s ~ Fascist Imperialism vs. Demo oratio 
Ap peasemen t 



The break do^wn of the League system. 
"The new struggle for pov;er." 
"The fniits of appeasement," 



Sharp and Kiri<;, ch, 24 
ibid., oh. 26 a/^-'.^'^ 



ibid. , ch. 27 



«Xv.') 



"The end of appeasement - and öfter* ^ ibid. , oh, 28 

(cf, Nevins and Hacker, chs, 16-1775 



i t 



l 



I 



31 - 32 



33 - 34 



35 



36 - 37 



38 



/ 



^ ^ - m 



I ' - 



IV. American Foreign Policy in a t'eriod of Appeasement 
"The new neutrality." 



"Inter-Arnerican Relations." 



[Ehe United States find the Far East. 



ijncrican stakes, 1930-. 



The outbrcak of war. 



The emergenoe of the United Nations« 



Am. Council on Education, 
pp. 73-87; 88-115, and 
documents (cf. Nevins and 
Hacker, chs, 31-32; Sharp 
and Kirk, ch. 30.) 

Sharp and Kirk, ch. 29 
Kevins and Hacker, oh, 33 

Nevins and Hacker, chs. 
21, 23 

Nevlns and Hacker, chs. 26- 
28, 34 

Sharp and Kirk, Supplement, 
pp, 3-31 (cf. Nevins and 
Hacker, chs. 34-36.) ' 

Carnegie Endowment of Inter- 
national Peace, pp. 203- 
235, and additional readings 
in this documcnt - to be 
assigned by the instructor. 



41-43 



The outlines of a new peace system. 



NOTE: 



Two sessions (e.g, 44-45) havo been allov^ed for hour examinations. Instructors 
will insert these examination hours at the most suitable points in their 
sections. The 16th week of the semestor is unassigned. 




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CC3 - Fiaal Examination 
SuBuser 1944 



Q' 



Amswtr 3 out of the 4 qvostieas in taoh group : 

I. 

1. What wäre the suppese«^ an'* what th« rtai war ains in the First Worl^ War ? 

2. I^aatify the followlng inatitutioBs of the Loague of latioas : assembly, 
eouaell, seeretariat,eoBneete^ orfaniiatioBB 

3. SBiaerate the aggreselTe steps of Japanese iaperlalisB betweea 1894 anc* 1937 

4. lB'*loato the content of the Paet of Looarno an^ the meaning of the tera 
** epirit of Looarno'*. 

II. 

1. What MA^e the people in the ü.S. an^* abroa«^ <*uring the 1920*8 belioTe that 
AMorican ooono^/ ha«* enteret* a perio<* of **perBaneBt prosperity 7 

2. iB'^ieate the tren^ of American tariff poliey sinoe the CiTil War an«* the 
inner oontradiotion of it re&ultinf from the Position of the U.S. in worl'* 
eoonovy . 

3. What efforts towar<* worl«* peaee were ma<*e by the U.S. «*uring the 1920*8 ? 

4. Comment at the attenpts at a Fr enoh-Italian rapproachment since 1935 an«* 
the reasons for it*8 failure . 



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qUEENS COLLEGE 
Division of the Social Sciences 



January 1945 



r( ) 



C01TE3MP0RABY CIVILIZATION 3 
Time : Two and one-half (2|) hours 

Answer four (4) questions including Part I; each question oounts equally. 

PART I. (This question is required.) Identify "briefly (aT)out five lines each) 
ten (lO) of the following items: 



Nine Power Pact 
•Grustav Stresemann 
•Greneva Protocol 

Sovereignty 
•Hawley-Smoot Tarif f 
•Lend-Lease Act 



Duin"barton Oaks Proposals 
Cabinet System 
Lima Declaratioii 
Extraterritoriality 
•Polish Oorridor 
Locarno Treaties 



O 



PART II. Answer two (2) of the follov/ing questions: 

1. Analyze in terms of specific and concrete issues and problems the 
role plaj^ed in international relations hy either (a) nationalism 
rr (b) imperialism since 1870. 

2. VHiat is meant by the so-called French security system instituted after 
the First World War? What were, in your estimation, the virtues and 
the shortcomings of this system? What would you suggest in the place 
of sach a system after the present war? 

•3. Discass the trends of American tariff policy since the Civil War and 
the inner contradictions of this poiicy resulting from the position 
of th© United States in the world's economy, 

•4. Outline the stages of Japanese imperialism since 1894, In particalar, 
indicate the interests of the United States in the Far East and hov/ 
the United States came into conflict with Japan. 

PART III. Answer one (l) of the following questions: 

1« Diecuss the causes responsible for the failure of the Leagiie of 
Nations and trace briefly bat concretely the stages of this failuxe« 

2« Gompare the role played by the U.S. S.R, and Nazi Germany in the 
sphere of international relations during the period 1933-1941. 

•3. Outline the story nf Reparation after World War I and explain wloy 
the attempt to collect reparations from Germany was a failure. 



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ISTÄNLEY O'PPOSES 
RENDING OF EMPIRE 

I 

Coionial Secretary Declares 

40 New Independent States 

Would Not Help the World 



By JOHN ÄlacCORMAC 

By Wheless to TmE New York Times. 

LONDON, March 19— The "splin- 
terization" of the British Empire 
by the grant of independence to 
|all its colonies, large and small, 
would be in the interests neither 
of the World nor of universal peace, 
Col. Oliver Stanley, Coionial Sec- 
retary, Said today to members of 
the American Outpost in London. 

Some recent remarks by Colonel 
Stanley in the United States about 
the British colonies' regional ar- 
rangements with other powers 
were misunderstood to mean that 
Britain would be willing to share 
her responsibility for her coionial 
empire. 

The Coionial Secretary niade it 
clear today that he had no re- 
grouping of this kind in mind. 
What he proposed was the forma- 
tion of "regional commissions" that 
would enable powers with major 
Strategie or economic interests to 
cooperate for the general benefit 
of the regions. The administration 
of Britain's colonies, however, is 
Britain's • responsibility and she 
could not share it with others, he 
Said. 

Replies to Critics Here 

In a Speech that was obviously 
directed to the United States, Colo- 
nel Stanley undertook to correct 
misconceptions underlying the con- 
demnation of so-called British im- 
perialism, the belief that Britain 
was another Spain that had long 
neglected an ancient empire, that! 
her colonies were autocratically 
ruled and e^fploited by the Govern- 
ment and big business and that 
coionial preference mono pol ized 
coionial trade. 



I The British coionial empire is far 
[inferior in natural resourccs to the 
• United States, he asserted. It 
' makes no contribution to the Brit- 
ish exchequer, but instead will re- 
cfcive the equivalent of $48,000,000 
every year for the next ten years 
from the British taxpayer, he 
stressed. 

As for trade in 1938, the colonies 
imported only 24 per cent from 
Britain and 76 per cent from the 
rest of the world and exported 
only 35 per cent to Britain. 
against 65 per cent to the rest of 
the World, he said. 

Colonel Stanley emphasized that 
the coionial empire was not a 
British Investors' paradise, be- 
cause it had been calculated that 
if all the money put into it in the 
last fifty years had purchased 
British Government securities in- 
stead, the result to the investor 
would have been about the same. 

Self-Government Approved 

Self-government and not inde- 
pendence, Colonel Stanley said. is 
lielieved to be best for coionial ter- 
;itories, best for the World and 

Imost .wished for by their inhabi- 

j tants. 

' "Would it really bc an advantagc 

to create another forty independent 
States, all small?" he asked. 
"Would the new machinery for 
World security be made any streng- 
er by the Substitution of these 
forty states for a cohesive empire, 
able to act as a Strategie whole. 
Would forty more separate divi- 
sions free the flow of World 
trade?" 



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"t" • »^ .•• •"»■ « • ■# ■'■ 



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Principles of American Foreign Policy : 



" Ühe mosl ser4ous question lo^^ay for this country is whether the 



.^ control of the high sess shall paas into the han^s of poirers bent on a 

I 

^prograai _of jinlimitft'' oönqueat. It is in this light,above all,thai we 



sboul'' or''er our pre3eiit-''ay thinking an** action with respect to the - 
amount of malerial assistance which our country is prepare'' to furnish 



^ Great Britain. ** 



Secretary of State, Cor^'e!! Hüll, before House Com-^ 



mitiee on Foreign Affairs, Hearings on Len''-Lease, January 15,194r_ 




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f I III iiWMVMH 



c 



ip^ 



'■> I" " »' 



Lloyd Gearge on the British - Russian policy : 



♦♦ Six mon 



tha after the Munich appeaaement Lloyd George told Parliament 



. that *'the British pledge to aid Poland ia a frightful gamble,unleas 

. Russia ia brought into the anti-Pasciat coalition. Otherwiae Britain could 



not poasibly fulfill her pledges to Poland and other countriea.** 

He grew increaaingly vitriolic concerning Prime Minister Chamberle in*s 



__^ukbling of the Russia alliance. ••We affronted Russia,** said Lloyd George, 
-^**in all the waya that are at the apecial command of atupidity. It is one 



-Of thoae disaatroua failurea of diplomatic action which endanger the peace 



of the World,* .»♦• 



New York Times, 



1945 



-Joseph E. Davies on the German - Russian Pact : 



** The Soviet proposals for a "realiatic alliance** to stop Hitler were 

rejected,by the Chamberlain government,out of consideration for the feel- 
lings of the Poles and the Baltic states. 

D4ring the Soviet-British-Prench negotiations,inclu''ing the sessions 




of the Strang mission and Military Missions to Moscow,this distrust was 
intensified by the fact that these authorities were not clothed with power 

to olose a final, de finite iaalistic alliance. ^ 

__ The suapieion continued to grow that Britain and France were playing 



a diplomatic game to place the Sovieta in the poaition where Russia would 
heve to fight Germany alone._ [ 



Then there came the Hudson proporals for economic rehabilition of Ger- 

many which again smacked of **appeasement" from the point of view of the 

Soviets. This was followed by the adjournement of Parliament by the Cham- 



... _.^-' 



—TT 



W^ ?■.'*» ' VF • 



( 



berlf in government,wijhout the conclusion of any definite agreexnent with 

Russian and the discovery by the Soviet leaders that a British Economic 

_, Mission had been sent to Denmark,allgedly with Chamberlain*s blessing,to 
^ stwdy economic appeasement,along the line of policy which has been iniitiat- 



1 



ed by Hudson, 



Added to this Prance and England hsd persisted in a refusal to enter 



_^ into an unequivocsl agreement to spport Russia in the protection of Ru.^sia's 
— vital int4re3t,in preventing the absorption through internal aggression — 

i of the Baltic states,whereas Russia had offered unequivocal support to 

_[ Britain and Prance to come to their aid if their vital interests irewe 



1 affected by a German atf-ck upon Belgium or Holland, regardless of the 

character of the aggression.** _ ^ -, 

Mission to Moscow, August 22,1939, pp. 398/99 




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QUEENS COLLEGE 



n 



Contemporary C ivilization 4 

PROBLEMS OF COITTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION: FREEDOM AND SSCURITY 

Books! 

Becker, Freedom and Hesponsjbility 
Becker, Modesrn Democracy 

* Kazlitt, Ecoriomics in One Lesson 
LUienthal, TVA, Democracy on the March 

* Loucks and TTnnt,^.or,r>arfl.tive Economic Systems (L-H) 

* Soule, Introduction to Economic Sbience 

Pamphlets and Crovemment Reports: 

Benedict and Weltfish, "The Races of Mankind."' 
♦Cushman, "'New Threats to American Freedom."' 
Hutchins Report on the Freedom of the Press 
Report of the President' s Committee on Civil Rights 
The Sconomic Report of the President, 1951 
TVA Report, "'The Valley Pays Off."' 

Students will huy tho starred reforences listed ahove. The f inancial outlay 
is not as great as it appears since two of the hooks are in paraphlet form. 
The other ref asrences will "bo availalJle in the K Lihrary. 



^yS^Jß' 



^^ 



L-oF 



^2^ 



THS COKTEIVIPOBARY CIVILIZA.TION SEQ,UENCE 



/#^ 



CG. 1, TTestorn Trends and Traditions froin the Mjddle Ages to the 

Enllghtenment. 

The intellectual and institutional "backgrounds of Western 

Civil ization are studied. Major emphasis Is placed on economic, 

political and philo sophical developments. 

C.C, 2, The Western World from the French R evolution to the First 



World War. 



■i«P-M^^SMBB«MaM«i^Ba«HM^ 



The developiaent of Western Civil ization since the Snlightenmeat 
is studied. 



C.C. 3. The Twentieth Century: War and Peace 

The einer^pnce of Tv/ontieth Century society is studied and an 
in':rov-aclioi-i It currert social prohlems is given, especially the 

probicint- of inGerr..aticnal conflict. 

C.C. 4. Frohlems of Conteniporary Civilization; Freedom and Security 

An analysis of some of the rnain Problems facing the contffimporary 
World. 






■!^ 



Conteraporary Civil! zation 4 



FRSSDOM AND SECURITY 



2 hrs. 



I. 



2 hrs. 



11. 



III. 



14 hrs. 



IV. 



O 



X 



'ry-'l ' ^^ t^^ • 



/ 1 ' ^ - 

loa.- \Z . 



Introduction 

1. Nature of freedom and security 

2. Frobloms of freedom and socurity 
(mimeographed material from the CG Conunittee) 

Psychologiealt the psychological nature of 

freedom and security 

(Mimeographed materials from the CG Committee) 

Political security and freedom 

1, Cur democratic heritage 

a. American political tradition 
"b. Freedom of speech and press 
c. Constitutional ^;^'overnment 

(1) Becker, Freedom and Responsibility 
pp. 1-43, 65-98 and 

(2) Becker, Modern Denocracy 

2, The prolDlern of civil liberti®s 

Cushman, New Threats to American Freedom 

(pamphlet) 

Hutchins Report on the Freedom of the Press 

(optional) 

3, The Position of minorities 

Report of the President* s Coranittee on 

Civil RijEs'hts 

Public Affairs pamphlet 85: "Raccs of Mankind" , 

Benedict and Weltfish (optional) 

Economic security and freedom 

1. Capitalism and Private Economic Enterprise 

Beck©?, Freedom and Responsi'bility , pp. 89-122 

Loucks and Eoot, Comparative Economic 

Systems , 1948 edition (hereafter referred to 

as L-H), cha. 1— 5 or selected pageö ,.r^. ,i^ -^-^^ ,6» -7^ ; 

2. The laissez-faire approach i\ -n?. 

Hazlitt, Econcnics in One Lesson, lf-36, 
55-122, 162-18Ö 

3. The New Deal At)proach 

Soule, Introduction to Economic Science 
Economic Report of the Prossident, (Selected 
pages: optional ) o. , :2> , « , ^ , i>, 

4. TVA - an oxample of democratic planning 

Lilien thal, TVA, Democracy on the March 
(selected pages) 

TVA Report, "The Valley Pays Off»' 

5. The Theory of the Left 

Socialist Theory, L-H pp. 259-288; 290-307 
(optional) 









.L ' 






1 

A 


• 






9 llTS. 


• 

V. 


1 

u 






» 


7 hrs. 


VI. 




2 hrs. 


VII. 




TOTYX HOUIIS: 


42 



/ 



Thö Soviot Union ' '^-f.. -i-> 

1. Cor.r:mnist Th30 ry L-H pp. 158-188, 2C4-2T7 r ii t ?~ 

2. Gk)Vorniiont, L-H pp. 453-476 

3. Industry and /igricultuTG, L-H pp. 478-517 

4. Labor, L-H pp. 454-561 

^ 5. Planninj, L-I-I pp. 563-586 

6. Evaluation, L-E pp. 588-621 

ThG National ization Prcgran of Groat Britain: 
Socialist Tiioory 

L-H pp. 259-283, 290-307 (optional), 374-381, 

400-418, 410-4-17 

S:o Future of Western Oulturo 

(Suir-iary and roviow ot tho course to bo plannöd by 
tliG insti-'uctor) 



1 "^ V 



o 



>N», 



.*»■< — n i.. f . ■ 



-T- - V 



-1- 



QUESITS COLISGE 



Conten-por.^.ry Civiliz.'^.tion k 



PROBLEMS OF COilTSI^ORARY CIVILIZATION: FRE3D0M ABD SECURITY 

Books: 

Becker , Freedom and ResDonsibility 
*Bowlcs, Toir.orrov/ Without fe'\r 
*Rr\.z litt, Economics in One Lesson 

■ Lilißnthal, TVA, Dernocrncy on the March 
*Loucks and Hoot, Cor.-parative Sconomic Systems (L-H) 

?ronim, Ssca'">e From Freedom 

Pam-phlets and G-overnment Re"-)orts: 

* *Benedict and Weltfish, "The Races of Mankind." 
*Cushnan, "New Threats to American Freedom." 

Hutchins Rov^ort on the Freedom of the Press 

Report of the President 's: Committee on Civil Rights 

The Economic Reijort of the President, I95I 

TVA Report, "The V-llcy Pays Off." 
Students will "buy the starred reforencep listed above. The financial outlay 
is not as grest -".s it a'^pears since two of the books are in pam-ohlet form. 
The other references will be available in the K Library. Students are strongly 
urged to prarchase Becker Freedom r^nd Res^onsibility if they cr>n afford the 
additional ex^-^ense since it is re'^d virtually in its cntirety. 



o 







-2- 



TH5 COHTSI^^ORARY CIVILIZATIOM SEQUSMCE 



CG 1 



CG 2 



CG 3 



CG /+ 



Western Trendg pud. Traditions from the Middle Ages to the 
Elightenment . 

The intellectual and institutionsl ■back;^rounds of western civilization 
are studicd. Major emph^sis placed on economic, rjolitical and 
philosophical developments , 

The Western World From the French Revolution to the First World War . 

The development of western civilization since the Enlic7;htenment is 
studied. 

The Twentieth Century; War and Peace . 

The emergence of twentieth Century society is studied and an intro- 
duction to c^arrent social pro"blnnis is given, especially the probleins 
of interno.tional conflict. 

Problems of ConteTHTjor-^ry Civilization: Freedom and Security. 

Ar analysis of some of the main probloms facin,-:: the contem^oorafy 
World. 



'k'f\ 



.UL 



-3- 



Cantem^jorary Civllization k Reviscd 



FRSSDOM AH) SECUHITY 



2 hrs . 



I. 



Introduction 



Q 



3 hrs 



1. Nature of freedoni and necurity 

2. Problems of freedoin and security 
(mir.ieo£:;raplied nateri^l from the CG Connittee) 

II. Psycho lo^ac-'T.l and Rr-cial Security 

1. Psycho iogical nature of freedon and security 

Fromn, Ssca-pe from Freedoin . chs . 1-^2 and mimeo/rraphed materials 

2, Racial Security 

Public Affairs pamphlet 85; "Haccs of Mankind," 
Benedict -nd Welt fish, 19il'6 



6 hrs 



III. Pclitical security and freedom 



1. 



15 hrs. 



O 



2. 



3. 



IV. 

1. 



2. 

3. 



10 hrs. V. 



Our democratic herita£re 

a. Araeric n politic^l tradition 

b. Freedom of specch and prcss 

c. Constitutional --overnment 

Becker, Freedom and Hesoonsibility . t)^o. 1-^3, 65-98 
The "roblcD of civil libertios 

Cushman, ITcw Threat-s to A^ierican Freedom ("o-^mohlet ) 
Hutchins Renort on the Freedom of the Press 
The Position of minorities 
ReT^ort of the President ^s Committee on Civil Rights 

Economic security and freedom 

Private Economic Enterprise 

Becker, pp. 89-122 

The Hew Deal Approach 

Bewies , Tommorrow Without Fear r-ro . 1-88 
[Economic Report of the President, I95I (selected pages )^j 

TVA-an exarrole of democratic ;^lanninir 

Lillienthal, TVA. Democracy on the March (selected ^oa^es) 
*TVA Report, "The Valley Pays Off." 

The laissez-faire op-position 

Ha.zlitt, Economics in one Lesson . I-36, 55-122, I63-I8O 

The Theory of the Left 

a. Communis t Theory 

Loucks and Hoot , Comnarative Economic Systems 
(hereafter referred to as L-H) \±^B-^S^, 2oC3|l7) X.ii,\ ; Jz:?. 

b. Sociallst Theory, L-H ^pv. 259-288 

The Soviet Union 



-.:4 



U) 



1. 



■H: 



Goverr-ment, L-H -p-p. 453-/4-76 

Industry .and A^rriculture, L-H ryp. ^78-51? 



■1 



* . > 



a 



-i^ 



ContenrrDorary Civilization k 




Labor, L-H r>p. ^l^^-^6l 
Plannirxtr, L-H.pp. 563-586 
Evaluation, L-H pp. 588-621 

2 hrs, VI. The Nationalization Procirara of Great Britain 

L-H jiv. 347-38I, il'OO-^lS, ^19-^^7 

3 hrs. VII. The Pature of V^estern Culture 

(Summary ^».nd review of the course to "be TDlanned "by instructor) 

Tot-^I Hourw: 41 



D 



,.,„^tlttmttlitlmmim,Mt^ktmMi.mlJtmi»tlt^llL„ 



»Mäf' 



•■■r- ,-*>» T^f •.>•*■»(-. .-..,', -T . , :" 



>. » -1- . - - -^.^.^ff- _,^,,^,. ,,.„^j^^. 



QUISITS COLLEGE 



.*> 



'li 



COJTS-IPOI^J.Y CIVILIZA.TION 4 



* Students v/ill iTiiy the followirifc-^ books and Pamphlets : 

Loucks £ü\C Hoot, CornpF ratlve Economic Systems 

D, E, Lilicrithal, ?VA - Demcc racy on the March (Pocket Books) 

A.H. Hanse::, Eco-iomlc Problems of the Fost'^Var Vorld 

U.S, Govt, Pri-iti."ig Office, The' Economic Report of the President , Jan. »50 

Public Affairs Prjnphlets: 

no« 90 M,S, Stevrart, The American \'Jc^r: Business Freedon or G-ovcrnnent 
103 X, Arnold, Cartels or Free Enterprise ? Control 

143 H.S, Cushmari, !Tev Threats to American Free dorn 

United St:^tes Cbamber of Commerce, The American Compe titive Enterprise System 

The follov/ing matcrials designated in assignnents are on rcserve in th3 CG Library 

in K Buildin^:;: 

1^ The Eutchins Heport on the Frecdora of the Press 

S» F. Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Reprint from Readers' Digest) 

. 3, The Report"of the President 's Comnittee on Civil Rl/;hts 



Su.'iCi^ested Ilours : (AssitriUients at Option of Inst nie tor) 

1 I* Introduction 

Object of CCJ4 — rclation to 3C1, 2, 3. 
Ifliat are the oasic issues of our tine? 



o 



II» ThßSackrround of the Pre sent Crisis 
T'ne liberal dcnocrr.tic tradition 

OrijCdns, bacIv.Tound, basic prir.ciplos of democrac^/ 
The dilcr.:Ln of domocracy 

Carl Bcclrer, l-Io dern Dcnocracy 

0ri(f;insf baclCj^round, basic inst i tut ions of capitalisu 

Louc!:s and Ilbot, 37-59 
Tlie successcs and failures of capitalisn; the ailer:una of 
capitalism Louars and lioot, 61-79; 81-.108 

m» Freedoi.i and Secarity for \'!lioni Contenporary Prograns for 
Actio n 

1» The "conservatiye" prof;rar.i: free enterprise, laissez- 
fairc , Status quo 

Ilaycl;, Road to Serfdom 
U. S, Cl.-'LViber of Coiuicrcc, Tho rf\nerican 
Oonpctitive Enterprise System 
2f The Fascist Prodrom 

Docs govenricnt ro.-TLlation of businoss, pl^jining, or 
socialisn cause Fascisr.i7 

Ori,'ins and naturc of contemporary fascisms: 
In an industrial state; G-ermaJi Nazisn 
(Cross-rofcrencc: C03J Fascist Doctrine) 

Assii:;nr.ient on ilazism; Loucks and Ilbot, 
527-656, 679-688 or readin^,- at option of 
the instructor. 



wi' 



U »T •■ •• 



\^ J '^ 






I 



1 



i •■: 



COlTürES^POEARY CIVIL IZATIOIT 4 



PAGE ^d^ 



2 



1 
3 

X 
2 



Optional with 

Jnstractoiw 



The Donocratic Capi talist Pro gram 

How nach free enterprise, free narl:etsi conpetition? 
Stewart, The iberican l'Jny 
Arnoldf Partei s or Froe Enterprise ? 

How mich capitalisn is cor.ipati"ble v/ith denocracy? 
Depo erat ic planning for fall enploynent s 

A« Tlae pro grau: Eansen, ^cononic Problens of the 

Pböt-War World 
B, Tho results to dato: Econonic Report of the 
President 

Dcnocratic Plaiminic: in practico ; 

Lilient'ial, TVA ^ Dönocracy On the March 

( lrolenontin>c: Denocratic Planning: Vfeapons and ) 

( Ol? Stades ) 

( 2?he Oonflict of Lalsor and Managenent: Oarslcadon,) 
( Workcrs and Bosses are Kunan ) 

An Snlightened Sloctorate; Ia;itchins Report on the 

Preedon of the Press 
Civil Rights and Civil Libortios: Oaslnan, ITew 

.JThroats to Anerican Free den s 
The Position of Minorities: The Report of the 
President ^g Connittce on Civil Rights 



■'i 



1 



l 

1 
1 
2 



Are Preedon ^nd Security Possiblo Throu^h Other 
Pr0f::r'ar.i8 ? 

Gontenporary Alternatives to Denocratic Capitalisn 

4, The Conr-iUnist Pro^ran 

A» Origins ancl Bacliground of Connunist Theo ry 
Marxisu: Loucks and Hbob, 158-168, 204-*2l7 

(763..778, 782-785) 
Revisionist Socialisn; Bernstein, Evolutionary 

Socialisn 
Eassian Connunist ^^heor^rj Louclcs and Iloot, 210, 

217-234 
Cross-Reference; CCS- Connunist J^ctrine 

B, The Organization of the Soviet Union 

Background and governnent: Loucks and Hoot, 
y 453-476 

Indus try and Agriculture: 478-516 u-^-h;,! 



^ Labor: 5-i5-561 



V 



Planning: 553-586 !^:^^-.'^'^ 

To, Evaluation of the Soviet Union 
^ Loucks and Koot, 588-621 



'-/£•'. 



^'W- 



III m »■ ■!■■■■ III 




/, 



m ip wu ' " ">" ! ", V 



00::TEI.IPO?a\BY CIVIL IZ^ITIOIT 4 



PAGE 3 



Sugf;cstücl Ibiirs ; 



O 



S« Th e Senocratic Socialist Progran 

Principles of Socialisn: Louchs and ibot, 

259-282; 286-*321or at option of instructor 

The llationalization Pro.:;rnn in Great Britain: 

Loucl:s and Iloot, 347-381; 400-418; 419-447 
or rcadiniT at Option of instructor 

Socialisn in Scandinavia 

lh\j nach Socialisn is conpa,tiblc v/ith denocracy? 



(Additional n«aterial to 'oe 
instructor) 



nade availablc by tho 



Q 



a^^mmmmäumtmimamimi 



■J 



■ I ■■■ «l » i»i y .-mT^ 



>^. 



Oontomporr.r;r Civilizatlon 4 



Queens College 



Studcnts vrill buy thc follov/ing "books rjad pamphlcts: 

Loucks cjiid. Hoot, Comparatlvc Economic Systems (1943 cd. or Ir.tcr) 

D.Ij« Lilicnt '1.-^2, TYA- Demoer acy on the Marc h (Pocket Books) 

A.n. Hansen, IDconomic Pro " blems of t'ie Post-^^ar T/orld 

U.S. Goyt. Printing Office, The üconomic Heport of the President, Jan» 1948 > 

Public i.ffairs Pamphlets: 

O no» 43 ^^3. Cusliman, Safeguarding Pur Civ il Liberties 
O 57 D4C, Blaisdell, Q'overnment Under~^ressure 

76 T^R, CarskadoM, V.^orkers and Bosses are Human 

90 K.S, Stewart, '-^he Americ an •■^ayi Business Preedom or G-overnment Control? 
103 ^. Arnold, Cartels or Free ^nter:)rise7 



W i 



Y'%'^ 



125 I^#2I. Cushman, I^eep Onr Press Preei 



r. Hayek, T he Roc-d to Serfdom (P-eprint from Readers* Digest) 

U. S, '-'h.r.mber of Oonncrc j, Zzq .. >..ric .:i Comjtitivo ^intororiso Svstcm 

Thc Report of the President 's Committeo on tJivil Rights — ' 

^ther materials designated in as':.i:yaments are on reserve in the CC Library* in 

IC Building, or v/ill be fu.rnished by the instructor, Thc Hutchins Report 
on the Preodom of thc Pres s is thc property of thc Contcmporary Civiliza- 
tion Committcc and must be retu rncd b y th c s tudcnt s. 



Hours 



I« Introduction 

Object of CC4 — rclation to CCl, 2, 3. 
^'•Wt are thc basic issucs of our timo? 

II. Thc BackgroujicT of thc Prcscnt Orisis 
Thc liberal dcno oratio trddition 

^rigins, background, basic principlcs of democracy 
Thc dilcmma of democracy 

Carl Becker, I'^odorn Democracy 

Origins, backr.Tound, basic institutions of capitalisn 

Loucks nnd ^oot, 35-63 
j-'hc successos and failurc-sof capitrlism; thc dilcmma of capitalism 

Loucks <:^jad Hoot, 65-87, 89-120 



f o 



III. P rccdom :u-id Socurit^?- Tor Vrxiom? Contcmporary Programs for Act ion« 
1. The "conscrvative" prograra; free ont o rprise , laisscz-fairc , 
Status quo , 

Hayck, P .oad to S er f dorn 

U.S. Chp^mber of Comucrcc, Thü Ancric^.n Compctitivo 
Enterprise Syst em. 
2» Thc F- seist Progr.^m 

Do ^overnmcnt rogulation of busincss, pl'^iining, or socialism 
cause Pascism? 

Origins a:ad nature of contcmporary fascisms : 

A, In an industrial statc; G-crmrii J-Lazism (Cross- 

rcforcncc: CCo: Pas eist Doctrine) 
3« In Q r-Jiri nwridnst J^4al--&ociet;^{ Spain and 

Assignmcrit on ITazism: Loucks and Hoot, [J S V - SVOj 50? »" C'Ql» 

^r^' - (,^ ''-, 1^ *" -""'1 r 

- I -^ I , 



i 



■^ H ^ ffU ■ vJ . JW I . ■■ 1 ' < «'" 1 » W >. ■» ; . . » Hin . ,,,.. U l i rr.-T~—>>^— 



'■ HUJ|» W| i >■ ■ ) l 



•^im.'nfTu.ri,"»' 



■•^ 



1 



2, 
Queens CollC;^c 



1 
1 



1 
l' 
3 
1 

2 



3. -^'"ic Dcnocrp.tic Capital ist Program cont. 

"ow inuchfrco ontcrprisc, free mar^iotSf compctition? 

'Arnold, Cartcls or Free '.^jnter^:)rise? 

>^ d. 

Hov/ nni(3?.capitalism is corapatiblc with democracy? 
Democratic plpzining for füll empl o ym ent : 

.*, The progran: Hansen, Scononic Problems of the Post-'/ar "orld , 

n i 

B, -Lhe rcsults to date ?!]conojiiic Report of thc President « 
.0, The imr)licationn of a füll employment program! Bureau of 
i^a"bor Statistics, Preview of 1950, 

^1—11^1 ^IIMIBW 1.^— .^— ^M M , I ^t^ 

Dcmoeratic Plriinin^ in pra c tic e : 

-^ilicnthal, TVA- Democracy On the Harch 

Implementing Democratic Planning: '-''eapons and Ob s t ac les . 
The confiict of Lal:or ajid Hana^-ement: Carsliadon, Worlcers 

gjid Bosses a re Human , 
Pressure Groups aid Propaganda: Blelsdell, G-overnment Unde r 

Pressu re» 
*^n Snli.^htened SlectorateJ Cushman, ^^eep Chir Press Free ; 

H utchins Repo rt on the Freodom of th e P ress ' 
Civil Pdghts and Civil Liberties: Cushiaaar Safe gu.ar ding Qr.r 

Civil ^Ibe rties» 
Tlie Position of I^iinorities * ^h.e R eport of th e Pre si dentis 

Comm i ttee on Civil Right s, 

Are Freedom and Security Possilsle Throug h Other ^rogra ms ? 

Contemporar^^ Alternatives to- Democratic Capitalism! 
4» The Communist Program 

A, Origins^and Baclcground of Conmunist ^heory 
■ Marxism* Louc::s andKoot, 237-243, 246-254 (813-332, 

837-841 revie'-r) 
Revisionist Socialism« Bernstein, ."^volut ionary Socialis m. 
Russian Communis t Theory: Loucks and Hoot, 244-245, 

2:34--; 58, 260-275 
Gross' roference: GC3- Connunist Doctrino 



I 



t *,,^^ 



'* .1. 



r ■ ■ 



. o 



1 
1 

i 

2 



40 



B* The Organization of the Soviet Union 

Backgrouiid and government; Loueks and "-oot, 411-433 
Indus try and agriculture: 449-467, 435-44 S 
Lahor? 486-497 
^Planning: 499-a^.o \ _ 
' (T." Evaluation of the Soviet Union j 
,1^^ Loucks and Hoot, 524-551. j 

5« ^hc Democratic Socialist Program 

Principles of Socialism: Loucks and Hoot, 305-318, 520-338, 

350-379, 
The -Vtionailization Prograra in Great Britainj Foreign Policy 

ii-ssociation, Lahor' s ^ro.-^ram For British Indus try , 
Socialism in Scandinrvia 
Hov/ much Socialism is compatihle vfith democracy? 



It is suggcsted that if possihle thrcc more hours bc dcvoted to a 
discussion of democratic socialist programs. 



■i 



i^KieH^ ^U^' _.^ >'^ 



.'.-> t 



J— .-^^__— ViJ^ 



Queens College 



f^ 



■0 



Oontemporary Civil ization 4 

Student s will buy the following tooks and pajnphlets: 



Fall 1947 



Loucks and Hoot, Oomparative Sconoraics Systems (1943 edition or later) 
D. !• Lilienthal, TVjL — Democracy on the March (Pocket Books) 
A. H, Hansen„ Economic Problems of the Ppst-War World 
U, $• Government Printing Office, The Economic Beport of the President , 

Jan, 8. 1947 . 

Employment Act of Febniary 1946, 
Public Affairs Pamphlets 

No» 43 R. E, Cushman, Safegiiarding Pur Civil Ljberties 
67 D, C, Blaisdell, Government Under Presarare 
76 T, R. Carskadon, Workers and Bosses are Human 

90 M, S. Stewart, The American Way ; Business Treedom or Government 
Control? 
103 T, Arnold, Cartels or Free Enterprise ? 
123 R. B, Cushman, Keep Pur Press Free l 

r. Hayek» The Boad to Serfdom (R eaders* Digest Reprint) 
U. S. Chamber of Commerce, TheAmerican Oompetitive Enterprise System 
Paulkner and Starr, Labor in Americ a 

Foreign Policy Association, Labor' s Program for British Industry , January 1947. 
Other materials designated in assignments are on reserve in the CC Library in 
K Building or will be furnished by the instructor<. 



Hours 
1 



1 
2 



1 
1 



2 
2 
2 



I» Introduction 

Object of CC 4 — relation to CC 1, 2, 3, 
What are the basic issues of our timeT 

II» The Background of the Present Crisis 
The liberal democratic tradition 
Origins, background, basic principles of democracy 
The dilemma of democracy 

Carl Becker, Modern Dftmocracy 

Origins, background, basic institutions of capitalism 

Loucks and Hoot, 35-63 
The successes and failures of capitalism; the dilemma of capitalism, 

Loucks and Hoot, 65-87, 89-120 

III. Freedom and Security for VThoml Compatibility of political demo- 
cracy and economic planning;. 

le government regulation or govcmment participation in enterprise 
"Un«imerican"? Stewart, The American Way 

How mach free enterprise, free markets, competitionT 
Arnold, Cartels or Free Enterprise? 

Democratic Planning for Füll Employment 

Prograjrw.Hansen, Economic Problems of the Post-War World 
Action- The Economic Report of the President , Jan. 8, 1947 
Employment Act of February 1946 
Bureau of Labor Statist ics, Preview of 1950 
Lilienthal, TVA — Democracy on the March 



\ 



C C 4 



-2- 



Hburs 
3 



2 
1 

1 
1 



2 
1 



1 
1 

2 

1 



Inplementlng Democratlc Planning; Weapons and Obstacles 

The Conflict of Labor and Management: Fnulkner and Starr, 

Labor in America . 1-14, 164-190. 192-279 (?), 

Carskadon, VTorkers and Bosses Are Homan 
Pressure Groups and Propaganda: Blaisdell, Government Under 

Pressure 
An Enlightened Electorate: Oushman, Keipp Pur Press Free : 

Hatchins, Report on the Freedom of the Press . 
Civil Rights and Civil Liberties: Oushman, Safegiiarding Pur 

Civil Ljberties 
Hayek, 5t?-J?:ii^Ä-fcoL-Serfd2ja., (Reprint) 
U, S. Ch&iber of Commerce, The American Competitive Enterprise 



Sjrj 



cem 



IV. Are Freed o m a r d Secririty Ppssible Through Other Programs ? 
AlcernaGJves lo Demo oratio Capitalisn 

A. Fascism 

In an industrial state: German Kazism, Loucks and Hoot, 

55V. 579. i6e?-§9^^ 
In a nou-indubtrial state J Spain and Argentina 

B. Coramunist Progra^ 

Theo re Gl.. \1 B^^ckground 

M,x-y .sm: Loucks and ^ot, 179-193, 237-243, 246-254, 
AU.W.: ^.,r^ ^^8:..'-.uC^2 . S37-8411 

" •/: Ha, .U^orxitt Socialism: Bernstein, Evo lut io nary So c i al i sir 
Ru.sHiräi Comnunist Theory: Loucks and Hoot, 260-275 

C. Organization of the Soviet Union 

Ba( igr: il a..-J ,-^v)vernment : Loucks and Hoot, 411-433 

Vi ii.pr:\ ':\;tj ':..;'■ i?lan 

Ir::..t.V'-- -';- .-dlture: 449-467; 435-449 

t» ■ ■■■.'■■ 

!•:'. ■>'.■ ; <;■.,. ,;.■.• 

Do Eva;r.,::ü :■ ,: ': ■: ?j-:ot Union 
Lu ''j. ■Zii. ö i-wy i. '.V .^ j ■: : !■; c- 4-651 



'f|.. 



2 



E, 



Demo crp.t : ■■t cl-:,c.ir\A \ ^n 



'7 
». 



Bnsla:" 



o^ram 

^i Loucks and Hoot, 305-318, 320-333, 

■Icn Ppogram 



±o:>. : ri . : l : , ai.ri: ;iat ion , Labores Progr^m for British 



Brlti.^1, 



Sweden - How . 



■T '■ 



-■..io?; Service, Pattern of British 

- ..-','l.- öin is Compatible with Democracy 
State Dei-'f-rti-c. '. ^r.xcrmation Bulletin (material mimeo- 
grrphcd) 
International Labour Office, Public Investment and Fall Employ- 
nent (mimeographed material on government planning 
and constitutional gaarantees) 



45 hours 
(total lecture hoursi 44; one hour has been left free for examination) 



■oTMAer 25, 19^7 



Flaat« aaaoiuio« to jwr «tudAntf that eoplat ef tli« 
r«port of th« trusaft CoaalttM •& CItII B1i)i%« oan 'ba obtalnad at tha leak 
Stora for fira eanti. It ia tuicaatad that thit raport "ba uiad in oonnaetion 
witk th« aaalcxuM&t km OItII &lchtt and OItII Llbartiaa« 

Sinoaraly, 

0, ¥• lallliarc 



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f*"pw,l 



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' ■.; 'i V «" 



•"< 



QUBEüJS COLLSaS 









»'.'S 



. .^i. Student nnist purchase: EbensteinJTHE i^'AZI S*TAIE( Farrar and Rinehapt» 1$**3) 
« "'^ B. Pares: THE HUSSIMS (Ponguin Book) 

V, M» DoanJ RUSSIA AT WAxi (JPA Headline Book) 
Edölman: HOW HUSSIA PiiEPAÄiU) (Penguln Book) 



PART ONE THE SOVIET UNION 



' I. 



Historlcal Background 
Imperial ftussia 



1-2 



Sikes: CONTEMPORARY ECONOklC'' SYSTEMS, gUl - 250 
Williams: THE SOVIETS, 7S-9I 
Pares: THE HUSSIANSt 66 - 88 




II» A System of Thou^t -^^jz^ Ütopian and "Scientific^' Socialism 

tJtopiaj; Socialism 

Sikes: 33-50 

3 - ^ " Scientific Socialism » 

Sikes: 617 - 61f7 
. OÄ 

Laucks and Hoot.» COloPAilATIVB BCONGiilC SYSTEMS (19^*3 ed) 8I3 - 8U1 

OH 
Lauckfc and Hopti, OE. CITi (193g ed.): 719 - 750 . 
Lenint Readings from "State and Revolution" in 
COLUMBIA SOURCE.BOOZ:, Vol. IL, Säction 7; ^9 - 55 

III. Political, Economic and Social Institutions . 

Constitution^ Structure and Administration of the State . 
"The Constitution of the USSB" (1936) Articles I-56 and 
118 - 1^*6 in 

5 Sikes: Appendix 3 

OÄ 
Laiicks Paid Hoot: Appendix D 
J. Stalin: "The New Soviet Constitution" in COLUMBIA 
SOUftCE BOOK: Vol. II, Section 3: I9 - 27 
Optional : Williams, 38-5^ 
Sikes: 253 - 26O 
Laucks and Hoot, 19^3 ed : ^11 - 42^ 

The One Paxty System 

"" Constitution, Article 126 

6 • 7 Pares: 3^8 - 129 i « - ^^ 

Williams: 56 - 77; 93-102 
Sikes: 26O - 265 

PR -■•••. 

Laucics and Hoot. 19^3 ed : ^27 - U33 
^ . ' OR . . '. 

^ . Laucks and Hoot, 1938 ed : U07 - Ifll 









t "/*1' 



-^SfifS^'r-- 



~^, •< ,' 



3« 

.A 



i 



»V. 



E'^^^OitJi; 



•^■y 



Civil Liberties 



(•' « 



i 



1^ 



Constitution, Articlos 125 - 12^ 
8 Deeni ßUSSIA AT WiOl: 3g - UU. •, 
Williams: U23 - 4^5 
Laucks and Koot, 19^3 ed : U2U - ^26 

OH 
Laucks and Hoot, 1938 ed ; U05 - kO'J 

Planning 

9 Constitution, Articles 1-12 
^ Laucks and Hoot, 19^3 od ; J+99 - 523 

:. .. ,. : OH ' 

Laucks and Hoot, 193g ed: ^59 - kj'J 

OH 
Williams: II5 - I58 
^ Pares: I3O - I39 '• ' ;. • .- ' 

Edelflsan, 14-24; 40 - 45 
Organization of Industry and A^ricultur e 

10-11 Williams: 15g - Igg 
Pares: lUo - 15O 
Sikes: 266 - 309 
OH 

Laucks and Hoot, 19^3 ed: ^35 - hy,-^ 
Jif" -OH 

Laucks and Hoot, I938 ed : U13 - k'^^l 

Eaelman 24 - C9v ' 
Organization of Li>.j _' 

IZ Williams: 212 - 233 

Sikes: 3U2 - 360 
OH 

Laucks and Hoot, I9U3 ed : ksS - U97 
OH 

Laucks and Hoot, 193S.ed : U51 - k^J 

Edelman 35 -- 40 
Minorities: 



13 



-S-- 



• « 



Constitution, Articl((i23) 

Williams: 3-38 "^^ 1,2 

Edelman: How Bussia Prepared: 65.-76 ( 3 "^ ^^i-v-^A-v- V 
Education ^~* ^ 



-2- ' 



^ 

y 



w 



Constitution, Article 121 
'ailiams: 335 - 363; 393 - U02 



Fa mily 



15 



Religion 



16 



-,'« 

' V 



Constitution, Article 122 
Williams: 287 - 319 



Constitution, Article 12^ -. ' 
TiTilliams: 319 - 33U 

ares: 150 - 16O 

ean: HbSöIA AT WAH: ^4 - 50 



u. 



B 



^. 



w 






IV EVALUATION 

Wallace C...T0II: .^3'iC. i . 
17 - 18 Lauckß and Hoot, 19^^ ed' 

OR 
Laucks -md Hoot, 13 y^ od; 
Sikes: 361 - 373 



19 



TEST 



J.J ..iTh -.JSSxA: 212 

ff 

1+75 . li^i^ 



- 229 



PAHT II - -J'ASCISM 



-3- 



^* Histori ca l Background - - t ue Capture of Power , 

Sbenstein: THE NAZI STATE: 3-7 

Sikes: kk^ - 46g 
20 OH 

Laucks and Hoot» 19^3 ed : 65g - Gjk 

Ofi 
Laucks and Hooti 1938 ed: ^95 - 617 

OR 
Keum;>jin: BSHElvlOTH: 3 - 3U 

II. A System of Thougnt 

Eoenstein: 7-22 
21 - 22 Rader: iJO COfvIPitOinSE, 1-15;^20 -'U3 

LaucKE and Hoot, 1 9^3 ^d: '366 - 59^ 

OÄ ' ' 

Laucks and Hpot, IS Z^ ^^^ '5^5 - 5^1 

"Program of the ljV.7,ional Socialist Gerinans «Vorkers' Party" in 

Sikes: Appendix D. 

A. Hitler: USU KALiPF 

III. Political, Economic and Social Institutiön s« 

Structure and Adininistrc?tion of the State 



23 



2k - 25 




fc^f 



26 



27 - 2g 



i 



Sbenstein: 23-56 

The One Party System 

Bbenstein: 56 - 6g; I7S - 19g 
Rader: NO COMPROIvil SE, Ig^ - 215 

Civil Liberties 

Ebenstein, 69 - 97 

O rganization of Industry and A,ricult\ir e 

Ebenstein, 227 - 297 

Laucks and Hoot, 19^3 ed : 717 - 7I+5 

OH 
Laucks and Hoot, 193g ed: 619 - 65I 

OR 
Sikes: U69 - 518 



-1 



:jMj 



29 



I - I I I _i III - — wm i Mi n iüW^HPWW— ^^p|»T«w>i 0, 1 ( i . i III I n ^pli m l I j > I i|i 



MlnoritieSf Rac c. 

- Sbensttiinf 97 - 107 

Hadert NO OO.'vi? HOkl SE, 100 - 123 

Sducation, Press, tue Arts 






-1|- 



30 - 31 Sljenstein: 108 - I77 

-j cOptional : jjlemer: EDUGAriOH ^Oß. DEaTH 

Kotschnig: SLAVES NSBD NO LSADERS, 63 - 121 



Religion 



32 



Ebenstein: I99 - 226 
Rader: 265 - 277 



IV. Evaluation 



33 - 3^ 



Sikee: 519 - 529 

Laucks and Hoot: 19^3 ed ; 7U7 * 762 

OK 
Laucks and Hoot, 1938 ed ; 653.-668 



35 



TEST 



36 



PAHTJII U^ITSD ÜJATIOHS AGaIx^S^ THE AXIS 
German Eoreign Policy and the New Ordo r 

Ebenstein, 298 - 3^-2 

w . ^ Quintanilla; A Utin Aiaerican S^ieaks, 1-14 
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37-38 Qülintanilla: A LA'XIK A .IEüIC/:a: 3PS.-J^S, 20^ - fif^ 

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JDeanJ RUSSIA AT WAR; 89-95 

•^luintanilla, 111 • 130 j 148 • 189 (Toward Hamigphor« Solidarity) 



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C. C. 4 - Outline 



Feb. 1946 



Student is required to buy: 

London, Backgrounds of Oonflict 
Japan and the Japanese 
Wallace, 60 I^llion Jobs 



y 



I. 



Fascism: 

A. Fascist Iheory: London, pp. 67-84; Rader, No Compromi se , pp. 20-43 

^18&-215y 339«252. 

B. Fascist Practice in Europe : National Socialism 

1. PoliticsJ London, pp. 92-102. -^^ 

2. Economics: London, pp. 84-91, Rader, pp. 1-19. 

3. Culture: London, pp, 103-129. 

C. Japanese Totalitarianism: 

It Ideology: London, pp, 182—199, Ja'pan anl the Japanese , pp, 

2, State: London, pp. 200-206, Japan, pp. C2-45, 

3, Economy: London, pp. 206-212, Japan, pp. 54-70. 

4, Imperialism; London, pp. 212-225, Japan, pp. 92-122, 
L, Native Fascism; Piller, Time Bomb 

E. Tne Cure of Fascism i The Potsda^i Leclaration 

II, Socialism: 

A. Social! st Theory: 

1, "Utopian*' socialism: London, pp. 24&-256. 

2. Marxian socialism: London, pp. 257-269, 
Socialism in the U. S.S. R. : 

1. The socialist state: Ihe Soviet Union Today , pp. 8 
London, pr. 27^-?79; Thp Congt i tutiori o£ the 

2. Soviet economy: Sikes, Contemporary Economic Systems , pp 



1-21. 



B. 



-35 

TT. 



S.S.R. 



I 



3. 



^ 266- 

OR Louks and Hoot, Comparative Economic Systems . 360 

(ed. 1943) pp. 411-524; The Soviet Union Today, pp. 36-49. 
Soviet Culture: Wie Soviet Union Today , pp. 50-70; 
London, pp, 292-324, 



III 




Liberal Lemocracy: 

A. Democratic Theory: 

1. Property rights vs. Human rights: Rader, pp. 216-224. 

2. The Constitution of the U.S. and its interpretation: 

London, pp. 423-39 

Thorp. Curti and Baker, American Issues., vol, 1, pp, 115 

-126 (Federali st Papers) and 208-213, 406-408 (Tocqueville) 

3. Free enterprise and economic planni ng: 

a. the reactionary viewpoint: Hayek:, Read to Serfdom 

(Reader' s Digest) 

b, the progressive (liberal) viewpoint: 

Wallace. 60 Milien Jobs 



B, Planning for a New America: 

C. Britain in Transformation: 



London, pp. 440-462, 

London, pp. 376-420, Survey Graphic 



»( 



MMÜMbriMiitaii— - 



•.'■'Tfvy^- 



Contemporary Civilization 4 



QUEENS COLLEGE 
Plushing, N.y, 



Student must "buy: 



Fall, 1945 



London, Backisyounds of Conflict 

Editors of Fortune, Japan and the Japanese 

Wallace, 60 Million Jobs 



f 



I 



I 



Pasci sm - Socialism - Liberal Democracy 

I. Fascism: ., , 4, -7 (^.^..l3/. 

A. Fascist Theory: London, pp. 67-92; Rader, No Gonipromise , Chaps. 1,2,6,7,^' ^^"^J 

13, Fasuijjt Practice: ,„, 

1. i>iational Socialism: London, pp.92-i^ 

2. Fascism in Spain and Argentina: Quintanilla, A Latin American 

Speaks, chapters, 1, 2, 

C. Theory and Practice of Japanese Totalitarianism: Japan and the Japanese ; 

London, pp. 182-225 ia - < ,/.,,,- 



D. Native Fascism: Piller, Time Bomb 

E. Tne Cure of Fascism: Potsdam IDeclaration 



^*^ ,>,.. >♦:, .Xi . y^^,^.^ 



(''■ 



■2-' 



• ■'-^ 






II • Socialisiii: 

A. Socialist Theory: 

1. "Utopian" socialism: London, pp. 245-256 

2. Harxian socialism: London, pp. 257-269 

B. Socialism in the U. S. S. R. : 

1. Tne socialist state: London, pp. 270-279; Constitution of the U. S. S.R . 

2. So vi et Economy: Sikes, Contemporary Economic Systems , pp. 266-361 OE 

Louöks and Hoot, Com parative Economic Systems , ( ed. 19 43) pp. ^-524 

3. Soviet culture: London, pp. 292-324 

C. Socialist tendencies in Europe : Laidler, Social Economic Movement s 

(Assignments to be announced later) 

III, Liberal Democracy: 

A. Democratic Theory: 

1. The Constitution of the U.S. ,and its Interpretation: Federali st Papers; 

London, pp, 423-4^9; Tnorp, Curti and Baker, American 
IssToes, vol. 1, pp. 208-213; 406-408. 



2. Planned Democracy: Wallace, 



^y-e-f - feh^ ^}oiBffion Man (,0 




3. Democratic Practice in the U.S.: ' 

1, Free enterprise and economic planning: 

Hayek, Road to Serfdom (Readers' Digest) 
Sikes, pp. 573-615 

2. Planning for a New America: 

London, pp. 440-462 



^ 



d-U-a 



.i 



C. Britain in ^Transformation: Survey Graphic 

London, pp, 376-420 



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Tinal Examinatlon 



(QUEENS CCLLSGS 
Division of the Social Sciences 
Ccntemperary Clvilization 4 



January 1946 



I. (one-half hour) Identify 6 ^f the following iteme, allowing not more than 

6 liues for your answers: 



1. Timocracy 

2. Equality r>f man 

3. Common man 

4. G-eopolitics 

5. Trust ee of lator 

6. State Shintoism 

7. Scientific Socialism 



8. Robert Owen 

9 . Zaibat au 

10. Co-prosperity sphere 

11. Polifbureau 

12. Christian Front 

13. Supreme Soviet 

14. Ogpu — N K D V 



II, (one hour) 



# 



III. (one hcur) 



D^ 



Contraat the "basic philosophles of fascism, socialism and 
democracy with particular reference to race, rule of the 
majority, freedom of speech, trade unioniam. 



Choose two of the following questions, allowing one-half hour 
fcr each; 



1. Why do Fase ist 8 discard reason in politics and what do they Substitute 
for the rational values in political orgsinization? 

2. Outline the political or economic policies contained in the clauses of 
the Potsdam Declaration regalating the control of Germany. 

3. Native fascism is branded as "anti-labcr", lifhat do you understand 
by "anti-labcr"7 V/hat are Its cbjectives and motives? 

4. How did Big Business in Japan ascend to power? How did it manipulate 
the Emperor and why did It collaborate with militari sm? 

5. Discuss the prlnciples of economic Organization in the Soviet Union 
with special reference to trusts and collect ive farms. 

6. VThat experiences caused Great Britain to transform her empire into 
a Commonwealth of Nations? 

7. In what ways d'^ the Scandinavian countries adjust traditional capitallsm 
to so Cialist purposes? 

8. What are the main points in Wallace's plana for 60 million Jobs? 



9. Is a planned economy incompatlble with capitalism? 




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FINAL SXAI/II NATION 



' » P.^.|..H ' !.l.l|..JJ I H, l .;/ l l WW 



Q,UEENS COLLEGE 
DIVISION OT IKi SOCIAL SCIENCES 
Contemporary Civlllzation 4 



June 1946 



Length of Examination ; Two and oae-half houre. 



Ans^yer four questions in all : anawer two of the first three questions, and two 
frora Qaestion IV. 



(3/4 hour) I. 



EiscuBS and coinpare the conception of democracy of the li"beral 
tradition with that of the Soviet Union. Make special reference to 
the Systems of election, selection of leadership, equality of voters, 
the party System, and the economic structure. 



(3/4 hour) II. 



What are the common features in the development of Nazism and the 
development of Japanese totalitarianism? In thia connection 
discusa the relation of State and industry, business and territorial 
expansion, militarism and Shintoism. 






(3/4 hour) III. Explain the following quotation from Wellace's 60 Million Jobs ; 

"... it is not the danger of losing our freedom through planning 
for freedom, as some would have us believe. It is not the danger 
that democratic planning will lead us Tinwittingly to the "servile 
State," to "the corapulsory state," or to "the road to serfdoni." 
This is the dßliberate claptrap of confusionists. 

Inste ad, the danger is that we shall not appreciate the 
all-important fact that it will be fully as dlfficTilt, fully as 
demanding of OTir patriots, to win the peace as it was to win the 
war. It may be even more difficult." 



( |honr) 
( Jhour) 
( 2 hour) 

( 2 hour) 
' ( S"hour) 

( i-hour) 



In this connection explain and discuss the views of Hayek. 

IV. (1) Explain the Nazi theory of the elite. 

(2) Explain the nature and significance of Emperor worship in Japan. 

(3) Discuss and explain the principles of European reconstruction 
set down in the Potsdam Agreement. 

(4) What was the nature and pnrpose of the Soviet five year plans? 

(5) Explain the forras and nature of fascist organizations in the 
United States. 

(6) Compare and contrast utopian and scientific socialism. 



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New York Times 
October 20,1945 



fH|*S ♦' 



Konoye Declared Centrat Pigüre 

In Revising Japanese Government 

i 

Foreign Minister Yoshida Implies Prince Has 
Ties With Mac Arthur — Opposes Break- 
% ing Up Big Family Combines 



4 '-. .1 






By GEORGE E. JONES 

By Wirelesi to The Niw York Timu. 



TOKYO, OxJt; ,19— TWQi separate 
political groups ', are preparing to 
consider ret'isiöhs of the Japanese 
Constitution in line with the AUied 
demands for ita liberalization, For- 
eign Minister Öhigeru Yoßhida said 
today in his first foreign press Con- 
ference. 

One of these groups is headed 
by Prince Fumimaro Konoye, "more 
or less the central figure in state 
affairs," said the Foreign Minister. 
This group is working close to the 
throne while another group is 
^working directly under the Cabinet, 
but neither is maintaining liaison 
with Allied headquarters on specif- 
ic proposals for ^ reform, Mr. Yo- 
shida added. 

Prince Konoye's prominent role 
in the constitutional revision is not 
embarrassing to Premier Baron 
Kijuro Shidehara's Government, 
*Mr. Yoshida said. He acknowl- 
edged that Prince Konoye might 
have been invited to participate in 
the revision studies as the result 
of a conversation between the 
Prince and Gen. Douglas Mac- 
Arthur. 

At that time, Mr. Yoshida said, 
General MacArthur was reported 
to have asked Prince Konoye in- 
directly something about the Japa- 
nese political System. The inter- 
preter, however, used the word 
"Constitution" in relaying this in- 
quiry and hence Prince Konoye be- 
came linked with that matter. 

The Foreign Minister said that 
the Japanese had initiated the con- 
stitutional reforms as the result of 
the combined pressure of the Unit- 
ed States, the press and the Japa- 
nese people's own realization that 
the Constitution, which had been 
patterned after Western docu- 
ments, was being misused. 

He defended Japan's big com- 
mercial families, the "Zaibatsu," as 
the element that had brought pros- 
perity to Japan in the pre-war 
days by having engineered the Em- 
pire's spectacular industrial and fi- 
nancial growth in peacetime. 

"Whether a break-up of these 
houses will redound to th<f benefit 
of the people, I.^OTi't kriow," said 



the Foreign Minister. "I am in- 
clined to be doubtfül, especiallyi 
since I personally do not know howl 
the Americans propose to accom-j 
plish their dissolution." 

Mr. Yoshida drew a distinction 
betW^een the "old Zaibatsu," the 
conservative old-Iine financiers and 
industrialists and the "new Zai- 
batsu," who he said had vvorked 
with the militarists and had prof- 
ited by the war. 

Mr. Yoshida declared that the 
old-line Zaibatsus had built up for- 
tunes in peacetime and that they 
rejoiced over the war's end. He 
declared that he had no personal 
knowledge that these concerns had 
profited from the oolonial expan- 
sion, but said they "had to manage 
their industries during the war 
with a loss to tliemflelves because 
the Government forced them to 
manufacture ships and airplanes 
regardless of the loss." 

He said that he did not think 
that the big firms officially sup- 
ported political 'parties, but ad- 
mitted that indivldual members 
might have donated to political 
friends. , 

At the present time Japan is a 
defeated nation, one without a 
foreign policy or diplomacy, Mr. 
Yoshida declared. 

"Our Chief task is to carry out 
the terms of the Potsdam Declara- 
tion as smoothly and as rapidly as 
possible and demonstrate our good 
faith through deeds," he said. 



Aid to Big Firms Reported 

A National Broadcasting Com- 
pany correspondent reported from 
Tokyo yesterday morning that the 
Japanese Cabinet had moved to re- 
inforce Japanese industry by hav- 
ing voted to reimburse at leagt 
three of the big Japanese corpb- 
rations for losses caused by bomb 
damage and cancellation of war 
contracts. They are the Mitsubishi 
heavy industry, the Sumitomo 
metal industry and the Nakajima 
aircraft industry, which together 
will receive $1,333,000,000, the re- 
port said. 



New' York Times 
August 18,1945 




•j',.;«\,?.L*/ii«W[>'t 



Times 



■-'■*, 



■{'■Jt ■<■*,. ■''*-' 






By FRANCIS HACKETT 

EMPERORS are a problem. In 1819 Britain Embree himself observes that "^t* ii « ' populai* 

had an obstinate one on its hands and the Americflili miaapprehension whlc^ woul<l make o£ 

Russlans were encumbered With one in 1917. the Japimese Emperor a «upematural figfure. 

Now It is our turn to decide what to do with the Divinely descend^d, yes, but not a delty," The 

Japanese Emperor. This iq i^t ^^^ ^^^Y matter difference doea^t seem to cut much icii, 

on which John F. Embr««l^>rtlethodical survey, .' %r • .. i tt «i. « «' 

••The Japanese Nation,"* Jfives us indirect ' ^Tlie Natjonal Unifymg Fprce 

lightinjr. ' ' •► It doesn't because the nation has been taught 

Mr. Embree »has bleen in Japan three times and to worfthip national unity. Even big business 

once for a wjiolcyear In a village. Lest we has to toe the line or yield to national socialism. 

expect that he wHl gtve us the "soul of a people" The military decided to declare the Emperor 

or "material aspects," as he calls them, "such "sacred and inviolable" by Article 3 of the Con- 

as art and architecture," it must be noted that stitution. They also aimed by State Shinto, 

his is a professional book; he is an anthrpologist. which is part of the curriculum, to spoon into 

Some day a critic might do worse than anthro- every Japai^ese that "Japan do«s not have revo- 

pologize the anthropologists. A faint aroma of lutions against its divinely descended rulers." 

pure Ph. D. clings to this book, and sooner or As Mr. Embree puts it, "Shinto was the logical 

later the word "sibling" occurs in it. But this is choice for an ideology to be fostered as a na- 

« time at which to be grateful for any work that tional unifytn^: fortJe." The state, in a word, 

sorts out the "patterns" of Japanese behavior gobbled up any ideal not itself. According to 

and puts its probings on the slides. i^s leaders, Japanese are "braver, more virtuous 

Mr. Embree is the son of Edwin Embree, dis- ^i^d m'ore intÄUigefit than other races of mankind. 



tinguished in the educational field, and he has 
learned his stuff at McGill, Hawaii, Toronto and 
Chicago. 

Looked Into Entire Set-Up 



and their divinely descended Emperor is destined 
to cxtend his «way over the entire earth." For, 
this reason it has stressed the Emperor, the con« 
firmed populär loyaity to him. 

Mr. Embree thinks he could be undermined by 
Propaganda. "Gterpiany," he points out, "created 
new Symbols to repiace the Kaiser, and the same 
could easily occur in Japan." Which seems to 
be a good argument for keeping the Emperor 
where he is, provided the white horse carries him 
in the opposite direction from State Shinto but, 
curiously enough, soi^ething skeptical and con- 
servative seems to 'create in Mr. Embree what 
he would call/, "an Interesting dichotomy." He 
knows Japanese chauyinißm is extreme, but 
Japan appeals to bis tafite and perhaps to his 
heart. Over and bvÄr again he carps at our 
own romantic writem, our own interference with 
Japan, our own mlsunderstanding, our chauvin- 
ism. Now the carp is admined in Japan. "The 
carp is a symbol of courage and energy because 



In Japan he sampled family and household, 
religion, social class, economic base and the 
entire government structure, he looked into Miss 
Tsuda's school and the peeresses' school as im- 
partially as into the downcast lot of tanner, 
butchers and shoemakers. These last are animals 
* whom the polite Japanese indicate by holding up 
four fingers. Japan can exhibit oppressed classes 
as well as 95 per cent literacy. Mr. Embree 
describes it all with Charts, maps and specifica- 
tions. 

At the Center of it is the Emperor. In 1868 

the Japanese ruling class erected him into "the 

head and father of the great Japanese national 

<^ family." It was their response to the westem 

k World that had broken in on its 250 years of ^t^Twims "iIpstTeam, "'oVercomTn^ Vr^^^^^^ od'ds'tö 

l feudal peace. and around this symbol of national ^^^^j^ j^^ objective," and Mr. Embree's objective 

* security they grouped a modern governmental . obiectlvitv 

and religious structure that takes its direction . * m * 

from a cablnet, a privy Council and a supreme ^ • o v. k i,\, 

military Council. Quuite subordinate is heavy Occupation as Seen by Another 

Japanese industry concentrated in a few large as a corrective, however, Robert S. Ward pro- 

hbuses, though in 1940 half of Japans seventy- vides a quiet but devastating comment on the 

three mlUions had become urban and industrial. techniques of Japanese occupation. He was in 

Out of this number only 73,000 were enroUed in Hong Kong when the British surrendered in 1941. 

the universltles. His "Asia for the Asiatics?"t is a powerful and 

It becomes quite clear from this workmanlike enlightening report on the Japanese in action. 

study that the ruling class was ahead of Hitler Mr. Embree speaks of "occasional breakdowns 

by several generations. While Sir George San- whereby Japanese go off the deep end emotion- 

som is quoted as saying he never met a Japanese ally" as in the rape of Nanking. But Mr. Ward 

who believed the Emperor was divinely descended, shows what it really is to "equate ethics and 

Mr. Embree remarks that more than one school politics." The anthropologist talks of "the idea 

teacher ha« been burncd to death trying to save that society is more important than the indi- 

I the official portrait from a building on fire. Mr. vidual." Mr. Ward holds up four fingers, and 

4 " • ' - ■ ^'t^-,;. ., ... this time it is for the divine descendants. :; ^ . 

•THE JAPANESE NATION. By John F. Embree. fÄSlÄ FOR THE A8I ATICS f By Robert S. Ward. 
306 pagea. Farrar d Rinehart. $3. .,„ ,. ,^_.;£2ü.- 205 pagea. Univeraity of Chicago Press. ^. 



^' 



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New York Times 
üecember 16,1946 



Japan Ordered to End Aid i 
To Religion That Bred Wars^ 

By LINDESAY PARROTT 

By WlrelcM to Th> New Yoek Tim«s. 

TOKYO, Dec. 15— Gen. Douglas MacArthur today handed the 
Japanese the long-expected order abolishing Shinto as the national 
religion of Japan, which through the glorification of warrior an- 
cestors led the empire down the path of military aggression to 



defeat. The 2,000-word docu- 
ment, which had been in prepara- 
tion since mid-September, when 
Washington f irst announced that 
national Shinto would be elimi- 
nated, aims to accomplish t\\o 
ends: 

First, the Japanese Government 
is ordered to remove all support 
from the Shinto religion, to abol- 
Ish the teaching of Shinto in edu-l 
cational institutions and "to free all 
Japanese from any compulsion to 
believe in or profess to believe in 
Shinto." 

Second, the directive forbids the 
propagation of "militaristic and 
ultranationalistic ideology not only 
to Shinto but also to foUowers of 
all religious faiths, sects, creeds or 
philosophies." Such Propaganda, 
according to the terms of the Or- 
der, includes "the doctrine that the 
Emperor of Japan is superior to the 
heads of other states because of 
ancestry, descent or special ori- 
gin." This refers to the official 
belief that Hirohito is a direct 
descendant of the Goddess Ama- 
terasu and is "sacred and inviola-, 
ble," as stated in the Japanese! 
Constitution. I 

Also defined as "militaristic and 
ultranationalistic ideology" are 
"the doctrine that the people of 
Japan are superior to the people 
of other lands; the doctrine that 
the Islands of Japan are superior 
to other lands because of special 



gion manufactured by Ultranation 
alists and war lords to promote 
Japan's abortive attempt at world 
domination." 

Brig. Gen. Ken R. Dyke, former 
New York advertising executive, 
heading General MacArthur's civil 
Information and education section, 
explained that the directive's effect 
would be to leave untouched the 
actual religious features of the 
Shinto faith but would remove 
Government support and the me- 
chanics through which the Govern- 
ment wrote the rituals, appointed, 
paid and disciplined the priests 
either through the Shrine Bureau 
of the Home Ministry or through 
prefectural and local administra- 
tions. 

At the same time the order re- 
frains from interfering with the 
individual's beliefs and religious 
practices, which are guaranteed, 
but places Shinto, stripped of its 
official sponsorship, on a par with 
other religions here such as Bud- 
dhism and Christianity. 



Two Important Paragraph» 

The core of the directive is found 
in two paragraphs which declare: 

"The sponsorship, support, per- 
petuation, control and dissemina- 
tion of Shinto by Japanese na- 
tional, prefectural or local gov- 
■fernments, or by public officials, 
subordinates and employes acting 
in their official capacity, are pro-j 
hibited and will cease immediately. j 

"All financial support from pub- 
lic funds and all official affiliation 
with Shinto and Shinto shrines are 
prohibited and will cease immedi- 
ately." 

Specifically abolished are the 
Home Ministry's Shrine Board and 



or mvme origin, or any other doc- ; the religious order directing the 
trine which tends tn riplnrt^ thpj Grand Shrine of Ise, the largest in 
Japanese people into embarkingil Japan, all public Institutions for 
upon wars of aggression or tojtraining Shinto priests, all teaching 
glorify the use of force as an in-f of Shinto in government-supported 



strument for the settlement of dis-j 
putes with other peoples." i 

The order, which was handed toi 
the Japanese Government after al 
long series of meetings between! 
Allied representatives on one side 
and Government members, priests, 
religious officials and memners of 
the laity, represents the first Al- 
lied attempt to tackle details of^ 
the Japanese religious system' 
headed by the "divine" Emperor, 
which Allied Headquarters charged 
in Itfl announcement was "a reM- 



schools, all "physical symbols of 
State Shinto" in public buildings 
similar to pre-revolutionary Rus- 
sian ikons. 

The order added that "no official 
of national, prefectural or local 
government acting in his public 
capacity will visit any shrine to re- 
port his assumpti(»i of Office, to 
report on conditions of government 
or to participate as a representa- 
tive of the government in any 
ceremony, " 



■ ■iIIW«i-"*l-lf,l 



General Dyke explained that'the 
order would ehminate the Em- 
peror's official Visits to State 
shrines, though he is expected to 
continue the practice as a private 
individual. 

The directive also provided for 
the censorship of all textbooks and 
teachers' manuals used in Japa- 
nese institutions to purge them of 
"all Shinto doctrine" and forbade 
the publication of new books con- 
taining such material. 

Though the order effectively 
severs the connection between the 
church and state in Japan, General 
Dyke. his assistant, Lieut. William 
K. Bunce, Navy man who is head 
of the religious division, and the 
text of the directive made it clear 
ttfat no interference with church 
property or private religious edu- 
cation is intended. Private support 
of the former state shrines is per- 
mitted "provided such support is 
entirely voluntary and is in no way 
derived from forced or involuntary 
contributions." 

The order also said that pri- 
vate religious educatlonal institu- 
tions would continue with the same 
Privileges and subiect to the same 
controls as ocher private educa- 
tional institutions. 

Lieutenant Bunce pointed out 
that the transfer to private con- 
trol would be a vast Operation, in- 
volving 220 national shrines and 
nearly 50,000 prefectural and local 
shrines, which received some pub- 
lic support. The National Govern- 
ment paid an annual average of 
2,500,000 yen for Operation of the 
shrines and payment of the clergy, 
and for 1945-46 had a budget of 
6,700,000 yen, including the repair 
of war damage, which has now 
been abandoned. 

General MacArthur's order hsted 
our main purposes as "to free the 

Japanese people from direct or in- 
direct compulsion to believe or pro- 
fess to believe in a religion or cult 
jofficially designated by the state, 
jto lift from the Japanese people 
the bürden of compulsory financial 
support for the ideology which con- 
tributed to their war guilt, defeat, 
suffering, privation and present 
deplorable condition; to prevent a 
recurrence of perversion of the 
Shinto theory and beliefs into mili- 
taristic and ultranationalistic Prop- 
aganda designed to delude the 
Japanese people and lead them into 
wars of aggression; to assure the 
Japanese people in the rededication 
of their national life to build a new, 
Japan based on the Ideals of per- 
petual peace and democracy." 

"Reverberations" Not Expected 

Admitting that the directive is 
"a first Step," which leaves un- 
touched such fields as the divinity 
,of the emperor laid down in the 
! Japanese Constitution and the in- 
jterweaving of Shinto with such 
jbasic documents as the Meiji re- 
i Script on education, General Dyke 
jindicated that Allied headquarters 
expects"no terrific reverberations" 



lin Japan. The Government, he said, 
had already informally indicated 
its Cooperation and is contemplat- 
ing legislation repealing measures 
that established Shinto as the state^ 
religion and will take steps for thei 
^•ansfer of shrine properties to 
iprivate control. 

General Dyke made It clear that 
considerable interpretation must 
be made of the terms of the order 
as occasions arise. At a press Con- 
ference the general explained that 
though the Emperor remains the 
"Spiritual head of Japan" and with 
the same religious freedom of any 
individual, imperial household con- 
tributions to national shrines, 
would require the approval of Al- 
lied headquarters. 

He added that considerable ^ 
checking would be done betör« . 
March 15, on which date the Jap- 
anese Government must make a 
jfuU report to headquarters on 
'measures taken to enforce the di- 
rective. General Dyke pointed out 
that the order foUows the prece- 
dent of other directives in makmg 
all officials of central and local 
governments as well as employes 
of shrines and "Citizen« and resi- 
dents of Japan" personally ac- 
countable for violations. The pen- 
alty applied when such instance« 
were discovered under previous di- 
rectives usually was »iismissal 
from Office. 



New York Times 
January 2,1946 








BY mmm move 




Few Persons Were Informed of 

Rescript That Changes 

Basis of Throne 



PREMIER SUPPORTS STAND 



Major Hurdle to Revision of the 

Constitution May Have Been 

Removed by Emperor 



By LINDESAY PARROTT 

By Mreless to Th« New York Time». 

TOKYO, Jan. 1— The Japanese 
people read this morning with 
stunned amazement Emperor Hiro- 
hito's Imperial Rescript, displayed 
in all the newspapers in Japan, de- 
claring that his divinity — the an- 
cient tradition of the throne de- 
gcended from the Sun Goddess 
Amaterasu — is "a false concep- 
tion" based on legends and myths. 
This rescript, which will ranlq 
with the most important state paH 
pers in Japanese history, came as 
a complete surprise not only to the 
ordinary Japanese Citizen but even 
to high officials outside the tiny 
palace governmental circle and all 
but a handful of officers at Gen- 
eral MacArthur's headquarters. 

Tonight the average Japanese, 

after his generally hungry. heat- 

less, cheerless New Year's Day, 

scarcely knows what has happened. 

He has probably not yet realized 

that the creed of the Emperor's 

,^ divinity and the superiority of the 

^l Japanese people— which for gen- 

1 erations he has been persuaded and 

^ even forced to believe — now is re- 

rr pudiated by that divinity itself. 

■' Typical of how well the secret 

of the rescript was kept— though 

because of its importance it must 

have been many days in prepara- 

tion— was the reception by the 

Japanese press. i* * v** 



p r^Ecliton Not Informed 

This correspondent was in the 
Office of Tokyo'« leading morning 
newspaper, Asahi, when the Japa- 
nese text of the rescript arrived 
yesterday. None of the editors 
knew in advance what it would 
contain, and the staff, which cer- 
tainly contains many loyal Japa- 
nese and a few devout Shintoists, 
scarcely had time to realize what 
they were handling before the| 
pages were locked and on the way 
to the presses. 

The rescript was delivered just 
before the deadline. Therefore none 
of the Tokyo newspapers today 
published any editorial comment 
which might have served as a guide 
to the readers in one of the most 
shattering events in Japan since 
the arrival of Commodorc Perry. 

The only official Japanese State- 
ment came from Premier Kijuro 
Shidehara, who was doubtless one 
of those in the Imperial confidence 
regarding the rescript. Referring 
to the Emperor Meiji's charter 
oath, which Emperor Hirohito re-' 
affirmed with his promises of free 
assembly and govemment by the 
throne but according to public' 
opinion, Premier Shidehara's State- 
ment said: 

"In recent years the rise of re- 
actionary influence has resulted in 
a disregard of respect for freedom 
and the promotion of the peoples' 
will, thereby losing sight of the 
vast and far-reaching wishes of 
the Emperor Meiji. 

"The Japanese people. however, 
have now turned over a new leaf. 
In obedience to the Imperial 
wishes they should build up a new 
State based completely on democ- i' 
racy, peace and rationalism, in or-l 
der to set His Majesty'a mind at 
ease. This has been my lifelong 
wish. I earnestly hope the people 
will rise to the building of a new 
State." 



highest law on loyal Citizen«, ig 
actually the logical development 
of two trenda that have been grow^ 
ing in Japan since the early day« 
of the oceupation. ' 

The first of these, of courM, la 
the quiet though determined Amer- 
ican attack, not on the poaition of 
the Imperial throne but on the 
method in which the "Tenno Sys- 
tem" has been used by the military 
Clique. 

Though the treatment of Japa^ 
nese monarchic institutions has 
been the subject of some criticism 
abroad as "soft," actually the oc- 
eupation has taken a whole series 
of measures designed, at least In- 
directly, to curb their vast power«. 
Among these are the elimination 
of the Army and Navy, which were 
direct Imperial preserves without 
reference to Parliament, the audit 
of Imperial Household funds and 
the divorcement of church and 
State. 



Reaction From MacArthur 

The American reaction to the 
event was probably best summed 
up in the words of a public State- 
ment from General MacArthur 
this morning. He said: 

"The Emperor's New Year's 
Statement please« me very much. 
By it he undertakes a leading part 
in the democratization of his peo- 
ple. He squarely takes a stand for 
the future along liberal lines. His 
action reflects the irresistible in- 
fluence of a sound idea. A «oiind 
idea cannot be stopped." 

Though Americans were equally 
surprised with the Japanese at the 
issuance of this rescript, the meas- 
ure, which has the force of the 



Another Step in Process 

The Emperor's voluntary abdica- 
tion from his divine status repre- 
sents another step in this process, 
The alternative might have been 
his abdication as a ruler and «ub- 
sequent chaos. 

The second trend observable 
here in the past few months has 
been the quiet attempt in certaln 
Japanese circles close to the throne 
to bring the Emperor closer to the 
people and to strip the Imperial 
incumbent of some of hiä forbid- 
dmg majesty. Gases in point 
are Emperor Hirohito's unsolicited 
Visit to General MacArthur, which 
was interpreted here as a favor 
done by the throne to the people 
in the hope of averting' some of 
the hardships of the oceupation 
and the Emperor's recent Visit to 
the ancestral shrines, which he 
made with only minimum guards 
and with a maximum of opportu- 
nity for his subjects to see htm. 
Now, in this rescript, t^e Em- 
peror has specifically identified 
himself with the people. He has 
represented himself as an ordinary 
man, sharing with them in the 
same joys and sorrows. 

The rescript may have one inter- 
estmg polityal effect in speeding 
up the long-debated revision of the 
Japanese Constitution. The first | 
section of that document, which 
terms the Emperor "sacred and 
inviolable" on a religious as well 
as a political basis, was a hurdle 
at which all the revisionists bogi- 
gled to a greater or less degree. 

The new rescript has removed 
the divine implications and, since 
the Emperor has the power to re- 
vise the Constitution himself by 
simple fiat, presumably it has 
ehmmated the clause in question. 
This would remove one of the 
great difficulties in setting up 
some sort of constitutional mon- 
archy without mythological sanc- 
tion. It could provide for a Gov- 
ernment that many Japanese lib- 
erals think best fitted for a 
reconstructed Japan. 



New York Times 
January 25,1946 



Säle of Japanese Girls 
Into Brothels Banned 



By Th« AMOclated Presi. 
TOKYO, Jan. 24— General Mac- 
Arthur today ended a centurles- 
old custom under which Japanese 
families sold their daughters into 
the slavery of Prostitution. 

General MacArthur ordered the 
Japanese Government to obey 
the section of the Potsdam Dec- 
laration that guarantees "re- 
spect for the fundamental human 
rights." Under it Japan must an- 
nul all laws authorizing licensed 
Prostitution and nullify all con- 
tracts committing any woman to 
Prostitution. 

The Japanese Governnrient re- 
cently halted licensing of houses. 
but not the law permitting the 
sale of girls. In 1940 the Gov- 
ernment had made a radical 
change that permitted the sale 
of girls only by blood relatives, 
eliminating sale by husbands and 
sweethearts. 

Two weeks ago the Tokyo 
Brothel Keepers' Association de- 
cided to release the girls from 
slavery status contracts and per- 
mit them "the democratic right" 
of going into business independ- 
ently. 



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Septem her 9,1945 



qtEMAKING OF GSWNY > 
PROVING-'SLOW WORK 



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Americans Begin to See Advantages 
Of the Russians' Direct Action 



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■•' By GLADWIN HILL 

By Wlrtless to The New York Times. 



BERLIN, ■ Setit. 8 — While the 
eyes of the world have been turned 
during the past month on the 
war's finale in the East, the great 
practical experiment in interna- i 
tional collaboration growing out of 
the war, the four-power occupa-, 
tion of Germany has been making 
laborious but tangible progress. 
The most significant progress has 
been m«Üe not with the Germans 
but among the Allies themselves in 
feeling out n^technique of interna- 
tional management. Each day has 
brought forth new hitches and in- 
advertent frictions in the Joint ef- 
fort, but each day also has brought 
broadening tolerance and patience 
to a remarkable degree. 

The approaching Winter, with its 
Problems of food, fuel and shelter, 
is the prime concern at present of 
the occup^tion authorities and of 
all Germajiy. General Eisenhower 
has announced flatly that it will 
be "inescapable" to Import food 
fiom the J^ted States to fesi the 
Germanrf, slnce «ur policy of just 
retribution. to the Germans does 
not extend to killing them off by 
starvation or by the gunfire which 
unquestioftably would be necessary ; 
if widespread starvjition set in.', 
With Germany's midn coal fields 
producing only 15 per cent of nor- 
mal and most of that earmarked 
for the Army and public Utilities, 
the fuel Problem is not so easily 
solved and large numbers of Ger- 
mans äre going to suffer from ex- 
posure this Winter. 

Progress Report j 

In less urgent fields of rehabili- 
tation Germany has nuade'marked. 
progress in the last few weeks. 
Eight thousand miles of railroad 
now are operating in the British 
zöne and around 6,500 in the 
American zone. The latter is 
about 78 per cent of the normal 
trackage. Traffic amounts to 15 
per cent of pre-war. The Rhine, 
one of Germany's most important 
transport arteries, is scheduled to 
be cleai;((d northward from the 
Ruhr to the coast this month and 
also upstreant for an indefinite 
. distance. ., ■■v..a.% — - 






The Military Goverftment re- 
ports that German civil admin- 
Istration in the American zone 
is about one-third recreated. 
Democratlc elections of certain 
officials ' at the city and county 
le^ are planned for this winter. 

In Berlin, '*^Jrhere the *Ru!reiftns 
reopened';the schools before we ar- 
rived. 225,000 pupils — out of a 
3.000,000 Population — now are at- 
tending classes, 70,000 of them in 
the American sector. 1 

In the rest of the American zone 
revival of education is being pur- 
sued more slowly on a local basis. 
Half of the 5,000,000 textbooks, 
which will be needed when the 
schools are reopened generally, 
have been printflji. 

The annual co^iference of Cath- 
olic Bishops ha« just been held at 
Fulda. They laged the re-estab- 
lislunimt of Sta^'supported de- 
nomi#fcainal scÄt|f>ls, which were 
abAiih^d by*tAr'Nazis in 1939, | 
recommended that re Vision ofi 
books for the Catholic schools i 
should be in church hands— both 
matters which will take some 
working out with the Military 
Government — and advocated or- 
ganized relief for German refu- 
gees, many of , them Catholics from 
Silesia and the Sudetenland. 

Religiöus LiterAture Approved 

Protestant clergymen, including 
Pastor Niemo«n«r, held what was 
Said to be "the largest Protestant 
coKfercnce in German history?' and 
produced a plan for unification of 
various segments of the German 
Evangelical Church. 

In the American zone Catholic, 
Lutheran,,J^Uiodist and Adventist 
churches haVfe öbtaiAeÖ pei-mlssion 
to publiah ref^rlous periodicals and 
literatuf e, iKd bf ficlals skid Jews 
would also obt%i» this permission 
as soon as they are more organized. 

Attüerigans licensed the first pri- 
vate booSc #«lMi»J*ftr, a Heidelberg 
anti-;N««i who is ^oing to print 
pocket Clasirtc«, irtjÄUÖing Emerson 
and Poe. Öne,hundred and fifty 
tliou»ahd copke» Of ^ new American 
literary review in Germany are 
being d&tributed in the American 
. updJBE^sh zones. 



A numbe^ of American movie« 

0t the ',*X'?W(8^ Tom Bdiflon" vin- 

i tage «tlth tierman dialogu« are 

now tiiitafi^fAovm. in the American 

Zone. ■ '^'^^ ■ . -. ' 

DiKISfBkHMI pemil%^ 4niUally the 
Alliea' graiUMt |lmil. ,have 
been rtKllp(|;ii4to tc|i^ ftom 

6,000,00a toiimfd^M^llW 
000. About half those rem^fng 
are Poles. Other main groups art 
Russians, Italians and Hungarian«. 
Most of them are settled in orderiy 
camps managed by UNRRA. 

Ousted Nazis 

Denazification IB Delaig pursued. 
Seventy-f our Mayori in the Munich 
area were ousted recffttly along 
with 4,300 City ' employes, and 
Bavaria's purge total was due to 
reach around 100,000 by the end 
of August. In Franconia 5,363 
Nazis have been ousted. In Wies- 
baden thirty-eight members of the 
police department and twenty-six 
banking and Insurance officials 
were dismissedir' The Bremen Bur- 
gomeister was firftd for disobeying 
the Military Government. 

The Allies' majoHr iJtiliitive effort, 
the international vrar criminal 
trials at iHutwal&tg of Goering 
and other memiMra of the Hitler 
gang and the military leaders Vho 
for the first time In history will 
be called to account for promotin« 
a war, has beer^iflSt "of f to u^- 
October for the Äated reasoa-*l5f 
the difflculty' 3a|j(JJi^ranginfe the 
court facilities. ""Brlttsh trials of 
the Belsen concentration camp of- 
ficials are scheduied to start in a 
ftr» (Iftysf at Luneberg. 

The Allied Control Council, com- 
posed of GenecsynftMj^ Mar- 
^ il Montgohleii^)^SBlMl|hal Zhu- 
General Koc^i m^' their as- 
„ itants, which ßmlßk' «very ten 
days, has held ifs fburth meeting. 
While the sessipng-have been mile- 
stones in Intwnmtional harmony, 
they have not y||^ yielded much in 
tangible legislaÜon because the 
Council is just emerging from the 
{organizational stage. 

iJobfor^ipoiincil 

The <^iK»fdH»| primary task Is 
establishntelllkj«« central German 
administrat^«^: of finance, trans- 
port, conw«mications, industry 
and fiOre}|ptlv^|ide as authorized.in 
the f!|l>tsdAiA Agreement. This will 
be a major, «ftp toward restoring 
Germahy to"Ä workable basis of 
self-support. After that is likely 
to come the matter of establishing 
a centralized administration in 

jfood and agrieuHure which was not 
specified in the Potsdam agree-, 
ment but which American officials 

pbelieve was not precluded and is 




nt about 

of broad 

ace expon- 

many prin- 



Gemian industry still is too par- 
alyzed by lack of transpoit and 
materials to be a pressing Prob- 
lem. The western Allies liave a 
Ittumber of brakes oi> the mass re- 
jrival of German industry. Marshai 
Zhukoff has giveu'k flat order in 
the Russian zone ttK all i'ndustry 
to r^sume as so(»pp.^s possible. 
Praclically thii i« niot as contra- 
dictory as it appears, because the 
potentialities for revival ' are lim- 
ited to a very small percentage of 
plants, because anything that is 
revived is subject to seizure by the 
Russians, and because this appears 
to be only an Interim policy pend- 
ing formulation of a detailed Al- 
lied program. '^^^^ *fe,**irs ' 

More and ihore American of- 
ficials are cdlltfng to the view that 
we have been* spending too much 
time juggling theories when we 
were confronted by conditions, and 
that we could use a little more 
declsiveneas. This is val- 
MMutt'J&Aaiwithin Ameri- 

_„ «lot of bewil 

de'' 
the 
dir 

entsTäre* reiÄizingi 

ciples originälly- kii^b down on pa- 

per are in some apf^tpations merely 

lunworkable rath(^tiari hard — that, 

to take a finiM^ $;i^ample, regard- 

less of youf "disir^ to decentralize, 

•you cannot rten ürt railroads in a 

'big country on a coupity basis, and 

Ithat in carrying toft. f ar our basic 

policy of re-creating Germany f rom 

the bottom up by local units we 

sometimes are. hamstringing our- 

selves as much as the Germans. 

Theory vs. Practice 

When the Russians drew atten- 
tion by installing twelve German 
subordinate officials in their zonal 
dministrative aactiona yhile Amer- 
icans still were working at local 
and county levels, a number of 
American officers opined that we 
might better be doing the same 
thing. . The RuaCians are working 
on the principle that outward 
forms dQi^'tjjnj^iin 89,j,?[iuch when 
you have '^(mani*'fi(Wht, '^'-^hus while 
the Americans were working out 
the fine pointa <k a long-^^ange pro- 
gram to provi4e «Gatapans with 
non-Nazi möViei'"'th^ Russians 
blandly authorized German movie 
houses to reopen, with the implicit 
waming for 'Vffff^ Qf zKlan ^exhibi- 
tor that if he pira^tWl ftny nazism 

authpritarian Government of the 
Rustian sort is more suited to a 
lot of immedillte problenui of an 
occupation fhftn a democratic re- 
gime, and in coping with imme- 
idiate problems of a chaotic Ger- 
inanv American« have been- leam- 

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Sovlet Froedom Dlffers 

&*«Not long ago, Mr. C«oper at a 
«leeting of the National Editorial 
Association spoke about; the im- 
portance of providing' freedom of 
the press throughout the World, es- 
pecially from the poi©t of view of 
the future Organization of interna- 
tional security. 

"This idea by itself deserves Sup- 
port, for Mt. Cooper was correct 
to look first of all after the guar- 
antees of freedom of the press in 
the aggressor countries, where it 
has not existed. 

"But suddenly Cooper confused 
this actually important issue by 
declaring that after the present 
war nine-tenths of the countries of 
the World, 'excepting the Soviet 
Union and China,' would uphold 
the principles of freedom of the 
press. 

"However,- concernmg th^ Soviet 
Union, sM*» Cooper should not 

^^^ ,y/fQffy-i'Our'*fiouixtTy .will infalUbly 

-- -:^_--V .jfitti»port^th9 vrt*M!st freedom of the 

" ' ■ ' ■ iDress ' '^ ' '' • -"■' ■ '" ' 

MOSCOW. J$ip.6(^)— Themag<j^ "'Rusdia,' as Mr. Cooper said, 
azine War and ^ Working Class .«j^g never known freedom of the 
said today that Wteas presented byj|pres6 as we understand it.' 
Kent Cooper for worldwide f ree- '• "If Mr. Cooper wants to prove 

- . . , „ „« ,,,iH^ aiir. that freedom of the press in our 

dorn ofthe press deserve wide sup^ ^^^^^^^ substantially differs from 

freedom of the press as practiced 



ü. S, SOVIET PRESS 



Änswering Kent Cooper, War 
and Working Class Says Our 
^ Freedom Is Only Legal 

f c "■, 

HINTS CAPITAL CONTROLS 



Associated Press Executive 

Says Axis-Inspired Papers 

Helped Spawn War 



port, but at the same time assert- 
ed that Mr. Cooper was misin- 
formed about press freedom in So- 
viet Rxwwia. 

The Soviet publication, in a 
6,000-word article, referred to an 
address made by Mr. Cooper, ex- 
ecutive director of The Associated 
Press, in furtheriiig his campaign 
to break down barriers against 
free interchange of pews among 
nations. 

The fortnighi4y review's article 



in America, we won't object 

"But then Mr. Cooper refers to 
the System of freedom of the press 
that is familiär to him, and does 
not conceal the fact he would like 
to impose such a system upon 
other countries — good sense whis- 
pyed to him that such an attempt 
is not to be made in regard to the 
Soviet Union because 'it is most 
difficult to obtain it.' 

Does Mr. Cooper really believe 



was titled "AbflWt Freedom of the the Soviet people are the opponents 
Press — A Heart-to-Heart Talk of freedom of the press? No, he 
With Mr. K. Copper by N. Balti-|does not seriously believe this non- 
sky." It declareo the American i sense. In the. aböve-mentioned 
press was business-controUed and j speech of his, he cited examples of 
compared it unfavorably with that a quite different order — the known 
of the Soviet Union. declaration of the Moscow Three- 



"The Soviet people will never 
consent to replace its freedom of 
the press fo^ the American one," 
the article said. It added: 

"Mr. Cooper is the director ofi 
one of the bigÄgst/Aijaerican tele- 
graphic agenCiM, ,The Associated 
Press. As i» w|J Jmown, this 
agency servea ^» '»ource of in- 
formation foi*. tÄ« ' pr«ss of ithe 
United Statea,^1iJl|Ä,«»l^tica, rümor 
has it that .tiÄll*fj(Ui apparatus 
compelling 3Ö,0iM0<w 
taneously to tiii% m» same way. 
Therefore, the w()#*l. of the direc 
tor of such an ininfeatial agency 



Power Conference in Italy, a dec- 
lafation that proved the necessity 
of freedom of the press in Italy. 

Policy in Italy Recalled 

"Referring to this example, Mr. 
Cooper recognized that the Soviet 
Government protected freedom of 
the press. ..v': <• ,• 

"But if Ht.^'i^\3ptT without any 
prejudice, 6ouId get an idea of the 
origin and deyelopment of the So- 
ople simul-jviet State and the real conditions 
in our couritry, he would become 
convinced that the circumstances 
are different because in our coun- 
naturally cannot pÄsrf unnoticed. , try we. have conquered and realized 

• •' •*• the widest freedom of the press, 



anfl that we hi^Iy estl^^üB' freedom ' 
o^f the press in other ctfimtries, and, 
as Mr. Cooper admitted. *We are 
ready to protect it aiU bver the 
World.' 

"It does not mean, however, that 
we want to imposö our Soviet form 
of freedom of the press upon the 
other countrips of ihe world. No. 

"In cöntemporaty Italy we con- 
sider expedietit thfvJ*ealization of 
the bouige<)is dömocritic free- 
dom of tke ftee, büt'hot the Soviet 
form ot" frwdom et the press. 
Why ? Because in Italy there is no 
public political regime that makes 
possible a reallzation o? the Soviet 
freedom ^f the preW. 

"What Kpity W« C.OPÖPr ignores 
our Constitution. 'And-^ in these 
times the dii'ector of such a big In- 
formation . Organization should 
know the constitutions öf all coun- 
trie«^ Having leamed of the Con- 
aiitution of the Soviet Union, he 
would understand that such a wide 
freedom of the press enjoyed by 
the Citizen«, can be guaranteed only 
in conditions of the Soviet Socialist 
regime. 

Ü. S. Freedom Seen 4s Legal 
'ft is one thing to recognize bj 
law- the right of Citizen* to publis(> 
newspapers and magazines that 
serve their interests, and quite a 
different thing to guarantee the 
people the use of their right. As 
is known, in a majority of the' 
countries of Elurope and America, i 
the main restrlctlon of the freedom 
of the press is, not apparent in re- 
striction by law, '"but in thq^' ti>« 
broad masses of the people and at- 
ganizations have no materlalp««- 
Slbilities at their dlsposal necesaary 
for the publication of newspapfers 
a,nd magazines. 

"In the Soviet Union only, where 
all power is in the hands of the 
toilers of the eitles and villages 
represented hy Soviet deputies, a 
judicial right to issue their own 
newspapers and magazines is guar- 
anteed by the supply of toilers and 
their organizations with paper 
printing Offices, buildings, Commu- 
nications amd other commodities. 
Everything is guaranteed by the 
Soviet Constitution. Upon this 
foundation the exceedingly stormy 
growth of the press became pos- 
sible. , 

"In 1913 in Russia 859 news- 
papers with a circulation of 2,700,- 
000 were itsued. In 1939, 9,000 
nwvspapers with a circulation of 
more than 38,000,000 copies were 
issued. As to magazines, in 1939, 
1,592 were published ?'l over the 
country. 



The prlncipal thing: is that In 
pre-revolutionary Russia all the 
legal press served the interests of 
the exploiters of the people, but in 
the Soviet Union the preas «erves 
the interests of the maases." 

Cooper Makes a Uebuttal 
In New Y^rlfr, Mr. Cooper made 
this staten^ni: 

"Mr. BaHWty. has made a wel- 
come contrib«ti<?n to the interna- 
tional discusaion on the proposal 
of freedom of Information by mak- 
ing clear the Soviet conception of 
freedom of the press, which, as I 
have always said, and repeated in 
|the address r eferred to, differ« 

frojafiT näi - Amer^tui conception, 
whieh te tum he Obes not descrlb« 
a«i ^mMd m American. 

"Timü'iß aome indication of er- 
^r BBBomfmre in his understand- 
1»1^ o]f whikt I said. I have, of 
^vuf»,''^Xigfheen aware of the 
'Sajwt O>|ijitttution guarantee of a 
fr*« pre«^ and ifcfwas exactty that 
which I had to nSJ^ia in thte* stete- 
mentl mad(|v4^if the difference in 
the Soviet and Am^ripan concep- 
tions of the term. In the same ad- 
dress, I »poke ctf the la^mendous 
strides Soviet RusBia iMfi already 
made in followiufr ^ut 4ts plan of 
press freedom. 

"The most promiaing- tt^te in Mr. 
Baltisky'rviitticJe is that -he ia in 
complett «jiement with «lat has 
become tnv'Alnerican view? name- 
ly, that with victory freedom of the 
press shall be eatablished in the 
aggreasor countries. That is the 
matjt^ oft immödiate transcendent 
conceim, Iftaving to the future, as 
I have repeatedly aaid, a better 
underatanding between the peoples 
of the greät countries that are side 
by side in this defensive war. 

"Meanwhile, I am sure Mr. Bal- 
tisky would agree with me that if 
there had been freedom of Informa- 
tion in the Axis countries, especial- 
ly Germany, Russia would not now 
be suffering the most cruel and 
most vmjust war in its hiatory." 






/A^ ci-e^ I 



^b)a 



-^0^^^ SOwoC-tC COLLECT ior^ S^^ ' -^ f 2 j 6 



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£ccif\t)Mks 5- 



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ji-„ 



Economics 3 



HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT 



Duplicate 







Economic 8 3 



- 1 - 



r 



I. The Aristotelian Herita^e 

A. Aristo tle and the Socratlcs 

1. The eoclal-economlc backgroundi The Constitution 
of Solon (594 B.C.) prohlbltlng the personal enslavement of the 
debtor and reduclng or cancelllng existlng debts did not solve 
the tv/o most pressing social- economic Problems of Athenlan socle- 
ty In the 6th and 5th cehturles 

a. the conflict between the old rullng class and 
the expandlng coimnercial classes and 

b« the exlstence of a mass of slaves and of Impover- 
Ished i)easants and artlsans dependlng on money lenders. 

The commerclal class turned In the 5th centiiry Im- 
perlallstlc and was flrst defeated by the mllltarlly superlor clty- 
state of Sparta (404 B.C.); but the Ideas of democracy ajid nation- 
al federatlon were revlved and lasted until the Macotedonian con- 
flict (338 B.C.). 



2. Xenophon (426-354)2 a dlsciple of Socrates,origl- 
nally a mercenary soldler fighting for Persia,then for Sparta,be- 
came owner of a small es täte through the ransom of a captured Pei» 
sian and turned to historlcal md political writing. He contribu- 
ted two concepts to economic thoiight: 

a. the extent of divislon of labor (specializatlon] 
depends on the slze of the market: the greater the clty the larger 
the profeesional speciallzation (0yropaedia,VIII,2) and 

b. the concept of a sclence of household manegemeni 
(OIKOKOMIA): he credlted Socrates wlth havlng flrst concelved of 
At (OeconomlcuSfMemorabilia). 



£oonomio8 3 



- 2 • 



u 



3. Plato (427-347) t outllAad "in a aplrltual and ro- 
mantlo revolt aroused by the excess of oonanerclalisin*» (Roll, 27) 
the ideal as well as the possible State in The Republic and The 
Laws ? In the Republio (book II) he aaintained that the city ariscs 
beeauee of the divislon of labor which results from 

a. the natiural inequalities in human skills and 

fa« the multiplicity of hiunan wants« 

Specialization and a comnercial Organization become therefore he- 
essary. 



9 



4* Aristotle ( 584-322) t - .•. the first analytical 
econoroist • • • who first posed the economic problems with which all 
later thinkers have been conoemed" (Roll, 31) aade three oontribu- 
tions to economic thought (Roll, 32) [oorresponding to my outline Jt 

a» the definition of the scope of economics as a science (Poli- 
tics,I,9)? according to Aristotle there are two forma of the 
science of eoonomics: 

(1) Economics proper? the science of household management as 
eonceived by Xenophon from whom he differed in that he put the em- 
phasls on the ethics of master-slave,man-wife and father-children 
relationship besides dealing with the proper way of acquisition of 
the goods needed for the conduct of the house » family; 

(2) Science of supply or the art of acquisition (chrematisti- 
ke)t which deals with the interactions of hou8eholds,i.e* exohange 
of goods, and which is partially overlapping with Eeonomics proper 
insofar as it is ooncemed with "natural exchange". 

b. the analysis of exchanget starting from the distinction of 
the two uses of each good,for direct use [consumi tion] and for ex- 
ohange, such as is the case of a pair of shoes (Politics,I,9) he 
distinguishest 

(1) natural exchanget as practiced in the management of house- 
holds. Exohange is natural if (a) it serves want satisfaction and 



Eoonoffllos 3 



- 5 - 



Ü 



(b) represents an exchange of equlvalents (Nicoucchean EthlC8,V,5) 
Such exohange may ba 

(a) barter! C - C (Marx, Capital, 1,68 [Modern ed.]) or 
C «• C if no money Is belng used. The equlvalcnoe Is brought about 
by reoiprocal justice 



A (archltect) 



' fl house) 



B (shoemaker) 

D (100 palrs of shoes) 



(b) monetary exohange! C-M-CorC«M«C where money 
functions as " a representatlve of want" 

1 house » 500 Sterlings sllver = 100 palrs of shoes 

(2) unnatural exchanget Is not intended to satlsfy wants; In* 
stead It (a) »erves the accumulation of wealth and (b) does not 
represent an exchange of equlvalents. Suoh exchange may be 

(a) commerolal transactlon? M - C • M' or U - C f^ IV ; 
the prime of M (•) oonstltutes the proflt (•galn") In this exchang« 
of non-equivalents or 

(b) Interest bearlng loan! M - M' or M ^ M* in whlch 
"money breeds money** ( ho tokos » child » Interest); the prlme of 
M (•) oonstltutes the Interest (*gain")« 



9 



o» the theory of money? money, accordlng to Arlstotle,has four 
dlfferent functlons,three of them "natural" and one "imnatxiral" . 

(1) medium of exchange? by Convention some valuable metal 
such as sllver or copper Is belng used as "a representatlve of 
want"; the character of a certaln amount of metal as ir.oney (NOMIS- 
MA) Is detenrlned by law (NOMOS) through a "mark" Imprlnted on It 
(Polltlcs,I,9); 



L...,^ 



Eeonomios 3 



- 4 - 



(1 



(2) *unlt of acoount" t money makes ineosaiensuröble goods 
ooBucensurable (rthl08,V9 5) ; It "•quallzes*' goods by posing as a 
"Bake-shlft" (Marx); 

(3) •'atora of value" t * ••• Its value Is not alwaya con« 
stantfbut It is ateadiar than tha value of goods** (Ethios9V,5) 

(4) "U8ur/**t ** ••• Tha trade of the petty uaurer ••• ia hat« 
ed mosty-nd wlth most reasons it makes a profit fron ourrency it- 
aalffinstead of naking it from the proceaa [of echangej which cur- 
renoy was neant to serve ••• Of all modes of acquieition^uaury is 
tha most unnatural" (PoliticsylflO) • 



^ 



B» St«Thonas Aquinas and the Scholustioa 

1. St .Albert the Great [Albertus Magnus] (1195/1206- 
1280} t stated in hia oosunentary on Aristotle*8 Ethios that equali* 
ty in exchange consists in **equal amount of work and expenditure* 
(laborea et expenaae) besidaa equality of Utility« 

2. St •Thomas Aquinas (1225-1275)? advanced in his com- 
nentaries on Aristotle*s Ethios and Politics (I-III99) and his Sum - 
ma Theologioa ,II«2 (on human actiona) the following concepta: 

a« the theory of the **juat prioe**t being the amotmt of money 
a craftsman reeeives for his work and that assures his maintalnan- 
oe; the **jU8t prioe** involvas 

(1) the exchange of äquivalente! as explained by St »Albert 
and which represents a ooat-of-production theory; 

(2) the oommercial profit t although trade is **unnatural ex- 
change** in the sense of Aristotle and '*an evil inevitable in a im- 
perfect world** (Roll946)tprofit can be accepted 

(a) as a raward for labor? if a merchant sought to main- 
tain himself and to benefit the country^or 

(b) as a windfallt due to higher raplaoement cost caused 
by a shortage of supply; 



£eonomlo8 3 



- 5 - 



G 






(3) osoillations around the "just prioe**; may be oaused by 
Dark«t fluctuations; In tises of rising prloes the seller is entlt« 
lad to take a higher prloe than bis purehase prioe i- normal profit 
because otherwlse he would Inciir a los8> 

b« the oondeamatlon of usur/t waa based on the thesls of Arls« 
totle that money **by nature** is barren« 

3« Later theories on usury« while witb economic expan« 
sion the praotioe of interest taklng becaiae broader,tho Iny autho- 
rities concemed themselves with the regulation of the interest 
rata rather than with its prohibiittion and the scholastlcs with 
icodifioations of the laws against usury« 

a* Franois de Mayronis^a dlsciple of Duns Scotust refused to 
oonsider usury as illigal (*De jure naturali,non apparet quod Cusu« 
ra] Sit illicita' [Roll,49]); 

b* Exeeptions to Canon Law t 

(1) loss of the lender (damMnua emergens)) if suoh loss 
constituted a bona-fide loss; 

(2) delay (mora) in repaymentt entitled the lender to ex- 
act a conventionlll penalty; 

(3) loss of ohanoe of gain (luorua cessans}« whioh beoame 
a special reward for the rlsk of the lender ^ 

o* Reformerst while Luther followed the strictest prohibition 
of usury, the Genau theologian Eck defended in 1514 the contractus 
trenus and a 5^ interest rate* Calvin in 1374 refuted the Aristo«» 
telian dootrine *that money was infertile and pointed out that 
money could be used to procura those thinga whioh would bear a X9^ 
▼enue** (Roll, 31 with referenoe to Tawney). But Calvin oonsidered 
usury as sinful if interest was taken from a needy borrower« 

4* Nicole Oresme (c »1320*1382) t bishop of Lisieux ex« 
pounded In hls Treatise on the Invention of Money (Traictic de la 
Premi&re Invention das Monnoies) written about 1360 the following 



EoonomloB 3 



- 6 - 



^i 



theories on money s 

a* the commodlty theory of moneyt tho value of money is ulti- 
mately derlved from the value of the noney metal; 

b. the theory of blmetalllsnt the proportion of the market va* 
Ines of the two metals should rule the ratio of thelr monetary 
value ; 

c* the oondemnatlon of dehasementt the prinoe should have the 
prerogative of ooinage but not be "lord of the money in circula- 
tion ••» Money really belongs to those who ovm such natural Rlches' 
they want to exohange« Debaaexnent is ohieotionable beoause 

(1) the prinoe extorts hie subjects and 

(2) imposes a conoealed tax which leads to dislooations« 

After debasement moneys [gold and silverj **are carried out to pla^*- 
ces where they are rated higher** and thus xhe amoimt of good money 
is dininished in the realm (antlcipation of Gresham's Law - Hollf 
52). 



r 



II. The Theory of Commeroial Capitalism 

A. A Controversy on Inflation 

!• Seigneur de Malestroits the comptroller of the French Royal 
Mint published in 1566 his pamphlet Paradoxes about Money in which 
he stated that prices have not risen but that goods are paid in 
debased ooins; therefore the higher prices reflect only the diain- 
lahing value of aoney* (Malestroit's interpretation of Inflation 
is an application of Oresme's comxnodity theory of money to the 
16th Century "prioe revolution" ) • 

2. Jean Bodin (o.l530 - 1590) i attacked this thesis in his 
Reply to the Paradoxes of Sir de Malestroit (R^ponses aux paradox- 
es du sieur de Malestroit) in 1566 which was later inoorporated 
in the 6th book of his Six Books on the Republic ^ There he explain« 



Soonomlos 3 



- 7 - 



n 



Q 



ed the rise of prloes in the 16th centtiry as havlng been caused 
by flve factors t 

a* abundance of gold and sllvert Imported by Spaln from 
South Amerioa; thls Is the most Important reason for Inflation« 
This hypothesis by Bodin is "the first clear Statement of a queui* 
tity theory of money" (Roll f 59); 

b« the practice of monopolies [of the priviliged trading- 
oompaniesjt they are able to set high prices for imported luxnry 
goods in face of the greated demand for them induced by the larger 
money supply; 

0. scarcity of goods caused in part by excessive exports; 

d* the luxury of the king and the nobility Lthe great 
lordsl; 

e. the debasement of the ooin« a **desoendant of Oresme*8 
analysis of the nature and effects of debasement** (Roll, 59/60) . 

3* John Haies: one of the officers of Protector Somerset *s com« 
mission on enclosures published in 1581 A Discourse of the Common 
Weal of this Realm of England (the treatise was signed by W.S« and 
thus assigned to Shakespeare). In it he dealt with the evils of 
debasement, part icularly its effect on prices of imported goods« 
Although not as clear in his exposition as Oresme,he presented dis« 
tinctly the way in which an inflationary rise in prices affects 
the distribution of wealth among different classes of the Communi- 
ty. 

B« Bullionism versus Uercantilism 

I. The fight for a low interest rate and against usury 

1« Gerald Malynest a successful businessman attacked firs^ 
in 1601 and then again in 1622 in his pamphlet Consuetudo vel Lex 
Mercatoria "usury", extortionate interest on consumptive lorns,and 
advocated the control of the interest rate by government« 



\ 



Economic 8 3 



- 8 - 



G 



r 



2ß Sir Thomas Culpepper: argued in his Tract agalnst 
ÜBurie (16?1) in favor of a maximum rate in order to bring dovm 
the English intereet rate of lOf* to the Dutch rate of 6^, 

3. Sir Josiah Child: replying to Thomas Manley's Inter- 
eet on Money Mietaken who had claimed that a low interest rate was 
a coneequence of wealth,stated in his Kew Discourse of Tr?^e (1669) 
that a low inteieet rate ie ae mach the reeult of v/ealth as the 
Bource of more wealth. 

II, The theory of foreign trade and foreign exchange 

A. Bullionism vs. Mercantilismi the controversy between 
the two Bchools of thought who agreed on the objective of co^jner- 
cial policies - the enrichment of the com try through an increase 
of its treasure - concerned the method of achieving the agreed 
upon goal ! 

1. the bullionists: proposed the revival of the medi- 
eval Prohibition of gold export,the reestabliehment of the Office 
of Royal Exchanger and an inoreaeed regulation of foreign exchange 
dealings while 

2. the mercantilietsi emphasized the e cport eurplus 
as the ultimate source of increased treasure« They held that gov- 
ernment regulations of foreign trade were made obsolete \^ 3 pre- 
vailing practioesi 

a* the use of bills of exchange 

b. the disappearance of the staple system made 8U&* 
Pension of trade difficult and 

c. the privileged companies (£aet India Co«) were 
permitted to export a specified amount of specie« 



EcononlcB 3 



- 9 - 



G 



r 



I 



B. The Opponentet Mal^nes and Mleselden 

1. Gerald Malynee: repreßerting the bullionist vlew- 
polnt attacked certain usee of the bills of exohange whichyin hie 
opinionydeetro^ed the parit?y of the foreign exchange » par pro 
pari 9 the exchange of equivalente« To eupport his hypothesie he 
claimed that 

(a) the outflow of gold: ie caused by a disturbance 
of the mint parlty tthe par pro pari principle^ 

(b) devlations f^om the mint parity: occur becau&e 
merch^nts are ueing 

(1) cambio sicoo » accomodation billes merchants 
brrrow money from financiers who allow the merchants to draw a 
bill upon the financiers* foreign correapondente» md also 

(2) cambio fictitio: credit e by bankere and 
their foreign correspondente are being used to facilitate the 
trade of merchants of poor standing who are willing to pay high 
interest rates. 

Theref ore yMalynes demanded the establishment of a Royal £xchan- 
ger to insure the mint paritfy. 

2. Edward Misselden (1606-16^4): a prominent member of 
the Merchant Adventurers refuted the views of Malynes in hie Pam- 
phlet Free TrridetOr The Meanes to Make Trade Floiirish (1622) and 
The Circle of Commerce (1623)« But he was not entirely opposed to 
certain regulationss he objected to the gold exports by the East 
India Co« and he was in favor of regulation of foreign trade by 
I)rivileged companies. While expoiinding his opinion he maintain d 
that 

(1) exchange rates fluctuate around the equilibrium 
point (a mint parity) according to supply and dem md ("according 



V 



Economic B 3 



- 10 - 



a 



to the occaeions of both p^arties"); these fluctuatlons are caused 
toy 

(2) jfche relation of Imports to exportsj if Imports 
are exceeding exportSfthe exchange rate will be unfavorable to the 
coimtry wlth the Import suirpluB and gold will be flowing out, 
While dißcueeing this case in The Circle of Commerce he introducec? 
for the first time the term "balance of trade". ]j*rom hie reaeon- 
ing about gold ouflow f\nd its ciuße,the unfavorable tride balancet 
followB his recommendation that 

(3) the government should aim at a favorable trade 
balfince ind prevent the occurence of an unfavorable ti» tde balance« 



f 



C. Sir Thomas Mun (1571-1641) 

Thomas Mun,a director of the Bast India Co, authore d A Discour- 
Be of Trade from EnF^Lend into the Bast Indiee (1621) in which he 
dealt with the export of specie by the Company and the more im* 
portiint England' B Trea£;ure by Forraign Trade (written in 1630 nd 
puoliBhed posthumously by his son in 1664) in which he concerned 
himeelf with the general aspects of foreign trade, rhe foilowing 
are his main points in the ilatter treatise 






(1) Dietinction between money find weolth: 

(a) inflowing gold t the result of export surplns- 
es will not benefit the country if it remaine "treasure"; it has 
to be UBed as •* stock" (= working capital) and then becomes the 
"seed'* of future trj.de in the hands of foreign traders; 

(b) money ßhould not be kept in the country as 
it raises the prices whereae it benefits the country and even the 
Ijinded gentry if emplo^ed in foreign trade j 

(c) money fbeing a means of acquiring necessi- 
tieSfBhould not be used exceseively by the x)rince,even in cases 



Economic B 3 



- 11 - 







1 



of emergency; rather the prince ßhould 

(1.1. ) refrain fl*oin too mach taxation t 
Bince excessive taxation would deprlve the country of treasure 
which right be occiinrulated in nd for foreign trade j the prince 
therefore ehould 

(2.2.) resort to excise taxee: tihey only 
will increase the price of neceesities to v/hich wriges will be ad- 
jui ted» 

(2) Foreign trade and prices: foreign trade find an 
export ßurplus ehould be encouraged by 

(a) not charging too high prices for goods that 
are competitive on the world market while 

(b) charging prices ae high ae *'the traffic 
would bear»» fnr goods in which the country has a monopoly; 

(c) ••invieible tr ^^e" (rendering such servicee 
ae ßhipping) ehould be coneidered by the government as it might con- 
tribute to the export surplusj 

(3) •• Gener al»* versus «Particular»' Balance of Trade i 
In the opinion of Mun,the Board of Trade overemphasized the iinpor- 
tance of the •^particular** trade balimcee by discriminating againet 
coiintries with vvhich England had an unfopoi^able trade balance such 
as Frtrnce (from which she imported luxury goods) and Sweden (which 
supplied iron and timber) and by favoring couitries with which 
Englr?nd had a f avorable trade balance such as Spain (from which ehe 
received gold in exohange for cloth) and Portugal (to which ehe 
sold cloth in exchange for wine)« Against this practice Mun stress- 
ed the "general" trade balance which, despite unfavorable •»portic- 
ular*' trade balances, might be favorable taken ae a whole. 






v_. 



-~ — j*»'. icifi 



Eoonomios 3 



- 12 - 



D» Lat«r Ueroantilists 



o 



Their thoughts ref leoted govemment polioles aimed at strength- 
ening the eountry b/ oreatlon of enployoent and new Industries re- 
gardless of foreign trade. 

!• Josuah Chlld« qusstloned In hls Dlscoiirs» 
(lt69) the desirablllty of colonles. Colonles might be harmfulbe- 
oauae the/ eall for emlgration and the loss of labor; they ehould 
rather be oonpelled to bugr fron the aother oountry« Axnong the Amer« 
ioan oolonies he oonsldered the West Indles as a galn because they 
exnployed English workers whereas New England he regarded as a loss 
beeause the Piuritans were lost for labor in England and did not 
provide employment for English workers« 

2. Charles Davenant (1656-1714) in his Disootirses 
on the Pübliok Revenues (1698) maintained that 

a* gold and silver are the measures of trade 
which originates in the natural (raw materials) and manufaotured 
produoe of a eotintry; 






b. trade regulations 



• • • 



are seldom adBan- 



tageous to the Public ..••• (Roll, 84 quoting Heokscher). 



f 



Eoo 3 



- 13 - 



III« The Founders of Politlcal Eoonomy 







A. Sir William Petty (1623-1687) 

The SOZI of a poor weaver In Hampshire »settled after a veorled 
oareer » he was Seaman, clothler, physloian, professor of anatomy, 
s\irveyor - as a wealthy landovmer in Ireland« His maln works are 
"A Treatlse of Taxes and Contributions*» (1662), "Verbum Saplentl" 
(1664), "Polltioal Arlthmetick" (wrltten c.l672,published 1690), 
••Politlcal Anatomy of Ireland" (wrltten 1672,publl8hed 1691) and 
"Sir William Petty 's Quantuliamctunque Concemlng Money* (wrltten 
1682,publi8hed 1695). 



5 



I. Theory of govemment expendltures and taxation 

1. Government expendltures : should be limited and well direct« 
ed 

a. llmltatlons t to the essentlal administrative Services 
such as defense, justice, etc.; expenslve wars and the employment 
of supernumtraries should be avolded; 

b« directlon : govemment expendltures should be designed 

(1) to stimulate trade and Indus try and 

(2) to provlde employment for the unemployed lest they 
"lose thelr faculty for labourlng". 

2. Taxation! should be limited lest too much money necessary 
for trade would be wlthdrawn, The following princlples should 
gulde taxation t 

a. taxes and propertyt taxes should be pald by 

(1) propertled peoplei slnce the State protects property 

(2) in Proportion to property t for thls purpose the 
Prlnce would have to know "what they [his subjects] can bear"; 
the need of statistics becomes obvlous; 



Eco 5 



- 14 - 







(3) taxatlon and dlstributlon of wealth ? taxes should 
not affeot the prevailing distrlbution of wealth. 

b. taxatlon of rental revenue t would be preferable to 
Crownlands ( domalns ) 

41) the prlce of land ? would be calculated In view of 
taxatlon, partlcularly In countrles where the land Is not yet dls- 
trlbuted (e*g« Ireland); 

(2) the tax on rent t can be shlfted to the consumers 
of agrlcultural producta (e.g. eggs, onlons). 

II. Theory of rent, value, wage, prloe and Interest rate» 

1. The theory of rent 

a* the "natural rent" t proceeds of harvest [200 bu] - 
seed L20 bu] -t- malnt«inance of the fanner L160 bu « what he eats 
and produces for ezohangej; 

b* the "natural prlce of the rent" t the rent exchanged for 
sllver produoed In the same tlme (as exemplified In the "Treatlse 
on Taxes" )t 1 bu of com « 1 ounce of sllver If 

rent L20 bu] « harvest [200 bu] - seed Ü20 bu] - inaln- 

tenance of f armer [160 bu] and 

sllver L20 ounces] « produoe (dlgglng,reflnlng,mlntlng) 

[200 ounces] - malntenanoe (gath- 
erlng food,providlng shelter) 
]180 ounces] 

2* The theory of value 

a. the source of value t labor and land ("labor Is the 
father » actlve prlnolple,land Is the mother"); 

b. the measure of value t "The days food of an adult Man, 
at a Medium, and not the days labour,ls the common measure of 
Value" (Verbum Saplentl). 



Eco 5 



- 15 - 



I 



3* The theory of labor and wages 

a. the nature of labor t 

(1) speciallzed t as in watohmaking 

(2) provldlng means of production t *'7'ealth, Stock, ox 
Provision of the Nation Is the effect of the former or past labor»» 
(Verbum Saplcntl). 

b, the prlce of labor (« measure of value) t subslstenoe 
C the easlest-gotten food of the respeetlve coiintrles of the 
VTorld" L"Treatl8e"j) In the average (* 1/100 part of what 100 of 
all Sorte and Sizes will eat» so as to Live, Labour and Generat e** 
LVerbiun Sapienti] ); 

c« the wage s should be subslstenoe (** ••• the wherewith* 
all to live"); If it were doubled,the worker would werk only half 
the time* 

4. The theory of prioe 

a* natural and '•politioal" price 

(1) the natural prioe s is deterxnined by labor in rela- 
tlon to resouroes (** natural dearness and cheapness depends upon 
the few or more hands requisite to the necessaries of iJature*); 

(2) the political Lm^^ket] prioe : depends on 

(a) the number of niddlemen ("paucity of Supemumer- 
ary Interlopers into evexj Trade**), 

(b) the eustoms and meaaBrs of living ; 

(c) the Substitutes* 
b* the differential rent 

(1) the oause of differential rent t the price of 003m 

(2) the amount of differential rent t depends on the 
distance of the produoer from the market e»g# whether the com 
brought to London comes from land 4ü miles or 1 mile distant from 
London # 



Eoo 3 



- 16 - 







5» The theory of interest 

a. the rate of interest ('usury')« should correspond to 
the rent on land with these quallflcatlons? 

(1) Interest on xnoney is only justiflable If it is not 
being lent on demand but for Investment in land; 

(2) interest might be higher than the rent if lanusual 
risk is involved; 

b. the price of land t is the capitalized renttl.e« rent 
X 21 years (3 "lives»» in which to enjoy that return) . 



I 



Eoo 3 



- 17 - 







B« Th« Polltlcal Philosophers - Lock« and Htune 

1. John Locke (1632-1704)t studled mediclne but tumed to 
polltics as the secretary to the Ist Earl of Shaftesbtiryt 
fled to Holland and retumed to England af ter the revnlu- 
tion of 1688 whlch resulted in a constitutional monarchy 
after the landing of William of Orange and the flight of 
James IX. He accepted a govemxnent offioe from which he 
resigned to his cotintry estate. Two of his writings deal 
with aatters of economics; *Two treatises conceming Gov- 
ernment" (1690) and »»Some oonsiderations of the Consequen* 
ces of the Lowering of Interest and Raising the Value of 
Money* (1692). 

A. Theory of value 

1. Source of value? is labor but 

2. Exchange valuet is not determined by the amount of 
labor necessary for producing a coamodity; rather 
it is ilounded on 

a. Utility and 

b. supply and demand; 

3. Propertyt should therefore be limited to the amount 
an individual could oultivate and the produce of 
which he ean use. 



t 



r 



\.V<j >,»..^ 



\ 



B. Theory of money 

1. nnly of money t money possesses a purely imaginary 
value oreated by common consent (Government) and is 
determined by the amount of "Necessaries or Conveni- 
ences of Life* which money oan procure in exchange 

2. Money and prioest prices are determined by the 
amount of money in circulation. While 

a. the value (••vent*) of oommoditiest refleots both 
their •Uecessity or üsefulness* (Some Oonsidera- 
tions) and the demftnd for them in relation to 



.•l» t-v i^. 
i 



Eco 3 



- 18a • 



Ad B. 2. b« the value of money - »'veloclty'* 

[How much money Is requlred In proportion to t 
trade] **is hard to determlne; because it depende not 
barely on the quantlty of money, but on the quickness 
of its clrculatlon« The very same Shilling may, at one 
tlme, pay twenty men In twenty days: fiit another, rest 
In the saue hands one hundred days together.* 

"Some Conslderatlons", The Works of John Locke, vol. 
5, p.23 ~ quoted from Whlttaker, A Kisiory of Econ- 
omic Ideas (New York, 1943), 640 



) 



) 



£eo 3 



- 18 - 



(1 



supplyj 

b« the value of noneyt depends exolusively on Its 
quantity; "its quantity alone Is enough to regu- 
late and deterxnlne its value** (Some Considerati- 
ons)* 

C. Theory of Interest 

1. Nature of interestt a prlce of money cbarged by those 
who have aore money than they need; just as rent re- 
sults from unequal distribution of land^so Interest 
from unequal dlstribution of noneyi 

2« Kate of Interestt Is a oonsequence of the amount of 
noney seelcing employment and not^as the Meroantllists 
thought,a cause for such eroplcyaent; therefore 

3* A High rate of interestt need not be an obstaole to 
trade expansion if profits are prooiising« 







V 



2* David Rune (1711-1776) t expotunded his ideas on money »prices 
and interest in various essays collected in his *'Politioal 
Discourse»" (1752) • 

A« Theory of money 

1« the quantity iheory of money t as developed by Locke 
was aocepted by Hume; he also regarded the value of 
noney as "symbolio" and aa represented by its purchas* 
ing power; 

2« the effect of inflationt incfease in the quantity of 
money is only beneficial because of the time-lag with 
which their effeots appear« Prices of different goods 
are affected in different degree and the inorease of 
money will "quicken the diligence of every individual 
before it encrease the price of labour" (Discourses» 
1,313-314). 



< I 



Eco 5 - 19 • 

B. Theory of international tradet too high prices in one 
oountry cause inports fron other countries; the loss of 
gold and the enauing decline in prices will restore ex- 
ports and thu» bring about an influx of gold* This is 
the self-regulating oechanism of the international eoon- 
omy with gold as the equilibrating force* 

C# Theory of interest? HiMBe,mainly concemed with the rate 
of interest rather than its origin distinguished 

1. the three forces that deterinine the interest rate: 

a« supply of •loanable funds" by lenders and demand 
for them by borrowers; 

b« the amount of industry and commeroet a low level 
of both would result in a high interest; 

0. Profits arising from coaaiRerce; 

2« accumulation of oapital,competition and the interest 
ratet 

a« demand for moneyt in a coizunercially ainded country 
Profits tend to be low due to competition between 
businessmen and thus interest rates tend to be low; 

b« supply of moneyt in a comicercially minded coxintry 
will tend to be ample due to the frugality of the 
Population and competition between money lenders; 
thusyboth demand for and supply of money will tend 
to lower interest rates* 



i 



«ÜK*»'. ■■ 



Eoo 9 



N 



b 



t 



C* The Systematizers •- Cantlllon and Steuart 

Im Richard Cantlllon ( 1680-1734 )t an Irlsh-bom Engliah bank- 
•r and international financier wrote probably in 1730 an 
**K88ai sur la nature du Commeroe en g^n^ral** which was 
published in 1755 at London (as a French translatlon of 
the Engliah original) »21 years after the ass&ssAnation of 
Its author« Durlng that time the ms« had been in the pos» 
Session of the older Mirabeau and clrculated in France« 
Thls first systematic treatise offered 

A. Theory of Value 

1. Sotirce of value! labor and land^but "Land Is the 
Souroe or Matter from whence all 7/ealth is produced. 
The Labour of man is the Form whlch produces it** 
(Essai ftr« by Higglns9P»3); 

2* Value of labor« value of land to support the worker» 
his wife and 2 ohildren; 

3» "Intrinsie prlce" (value) and "market prlce"t the 
market prlce fluctuates around a center,the "intrin- 
Sic prlce" whioh is determlned by "land and labor" 
(cost of production); the fluctuatlons are caused 
by over- or underproductlon. 

B* Theory of Money 

Cantlllon combined Petty's commodlty theory of money 
wlth the quantity theory in the following way 

1. "value" of moneyt land and labor in production 

2* the "Barket prioe" of moneyt depends on the relation 
between money and the goods oonsumed at home 

3* the Increase in money supplys has a different effect 
on the various groups of the population^depending 
on how near or far they are from the oourse of ad«» 



% 



£oo 3 



1> 



dltlonal metal-money. Those connected with the min- 
ing of pracious metal receive first the additional 
purohasiag power and outbid the landowners and work- 
er» whose Inoome is flxed. * Inflation* thus Is tant- 
amount to a redlstribution of inoome« 

C. Thcory of International Trade» similar to Htune's con- 
cept which ffiight have been influenced by Cantillon,his 
theory stresses the self-regulating effects of gold 
movements. If precious metal reaohes a country,price8 
rise and the people prefer to buy in other countrlea 
which are oheaper* The implieit conoluaion (not express« 
ed by Cantillon) is that price increase and imports 
will bring about a proportionate distribution of gold 
in the international economy« 

D* Theory of Interest 

!• The origin of interest t "the profit" tempting the 
lender "must have been in proportion to the needa 
of the Borrowers and to the fears and the avarice 
of the Lenders*; 

2» The level of the interest ratet "appeers to be found* 
ed on the profits which Entrepreneiirs can make of 
it*t 



f 



2. Sir James Steuart ( 1712-1780 )t published in 1767 "An In- 
quiry into the Principles of Politioal Economy*,an able ex- 
Position of Economios from a Meroantilist point of view« 
That is espeoially true of his theory of profit whioh re- 
gards profit as arising only in exohange* His general value 
theory is a labor theory and in the theory of prioes he 
followed Petty-Cantillon« However he added the following 



\ 



-—<«»% I ■ KlJoa«! Mll H 



( k 



Eoo 3 •• ^^ • 

positive ideas to the theory of money t 
a« the double fimotion of money t a meditun of payment for 
goods and for debts; 

b* the demand for money: Is determined by the need of tradei 
money above thls amount will be hoarded or made into 
plate« 



t 



D« The Physiocrats 

I. The philoeophioal background 

!• Natural ordert a oonoept which at least suggests a 
laissez-fair policy; it includes private propertyj 

2. Scientific aethodt in order to discover the ••natural 
Order", a specific method must be applied: that of the 
growing experlmental natural sciences (medicine) which 
provided two ooncepte 

a« Isolation and abatraction 

hm System and oirculation; 

5, Eoonoffiics as a social sciences is the "biology" (Hel- 
mann) of a •»circulation" between th* social classes of 
feudal System* 

II. Francols Quesnay (1694-1774): the son of a French advocate 
and small landholder became physician of Louis XV and Mme 
de Pompadour; after having published numerous works on 
medical matters he tumed to economics. Hls first work on 
•Le Gralns" and *I*es Fermiers* In the »»Grand Encyclop<dle" 
(1756-57) was followed by hls "Tablau ^conomique« in 1758. 

A. The Theory of Distribution: or rather oirculation is 
based on a three olass System and the following produot 
of them t 



£co 3 



- 24 - 



5. « 



!• productlve olass > tenantf armers t produce 5 billn 
livres goods and possess 2 billn noney; of thelr 
produce (3 billn food i> 2 billn rawmaterials) 3 billz 
worth of food and raw materials (nct produce) circu- 
lata and 2 billn worth of food and raw materials are 
retained for their subsi^tence; 

2« landlords: have a Claim on the 2 billn livres money 
held by the tenantf armers; with this money received 
they buy 1 billn food and 1 billn manufactured goods; 

3» sterile class » manufacturers '•• merchantss buy from 
tenantfarmers 1 billn food with the money received 
from landlords; and 1 billn raw materials i^ith the 
money received from the tenantfarmers with money re- 
ceived from thein for the sale of manufactured goods« 



TABLE (page 24a)- 



1 



B-w The Theory of Value 

"The greatest gap in the Physiocratic doctrine is the 
total absence of any reference to value, and their gross- 
ly material,almost terrestrial conception of production" 
(Gide & RistfA History ^,p.64) 

1* Only nature is productivet a theologioal ooncept si- 
milar to Petty*8 ooncept that only labor applied to 
land creates surp lus -value ; 

2* The surplus (Produit net)t 

«• the theory of the "produit net" explained that 
one section of the oominunitytnAbility and clergy, 
lived upon rent;if a business clas8»drawing their 
dividends had existed,the Phyeiocrats might have 
regarded industry as "productive" (Gide & Rist, 
P*35); 



l 



Eoo 3 



• 25 - 



t 



b. the justlflcation of the rent of the landlordt 
the rent is a payment for *ori^inal advences" such as Clearing 
landybu^ing oattle and Implement^and **annual expendlture** such as 
seed^fertlllzerylaboryetc«; 

(1) the justification of rent is contradictory 
to the theor/ of the "gift of nature"; 

(2) it Is hased on the belief in ''personal proper- 
ty'^ythe right of each man to provide hls own sustenance; 

3. The unproductive class? consisting of merahants and 
manufacturers together with domestic servants and professionale» 
cannot oreate valuet 

a. the manufacturerst pnly change the forai of sur- 
plus (this belief represents a confusion of the nature of agrl- 
cultural production ignoring the fact that they too are only trans 
forming matters which cannot be oreated [law of the preservation 
of matterj); 

b* the merchantst cannot create value because ex* 
change is an exchange of equivalents; profit would result from 
gaining at the expense of the weaker party to the exchange (Le 
Trosne; Gide & Rist. »pp •43*46 ) • 

4. The pricet is determined by two factors 

a. cost (dÄpenses) of manufacturers or merahants & 

b. valuation of the buyer (valeur estimative)i caus- 
ed by scarcity or reachability of goods forms the basis of the 
valeur appr^oiative - the "exchange value* • in the theory of 
Turgot. 

C« Physioeratic economic policy 

1« Objeotive of economic policy« the restoration of the 
••natural order" which implies 



\ 



Eoo 5 



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( ) 



f 



a. the abolition of Intervention In favor of trade t 
slnce manufaoturers and trade do not produce a surplus but merely 
their subslstonoe^they cannot pay taxes; 

b» the Single tax on land^ would amount to 30^ of 
the rent; the tax oannot be shifted since wt^ges are on a subsiten« 
ce level and profits were not recognlzeö by the Phyaiocrats (•«- 
change of equlvalents)! 

2« Effect of economic policyt would have been the de- 
velapment of Indus try, fr eed froin taxation but still depending on 
agriculture for 

a« food and raw naterial; 

b« labor and 

o« capitalt which Is acctunulated through rent and 
invested in m^inufactiiring or agriculture. 

IXI. The Physiocratic School 

!• Mercier de la RiviÄret presented its principles in "L* Or- 
dre natural et esseutiel des socidtes politicue" (1767;; 

2« Dupont de Nenaourst gave this school its naine in his "Phy- 
siocratie" (1768) in which he propagandized its principles with- 
out originality; 

3» Le Trosnet presented in his "De l'int^ritsocial** (1777) 
the best and most strictly economic expllcation of the scho&l; 

4* Abb^ Bandaut '•L'Intrdoution it la philo sophic ^conorrique" 
(1771) which was his chl f vork; 

5. A.R.Jacques Turgot (1727*168ll?the ministfr of Loui? XVI 
p tedrmtrd , oftwrä d 



\ 



* -— ---Jhvimi iai6"i^< niiii ■ 



Eco 3 



- 27 • 



( ) 



IV. The Classical System 

A. Adam Smith * The Wealth of Natlons 

Adam Smith (1723-1790) was bom In Klrkoaldy,Scotland,a8 
son of a Controller of custom8,studled at the ünlverslty of Glas- 
gow under Hutcheson and In Oxford. In the years 1752-64 he was 
Professor of Logic and then of Uoxal Phllosophy at Glasgow and 
published there in 1759 bis Theory of Moral Sentiroents . In 1764 
he became tutor of the Duke of Bucoleuch with whom he travelled 
on the Continent; in Paris he became acquainted with the Physio- 
crats. After bis retum to England he finished and published in 
1776 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Na - 
tions which he had begun to write at Lyons. In 1778 he beccme Com- 
missioner of Customs in Sootland and moved to Edinburgh where he 
lived iintil bis death in 1790. 



I. His Political Philosophy 

1. The "natural order" t he maintained,in contrast to 
the Phys iocrat s, was actually existing if only left to itself. The 
working of the natural order results from 

a. self-love which,however,is accompanied by (5) other 
motiveSfthe f cremest of them being sympathy,and 

b. the *invisible hand" which led individuals to ac- 
tions benefiting the interest of society through the natural bal- 
ance of human motives. 



t 



2. The natural order in economic life? maniferts itself 
in the division of labor which necessitates 

a. individual exchanget the simultaneous satisfaction 
of two individual interests,motivated by the self-love of each 
partner to the exchange who expects help from the other 's self- 
love; 



'--•9a;- 



Eco 5 



- 28 - 



t 



b, xiniversal exchange? between agrieulture and manu- 
facturlng as well as between domestlc and forelgn Industries. 

3« The role of the govemnientt 



a* rejectlon of the "menrantile system"? the govem- 



ment should 



(1) not encourage agrieulture or any eort of manu- 
facturlng at the expense of other Industries; 

(2) not restrict foreign trade in favor of partic- 
ular interests; 

(3) not regulate wages^apprenticeship or other as- 
pects of the eonduct of productlon; instead it should 

(4) not preserve monopolies but dcstroy them by 
withdrawlng its support; 

b, iaipartiallty of government ? the machinery of gov- 
cr'^unent "should not be allowed to get into the hands of any sec- 
tion of the conrnunity" (Roll, 159) and should concem itself with 
such tasks as defense, Justice and unprofitable public works; 

c» the objective of civil governinentt is the protectioi 
of private propertyt "Civil government ••• is In reality Institut- 
ed for the defense of the rieh against the poor ••." (realth of 
Nations [Modem library edition],p«674). This view of Smith is 
based on his optimlstic belief in the fondamentally harmonious 
oharaoter of soeiety,according to which fortunes are based on per- 
sonal virtuos and private property does not lead to pppression. 

4« The historieal signlficance of Smith 's political phi- 
losophyt 

a# Smith is "the very epitome of the manufaeturing 
perlod** (Marx, Capital, I, 

b. Smith* 8 sympathies are with agrieulture and the 
working man; he is opposed to traders whom he treats with sarcasm 



Bco 3 



- 29 - 



) 



f 



and abhorrencGj 

c* **S]iilth cazinot ••• be regarded as the herald of dawn- 
ing indUBtrlalism»' (Gide & RiBt,p,Ö4)i the only attraction to in- 
du&trialiBm lies in Smith* s social optimlem and demand for laiesez 
faire policiee. 

II« His £conomic Theories 

A. The Formation of Wealth 

1. The wealth of nations i8,contrarj^ to mercnntilist 
theory,the total of •* ••• all the necessarieß and conveniences of 
life which it the nation armually consumesiand which consiets 
alw^s either in the immediate produce of that labour, or what is 
purchased with that produce from other nations»' (Wealth of Nations, 

Modern Library ed. ,Introduction,p«lvii) . Its size depends on 2 
factors s 

a. the degree of productivity of labor and 



b. the amount of •useful* labor « labor productive 



of wealth. 



2. The productivity of labor is determined by the divi- 
sion of labor which 

a. depends on the propensity to exchange (a histori- 
caily fal&e caueal connection) and 

b. is limited by 2 conditions t 

(1) the extent of the market (a notion originally 
of Xenophon and later of Petify) and 

(2) the amoxint of capital = »»the amount of the 
savings from the revenue" ( Wealth, p. ); it increaties the produce 
which m^ikee for more division of labor and thus more productivi'ty. 



Sco 3 



- 30 - 



I O 



I 



B. The Theory of Value 

1» Money ojid value : money Iß no value in iteelf ,it only 
facilit^teB exchfuage and freee it from the dieadvintcige of barter; 

2m The tv/o valuee of mcterial ol)ject8 

a. value In Ute x writer 

b. value in exch iige : dianondß 

The relation of the two valuee is that of Potential 
oppoeitesi the oi.e crm exiet without the other imd the one can be 
inversely rel -ted to the otheri a good of high uie value ma^ have 
no exchf:mge value (water) loid a good of high exchange value may 
have no use value (diamond); 

3. Value in exchange or the real » natural pricei ex- 
changc value ie connec ed with labor in two waye 

a. labor ie the source of value 

b» labor ie the meaüure of value: in applying labor 
to the meabure of value, Smith confuoee two theoriee 

(1) the theory of •'the v ;lue of labor" : the ex- 
chan^^e value of labor iß the meaBure of the exchange value of other 
commodities » the value of labor is the ••amount of goods labor com- 
mandß in the market" raid 

(?) the ••labor theoxy of value*': the exch-nge va- 
lue of commodities iß meaexireö by the amount of labor tlme they 
contain. The ratio of the valuee of different skills ie eet by 
bargaining in the market. 

4» The two theorieß of value 

a. the labor theory of value t is valid only in 
"the original State of things** before "the firet introduction of 
the appropriation of land anä the accumulation of ttock" (^ealthf 
book I, chapter 6, p.65) and 



J 



Bco 3 - 31 - 

b, the coet-of-production theory of value • which, 
however,hii8 two aepects 

(1) a mechajiical cost-of-production theory: ex- 
plainlug the distribution of the national product cmong the three 
cl 8860 xnd 

(2) a *'deduction*' theory: which is coneietent 
with Smlth'e labor theory of value; landlord and capitalict "mcike 
thelr deductioni " (rent cind profit) from the produce of labor 

(Wealth,ibid.). 

5, Value and price: following Petty and Cantillon 
Smith dißtinguieheö between 

a. value « real or natural i)rice: which prevaile if 
Bupply and demroid are eiual (the equiiibrium price in modern Econ- 
omics) and which corresponde to the cost of proc?uction, raid 

b. m?Ärket price: which iß above or below the value 
depending on eupply and demand conditione; in the firet caee sup- 
ply demend and in the second eupply demnnd; 

c. natural rmä. market price: if the market price is 
above value procuctive factors are attracted into production until 
the market price equalti value and vice versa; the miirket price al- 
w^^^ß oecillatee aroiind value. 



t 



C. The Theory of Distribution 

Smith* 8 treatment of the problem of distribution, 
»*v/hich af terw trds became the kernel of Bicardian economics,i8 al- 
together inferior to hie handling of production. We also know that 
this iö the least original part of hie work" (Gid & Riet, p. 97). 

1. The theory of wage 

a, the natural value of labor : the produce of la- 
bor meatured in the amount of goode it ' commande in the rorket" ; 



Eoo 3 



- 3? - 







t 



thiß exposltion corresponde to Smith' e theor^ of "the value of la- 

b« the price of labor » "wtige' : whether cone ider- 
ed ae the remainder of the produce after deduction of profit and 
rent or as a cost element , the wage alwea^s ai!io\xiit& to subBlstence 
of labor plus ailow iice to rear a fojnily md thus malntain the 
labor Bupply« 

?. The theory of profit 

a, the nature of profit i "profif is oesentially 
identical with "return on inveetment»* ,a general "intereet»' on ca?- 
pital, However,the explanation of profit depends on the approach 
Smith takes to it in the re&pective context in which he treats of 
profit 

(1) coBt-of-production theory: the "neat or 
clear profit*' consistc of 3 elements 

(a) intereet of the lender: ♦^ineurance of 
borrowei to lender •* » 

(b) rielc of the borrower : "profit upon the 
risk of this ineurance' , 

(c) compensation of the Investor: "recom- 
peni e for the trouble of employÄÄÄJking the stock' which is totally 
different from the managerial waget the price of •*inspection and 
direction" (Wealth,I,6,p,4ö). 

If the "rate of clear profit" is 8-10^;^, then 
4-5y^ will go to the lender as interest and the other 4-59^ to the 
investor-borrower aa payment for hie risk aiid compensation for hie 
trouble of investing; 

(?) deduction theoryi profit is the share of 
the capitalist in the produce of the laborer. 



t 



b, the slze of proflt « depends on the total stock 
whloh the oapitallst employs but it will vary according to the cir- 
cuttstfiinces of Investment and the interest rate and within certeln 
llmits; 

(1) proflt varles with tlice, place and type of 
business t Smith does not recognize an average rate of proflt but 
presuirtes a hlerarchy of profitable Investments ranging In proflt- 
abllity from a^Trloulturetmanufactiirlng^whole aale trade (domestlc 
and forelgn) to retall trade; 

(2) proflt end Interest rate ? are Interrelated; 
high proflts permlt high Interest rates; 

(3) proflt varles between at least "somethlng 
more than to compensate the ocoaslonal losses** of capltal up to an 
amount requlred for rent and subslstence of workers or even to the 
polnt where rent dlsa]^pears and only subslstence wages are belng 
peld (i:ealth,I,9; pp. 96-97); 

c« tendencles of proflt 

(1) increased accumulatlon and competltion be- 
tween oapitallst s will lower proflts; 

(2) Increased accumulatlon ralses wagest proflt 
and wages are Inversely related« 

3, The theory of rent 

Sirlth developed three dlfferent theorles of rent 

a« a deductlon theory ? the landlord recelves a 
surplus from the tenant farmer over and above the proflt for hls In* 
vestment,the cost of replacement and the subslstence of the tenant 
f armers (iTealth, I, 11, part 1, p«146); thls theory Is slirllsr to 
th<^ ones by Petty and the Physiocrats; 

b« a cost of productlon theory t rent Is the pro- 
flt on 1 vestment In agrlcxilture; thls theory is slmllar to thrt of 
the Physlocr: ts explalnlng rent as a payment for the landlords* 
•advances* ; 



r 



Eoo 7 



- 54 - 






c. a dlfferentlal rent theoryt •• ,,, high or low 
rent Is the effeot of [high or low prlcesj ..." (Health, ). 
If the prlce of agrlcultural products is Just sufficient to reoon-» 
pensate the landlord (i.e. giving him the average profit),the land 
will bear no rent. The differential rent will arise in two condi- 
tionst if 

(1) fertility or location of land is better 
than usual [=» marginal] or 

(2) growth of Population and progress of agri- 
oulture increases the demand for or the cost of production of agrl- 
cultural products ! 

(a) growth of population and increase in 
prlce raises the retum on agrlcultural production above the level 
of •normal profits* or 

(b) progress in agrlcultural production 
takes placet if more stock is employed in agriciature less labor 
will be reqtiired for more production. 



t 



D. The Theory of Capital Accumulation 

In bock II of the 'Fealth' Smith proposed two differ- 
ent theories on the accuxnulation of capital t 

1. The Savings Theory t accumulation of capital is con- 
nected with savings frozn revenue in two ways? 

a. divlsion of labor makes accuirulation of capital 
necessary? those who want to specialize need for the time in which 
they prepare their tools maintenance; historically.the opposite is 
true; 

b. inorease in production necessitatef^ an increase 
of 'useful labor* which requires for its employirent accurrulated 
capital; this Statement constitutes the seed of the "wages fund 
theory" ; 



Eoo 3 



- 35 - 



2. The Surplus Theory t ia based on the distlnctlon be- 
tween 'productive* and •unproductive* labor 

a« productlve labor t creates obiects whlch have 
(1) value, Ineorporate (2) surplus and are (5) of a material nature. 
This deflnition exoludes Services« Üf the three criteria of •produo- 
tive* labor only the one,the surplus, Is conslstent with Smith 's 
theory of distribution [deduction theory] and with the mercantilist 
and physiocratic tradition of the 'produit net'. " ••• Thus the la- 
bour of a manufacturer adds generally to the value of the materials 
whlch he works upon,that of his own maintenanoe and of hls marter's 
proflt*. (Wealth, 11,3, p.314)5 

b. unproductlve labor t rendering Services and icain- 
tained by revenue e«g* soldlers, churchiDen,lawyers,xnusiolan8, etc. 

Accumulation of oapital can take place only through 
•mployment of productlve labor, Conversely,capital is that part of 
the stock which sets in motion productlve labor. According to the 
manner in which it does so it is either fixed or circulating oapi- 
tal. 



i 



V 



Eoo 3 



-36 - 



( > 



B« Thomas R.lialthus - Population and Rent 

Thomas R« Malthus (1766-18 34 },son of Daniel Malthuststudisd 
in Cambridge hiimanitiesywrote 1798 An Essay on the Prinoiple of 
Population in reply to a discussion with William Godwin who expect- 
ed improvement of sooiety from a reasonable oonduct of man and of 
man 's right to his produoe« In 1813 appeared Malthus 's An Enouiry 
into the Natura of Proigrsss of Rent « In 1823 he was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Modem History and Politioal Economy at the College of 
the East India Company at Haileybury. - Malthus made two contribu- 
tions to olassioal theorys 

1* The Theory of Population! **the geometric progress of 
Population against the arithmetic progression of food" (the tenden- 
oy of Population to outgrow the foodsupply) oan be checked by 

a* an increase of the death rate? through warSfepldemiosi 
and other seeming ealamitiestor through 

b. a deorease of the birthrate; through vioe or moral 
restraint« 

If not oheckedyOiisery will result« This alsery should 
not benefit from charity» 

2. The Theory of Rentt the "differentlal rent* is bound to 
inorease with the growth of the population and the necessity to 
take poorer land into oultivation* 



r 



C« Jaan Baptiste Say • Productive Services and the Entre- 

preneur 

Jean Baptiste Say (1767-1832) was born in Geneva into a 
Huguenot family* sent to England to study the silk trade »he beoame 
there aoquainted with the Politioal Economy inspired by Smith« Re- 
turning to Franoe he served as govermnent official under Napoleon 
but he vesigned this positlon to become a succeasful manufacturer. 
From 1830 to 1832 he was professor of Politioal Economy at the 
College de Franoe. In his Treatise of Politioal Koonomy (Traitfc 



£oo 3 



• 37 • 



O 



d'^oonomie polltlque),pubIi8hed in ie03rhe systematlzed and *ptirl-» 
fied** Smith'» theories by maintainin^ that 

1. all faotors of production are productivet landflabor and 
oapital are «qually productive and therefore 

2* wage^profit and rentt are representing rewards of "pro- 
ductive Services* which are being brought together by 

5. the BAtrepreneurt whose incooc^the •profit*,oon8titute8 
a reward for his particular function,the coobinatlon of productive 
factors« This profit is different from Smith* 8 concept of a oapita« 
list's income which^aoocrding to Say,merely regards "interest**^ 
l«e. a retum on inveated oapital* 



I 



0« David Ricardo «• Value and Distribution 

David Ricardo (1772-1823) stated his inain views in ü'he 
Prinoiplea of Politlcal Economy and Taxation , 1317 (3rd ed,1821) 

A* The Subject and Method of Political Econon.yt 

1* The central issuet *to determine the laws which reg'^ 
ulate Lthe] distribution" of the whole produce of a nation between 
the three classea of sooiety (Preface to Ist ed., Roll *,176)| 

2. The Position of the value theoryt the analysis of 
the causes of exchange value leads to the explanation of the sur- 
plus product and its distribution; 

3» The a priori ("let us suppose*) methods makes "the 
reader tof the Prinoiples J breath a highly rarefied air of ab- 
straction" (Roll', 175). 

B. The Theory of Value and Price 

li The sources of value! 

a« use value (utility)t is an essential condition 
of exchange value; 



Eoo 3 



- 38 • 



t 



I 



b« scarcltyt Is another posslble conditlon but ap- 
plied only to non->reproduclbIe goods such as rare pleces of art 
(statueSfeto*); 

0« labort the ezoluslve source of exchange value of 
all reproduceble goods whlch constltute the bulk of capitalistio 
production. 

2« The relative exohange valuet the exchange ratio is 
detcrmlned by "the comparative quantity of cominodities which labor 
will produce*» (Prinoiples LE«veryman ed.J,6). (Roll Claims that 
Ricardo tCOTitrary to hia assertiorifWas ccncemed wlth 'absolute 
value' [Roll',178j). 

5, Labor as source of valuet 



a* in a primitive sooiety: value is derived from 



labor onlyj 



b» in a oapitalistic society? value is derived fron 
present and past labor; out of this value are paid wage and pro-* 
fit. 



4» Value and Prioe? they are not identical for two 



reasonst 



a« difference in the capital structoxret if prioe is 
determined by the average rate of profit,then the higher oapitali- 
zation raises prices above the value determined by labor only 
("What Hioardo in faot does is to pose a fresh problem which he 
never solved. Marx ••• offered no Solution either* [Ro115,179*80]). 

b« ohanges in supply and demand* 

5# Price (« market price)t is determined by 

a« the average wage ratet the priee of present labor 

b« the average rate of profitt the price of past 
labor, Both average rates result from complete mobility of labor 
and capital« If the market price exceeda value (D S}tthen 



0. the differential rent becomes a part of the mark* 



et price« 



■ 1 M i n IIII H JWMt / • " 



'■mT* *vi 



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- 39 - 



I > 



t 



C« The Theory of Wage, Profit and Rent 

I. The theory of labor (present labor) and Waget 
!• Natural prlce of labort subsistonce accordlng 
to hablt; 

2. l/larket price of labort dlffers from the natur- 
al prlce due to supply and demand. It may rise above the natu- 
ral prlce If the demand for labor increrses owing to increased 
accuxnulatlon of capital; 

3, The tendency of wage to ex|ual subsistence 
('^The Iren Law of ^^ages" - Ferdinand Lasälle)? the m- rket price 
of labor «xceeding the natural price will stiirulrte an increase 
in labor supply through a higher birth rate (l^althur) and thus, 
in the long run, bring the market price dovm to the natural 
price. 

II, The theory of capital (past or stored-up labor) 
and profit t 

1. The definition of capital as stored-up labor 
was designed ? 

a. to avoid Smith' s contradistinction of 
two value theorlea^ the pure lator theory as aiplicable to the 
original State of soclety and the cost of production & deduetion 
theories as applying to the advanced state of society, and thus 

b. to make the pure labor theory of value 
applicable to every state of economic development» 

2* The theory of profit? 

a# the nature of profitt return ori Invest- 
ment = the use of past labor in production made available by 
the capitaliöt in either manufacturing or comjierce ('•profit*' 
in the usual sense) or in agrlculture ("rent" in the sense 
of "absolute" or "natural" [PettyJ rent); 



£oo 3 



- 40 - 



b« the average rate of profitt is the result 



of 



(1) supply of and demand for capital, and 

(2) the tendency of capital toward employ- 
ffient In the iDOst profitable area; thls proposltion Implics com- 
plete mobility of capital; 

e. the rclation between wa^e and proflt? is 
Inverse; this proposition implies porfect comietition in which 
the "value" of goods is determined by the market. 



t 



III. The theory of rentt 

!• The nature of rent? Ricardo, following lÄal- 
thus, identified rent with differential rent becnuse 

a. "absolute" rent? would contradint a l^bor 
theory of value according to which only present and past Itbor 
can produce "value", but not land, and 

b» a peculiar income in agriculture htd to be 
explained; Ricardo assumed (wrongly, as ivicksteed h s shovm) 
that a differential rent can arise only in agriculture. 

2. The cause of differential rentt 

a. the "value" of agricultural productst equals 
the cost of production on the worst soll (i.e. seil with relative- 
ly low fertility) and in an area unfavorably located rel; tive to 
the market; 

b. the size of differential rent? depends on 

(1) the market price? if it exceeds the cost 
of production on the worst soil, even this soll will pernJt a 
differential rent whlle the differential rent on better soils 
will inorease accordingly; 

(2) the fertility and relatice location of 
the soil will determlne, how much differential rent will accrue 
to the landlord. 



Eco 3 



- 41 - 



1 



D» The Theory of Economic Development? 

!• The Methodologlcal Framework? the distinction of short- 
run and long-run. Hicardo, in uslng this distinction, consider- 
ed as 

a. short-run ! the "commercial crisis" which he thought 
to be a disproportion between different industries crused by ex- 
traneous forces such as wars, taxes, etc.; on this point he was 
influenced by Gay; 

b. long-run i the tendency of the profit to de^-line and 
also, in the 3rd edltlon of the Principles . the effect of machines 
on employment; however, the problem of profits in the cour^e of 
economic developiuent should have been treated es one of 



c. tendency » secular trend t a concept imf amiliar to 



Hioardo • 



I 



t 



2» The Effect of Economic Development on the Distribution 
of Incomes : economic development requires continuous capitr 1 
accumul&tion or increaj^ing "productive consumption" » demand for 
••productive labor" • This demand tendr to rrise 

a* wages ? but the incrense in wages will be a rise 
in ''nominal*' wages only because, for re'sons of higher food pri- 
ces (see later under o), wages will tend to be siibsistence; 

b. Profits : 

(1) the average profit rate t the short-run result 
of competition and capital movements 1^ subject to a 

(2) decline in the "long-run" (= tendency)? since 

(a) wages tend to rise? because demand for "pro- 
ductive labor" outruns its supply and 

(b) the inverse relation between profit and 
wagex ? oauses profits (counted in monetary terms) to decline 
wlth rising wages (therefore also counted in monetary trnrs); 



Eco 5 



- 42 - 



I 



e« rents (« differentlal rents) t tend to Inorease 
wlth the larger demand for food on the p^rt of labor because 
land of lesser fertility has to be taken under cultlvntlon. 

3» The :^e8slinlstic iBipllcation of Ricardo 's Theory of 
Economic Dcvelopaent ? Capltallsts and laborers contrlbuting 
to economic development are losing part of their shnre In the 
natlnal income or at least not gainlng a greoter share In the 
process while the landlords, protected by tarlff? under the 
"Com Laws^t sore the beneflciarles of industrlalizatlon« 



t 



Eco 5 



- 43 - 






IV, E. A Controver?iy on Commerclal Crlses - Malthus - 
Sisisondl vs. Say «» Ricardo . 

I. The Theory of Underconsumptlon nnd Overproductlon t 
£/ialthus and Sismondl 

!• aialthus*8 Underconsiunj tion Theory t 

Malihus developed hls theory first in lettera to 
Ricardo (between 1814 and 1823) and then explicitly in his 
Principles of Polltical Economy , 1820. There his fir^uments 
were based on the experiences of the British "commerclal crisis" 
of 1815-20. 

a. Method of Malthus's reasoning ? 

lytalthusy as Ricardo pointed out to him (letter 
of January 24,1817) t was inclined to overemphasize the "imme- 
diäte and temporary effects of partlcular ch^nges", I.e. the 
short-riin vlew. 

b. LIalthus's erplanation of underconstunption - over- 
accumulation ? 

(1) /^eneral overaccuinulatlon or "too niuch saving**? 
althoTigh he admittcd t Rocardo that in the long run overacctunu- 
lation will be corrected through a decline of prices and incre- se 
of wages to the point where profits are disappearlng, he stress- 
ed that the short-run overaccumulation is factual and a serious 
occurrence; 

(2) lack of "effective deinand" for goods produced 
in the course of overjiCcuiBulf'tion t 

(a) "efftctlve demand*' : vvould cover the "v lue" 
of coimcodities; 

(b) the v?^luc of g ods t revivlng Srith's 
"cost of production** theory, l^althus rrr^int ined thnt value = 
labor ♦ capital > profit or wa^e ♦ interest ♦ pro it; 



Eco 3 



- 44 - 



k ^ 



(c) value and e^fectlve doBirmd ? the v^lue of 
goods *»ooinirands more labor in the market" then the two cost ele- 
rrents creating their value? present l'ibor (wa.s'«) ♦ past l^bor 
(interest). The proflt of the capitallst will be adaed to his 
demand for "productive labor" and the ein; loyir.ent of this produc- 
tive l?3bor will bring about "too auch saving", i.e. overaccunmla- 
tion. The resulting ouput represents overprcduction in relation 
to the "effective demand" of wage eivrneYü and capitalists . 

c» Malthus's remedy of overaccuirulation - "unproductiva 
consumption" i 

To bridge the cleavage bctveen ovcrsaving and effec- 
tive demand, Ilalthus recomr.endcd thc*^t the "profit* of the manu- 
facturer and the "rent" of the landlord be spent on "unproductive 
consumption", i«e« "the employment of the poor in reads and pub- 
lic works" and "among landlords and persons of i)roperty to build, 
to improve and beantify their grounds and to employ worknien and 
menial servants". 



f 



2. Sismondi's Overproduction Th ory ? 

Jean Charles Leonard de Sisnondl (1773-184?) ,whose real 
namt was Simonde, was born in Geneva, He desccnded from a Protes- 
tant Italian family whlch had settled in France and fl d from 
there to England dtiring the French Revolution. After business 
aiprenticeships in Lyons and in England he re turne d to Geneva. 
In l.:03 his second book The Coicmercial Wealth [ha Kichesse Com- 
mercialej was published; it was^Sxposition of Smith 's theories. 
He then turned to historical studies of the Italian Republicr. 
in the lyiiddle A^es (1807-19) • In 1819 he was invited, appnrent- 
ly at the Suggestion of Malthus^ to contribute an article on 
"Political Economy* to the Edinburgh Encyclopaedia in whlch he 
revired his views based on /^dam Smith and becair.e critlcal of the 
Classioal school. His article w?is subsequently published as a 
took: under the title New Prinoiples of Political lilconomy (2Jou- 



Kco 5 



- 45 - 



X 



vaux Prlnclpes d'^conomle politlruo). 

a« Slsmondi's Theory of Overproduction ? 

(1) The tendency toward overexpanslont In Order 
to emplgy capltal profitably, productlon must be expanded con- 
tinuously. The demand of workers for the goods produced does 
not absorb the entlre Output, because wages are belng kext as 
low as po8slble and the aj pll("ntlon of machines tends to create 
unemployment. Slnce nelther capital nor labor con be vlthdrwam 
froiß productlon, flxed c?2pital will be used steadlly and the 
workers will accept longer hours and low/er wages. 

(2) The posslble but not feasible count er tenden- 
cy? would be an increase of luxury consuinption on the part of 
the capltalists. This would tend to reestablish eoullibrium, 
Instead, capital becomes concentrated in fewer hands snd inten- 
sifles the urge for more productlon whlch icust result In com- 
merclal crlses» 

b. Slsmondl's Remedy of the Tendency toward Over- 
production: 

The govemxnent would have to inltiate two basic 
reforms s 

(1) reunion of labor and property? revival of 
the economic existence of independent and propertled producers, 
the small famiers and artisans; 

(2) control of industrial progress? brake on the 
introductlon of labor savlng Inventions« 

II. The Classical Thesis - The Impossibility of Overproduction 
and Overaccumulation in the Long Runs Say and Ricardo. 

1. Say 's Refutation of the Posslbllity of General Over- 
production t 

a. The "Law of the LSarkets" ("Theorie des debouchdee*) 



>äM*i««l^^«j kl» 



£co 3 



- 46 - 



I ^ 



In thc Version given It by James jtill states that each supply 
creates Its own demand; 

b« Overproduction in one particular field t causes 
deficiencies in other fields« This short-mn particular over- 
produc Lion would be corrected through the price oechnnisro. 

2. Ricardo 's Refutation of the Po3sibility of Gf^nenl 
Overaccumulation ? 

a. Accuinulation of capital : In accordance with his 
general tbeory, Ricardo defined acciuriul':tion as increasod de- 
Band for productive labor =» ^productive consurrption"; 

b. The correction of overaccuirulation ("too much 
saving") ? if accuinulation of capital - identical with "saving* 
- would proceed too rapidly, then the demand for produktive la- 
bor woulü exceed its supply, wage» would increase too fiist and 
Profits would decline to the point where the incentive for accu- 
laulation would disappear; 

The possibility of particular overaccumul?ntion ? 
following Say, Ricardo naintoined that overacciiiEulation could 
occur in one field only and that capital would then move into 
more profitable occupations. 



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- 29 - 



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B, Thomas R.Mal thus - Population and Ront 

Thomas R.Mal thus (l766>1854),son of Daniel MalthusyStudied in Cambridge 
humanities,wrote 1798 An Essay on the Principle of Population in reply 
to a discussion with William Godwin who expected improvement of society 
from reasonable condact of man and man' s right to his produce. In 1815 he 
published An Enguiry into the Natura of Progress of Rent. In 1825 he was 
appointed professor of modern history and political economy at the College 
of the East India Company at Haileybury. Malthus made two contributions to 
classical theory: 

1. The Theory of F^pulation: the geometric progress of population against 
the arithmetic progression of food can be checked by 

a. increase of the death rate:through wars, epidemica, etc. or 

b. decrease of the birth rateithrough vice or moral restraint. 

If not checked, misery will result. This misery should not benefit from 
charity, 

2, The Theory of Rent: the "differentiel rent** is bound to increase with 
the growth of the population and the necessity to teke poorer land into 
cultivation. 






P/' 



C. Jean Baptiste Say ~ Productive Services and the Entrepreneur 

Jean Baptiste Say (1767-1832) was born in Geneva 4Ato a Huguenot family. 
Sent to England to study the silk trade, he became there acquainted with 
the Political Economy inspired by Smith. Returning to France he served as 
government official under Napoleon but he resigned this position to Veoome 
a successful manufacturer. Fron 1830 to 1832 he was professor of Political 
Economy at the College de France. In his Treatise of Political Economy 
(Traiti d* tf conomiiqve politique) published in 1803 he systematized and 
"purified" Smith* s theories maintaining that 

1. all factors of production are productive: lana,labor and capital are 
äqual ly productive and therefore 

2. wage,profit and rent:represent rewards of ''productive Services** which 
are being brought by 

3. the entrepreneur iwhose income.the "profit'*,constitutes a reward for his 
particular function,the combination of proauctive factors. This profit 
is different from Smith' s concept which in fact regards ,according to 
Say,merely "interest**, i.e.a return on invested capital. 



i«#ff 



■ ■ um' 



D. David Ricardo - Valaa and Distribution 

The Prineipl»a of Political Bconomy and Taxation , 1817 (3rd ed. 1821) 

A, Th« subject and method of Political Economy: 

1. The central iss'ae:**to determine the laws which regulato (the) distri- 
bution" of the whole prodice of a nation between the three classea 

of Society (Preface to Ist ed. ,Roll3,l76) ; 

2. The Position of the value theory:the analysis of the causes of ex- 
change value leads to the explanation of the surplus product and ^ 
its distribution; 

3. The a priori (**let us suppose**) methodimakes ^the reader (of the 
Principlea) breeth* a highly rarefied air of abstraction" (Roll^,175). 

B. The Theory of Value and Price. 

1. The sources of value: 

a, use vclue (utility):is an essenticl condition of exchange value; 

b, scarcityiis another possible condition but applies only to non- 

reproducible goods such as rare pieces of art (statues); 

c, Labor: the exclusive source of exchange value of all reproducable 
goods which constitute the bulk of capitalistic production. j 

2. The relative exchange ve lue: the exchange ratio is determined by "the i 
comparative quantity of commodities which labor will produce" (Prin- t 
ciples (Everyman),p,6). (Roll cleims that Ricardo, contrary to his ! 
assertion^was concerned with *ab»oHlite value' ,Roll^, 178). 

3. Labor as source of value: 

a, in a primitive society: value is derived from labor only; 

b. in a capitalist society:value is derived from present and past 1 
labor; out of this value are paid wage and profit. 

4. Value and Price: they are not iaentical for two reasons 

a, differences in the capital structure:if price is determined by 
the average rate of profit then the higher capital ization raises 
prices above the value determined by labor only ("Whet Ricardo 
in fact does is to pose a fresh problem which he never solved. 
Marx..offered no Solution )(either»»,Roll3, 179/1 80) 

b. ehanges in supply and demand. 

5. Price (=Market price) is determined by 

a. the average wage rate: the price of present labor and 

b, the average rate of profit: the price of past labor. 



Both average rates resuit from complete mobility of labor 
and capital. If the market price exceeds value (D S),then 

c. the differential rett becomes a part of the market price 



i 



V. 



Eco 3 



- 31 - 



C, The Theory of Wages, Profit and Rent 

I. The theory of labor (present labor) and wage: 

1. Natural price of labor: subsistence aecording to habiti 

2. Market price of labor: differs from the natural price 
due to supply and demand. It may rise above the natu- 
ral price if the demand for labor increasee aecording 
to increased accumulation of capital; 

3. The tendency of wage to equal subsistence ("The Iron 
Law of Wages" - Ferdinand Lasalle): the market price 
of labor exceeding the natural price will stimulate 
the increase of labor supply through higher birth rate 
(Malthus) and thus,in the long run, bring the market 
price down to the natural price. 



I r-, 



II. The theory of capital (past or stored up labor) and 

Profit: 

1. The definition of capital as stored-up labor was 
designed: 

a. to avoid Smith' s contradistinction between two 
value theories : the pure labor theory as applicab- 
le to the original state of society and the cost of 
production & deduction theories as applying to the 
advanced state of society, and thus 

b. to make the pure labor theory of value applicable 
to every state of economic development. 

2. The theory of profit: 

a. the nature of profit: return on investment=/the use 
of past labor in production made available by the 
capitalist in either manufacturin^: or commerce 
("profit" in the usual sense) or agriculture("rent" 

in the sense of "absolute" or "natural" (Petty) rent 

b. the average rate of profit: is the result of 

(1) supply of and demand for capital, and 

(2) the tendency of capital toward employment in 
the most profitable area; this proposition 
implies complete mobility of capital 

c. the relation between wage and profit: is inverse; 
this proposition implies perfect competition in 

v/hich the "value" of goods is determined by the 
marke t • 



**■*■ 



Eco 3 



- 32 - 



III. The theory of rent: 



1. The natura of rent: Ricardo, following Malthus,identi- 
fied rent with differential rent because 

a. "absolute" rent: would contradic:t a labor theory 
of value according to which only present and past 
labor can produce "value", but not land, and 

b. a peculiar income in agriculture had to be explain- 
ed: Ricardo assumed (wrongly,as Wicksteed showed) 

that a differential rent can arise only in agricul- 
ture. 

2. The cause of differential rent: 

a. the "value" of agricultural products: equals the 
cost of production on the worst soll, i.e. soll with 
relatively low fertility and in an area unfavorably 
located relative to the market; 

b. the size of differential rent: depends on 

(1) the market price: if it exceeds the cost of 
production on worst soil,even this soil will 
permit a differential rent and the differential 
rent on better soils will increase accordingly; 

(2) the fertility and relative loca::ion of the soil; 
will determine,how much differential rent will 
accrue to the iandlord . 



n 



D. The ilheory of Economic Development: 

1. The Methodological Framework: the distinction between short- 
run and long-run. Ricardein using this distinction, consid- 
ered as 

a. short-run: the "commercial crisis" which he thought to 
be a disproportion between different Industries caused 
by extraneous forces such as wars,taxes,etc. ; 'on this 
point he was influenced by Say; 

b. long-run: the tendency of the profit to decline and also, 
in the 3rd edition of the Principles ,the effect on ma- 
chines on employment;^owever, the problem of profits in 
the course of economic development should have been treai 
ed as one of 

c. tendency = secular trend: a concept unfamiliar to Ricar- 
do. 



V 



Eco 3 



- 33 - 



2. The Effect of Economic Development on the Distribution of 
Incomes: economic development requires continuous capital 
accumulation or increasing "productive consumption" = demanc 
for "productive labor" . This demand tends to raise 



v< \ 



t1 



a. wages: but the increase in wages will be a rise in "no- 
minal" wages only because,for reasons of higher food 
prices (see later under c), wages will tend to be subsist- 
ence; 

b. Profits: 

(1) the average profit rate: the short-run Besult of 
competition and capital movements is subject to a 

(2) decline in the "long-run" ( ., tendency): since 

(a) wages tend to rise: because demand for "product- 
ive labor" outruns its supply and 

(b) the inverse relation between profit and wage: 
causes profits (counted in monetary terms) to 
decline with rising wages (counted therefore alsc 
in monetary terms )^ 

c. rents (= differential rents): tend to increase with the 
larger demand for food on the part of labor because land 
of lesser fertility has to be taten under cultivation; 

d. the pessimistic implication of this theory: capitalists 
and laborers contributing to economic development sire 
losing or at least not gaining in the process while the 
landlords,protected by tariffs under the "Corn Laws" are 
the beneficiaries of industrialization. 



r: 



/ 



•mnK^nni 



Bco 3 

IV, E. A Controversy on Commarcial Crises - Malthua-Sismondl vs.Say-Rjcardo 



'■r'V 



I. Th» Theory of ünderconsumption and Overproduction: llalthus^Sismondi 

1. Malthu8*8 Undereonsumptlon Theory: 

Malthus developed his theory first in letters to Ricardo (between 
1814 and 1823) and then explicitly in his "Principles of Political 
Economy^,1820. There his arguments were based od the experiences of 
tho British »»commercial crisis" of 1815^20. 

a, Method of Malthus' reasoning: 

Malthus,as Ricardo pointed out tc him (letter of January 24,1817), 
was inelined to overemphasise the "immediate and temporary ef- 
fects of particular changes", i.e. the short run view. 

b. Malthas* ezplanation of underconsumption - overaccumulation: 

(1) general overaccumalation or **too much saving": although he 
admitted to Ricardo that in the long run overaccumalation 
will be corrected through a decline of prices and increase 

of wages to the point where profits are disappeering,he stress- 
ed that the short run overaccumulation is factual and a serious 
development; i 

(2) lack of "affective demand'*:for goods produced in the course 
of overaccumulation 

(a) "effective demand": would cover the value of commodities 

(b) the value of goods ireviving Smith' s "cost of production" 
theory, Malthus maintained that value =- labor / capital 
/ profit or wage / interest / profit. 



1^4 



ri 



mJ 



(c) discrepancy between value and effective demand:the value 
of goods "commands more labor in the market" than its con- 
stitaent •lements:present / past labor. The profit of the 
capital ist will be added to his demana for "productive 
labor" and thus will lead to an overaceumulatidn, i«e."too 
much saving" by demanding too much productive labor which 
in turn will lead to oeyrproduction in relation to the 
"effective demand" of wage aarners and capital ists. 



;1 



C, 



Malthus' remady for ovaraccmsulation - "unproductive consumption": 

To bridge tha claavage between oversaving and effective damand, | 
Malthus recommendad that the "profit" of the manufacturer and 
the "rents" of tha landlords be spent on "unproductive consumption" 
i.e. "tha employment of the poor in roads and public works" and 
"among landloras and persons of property to bulld,to improve and 
baautify their grounds and to employ workman and menial servants". 



j 



»wf^m • "mmm 



Kco 3 



2, Sismondi' s Overproduction Theory: 

J»an Charles Leonard Sismondi de Sismondi (1773-1842) was born into 
a Protestant Italian family which had fled from France and settled in 
Geneve, After business apprenticeships in Lyons and in England he pub- 
lished in 1803 The Commercial Wealth (La Richesse Commerciale) in the 
Smith tradition. during the following 16 years he devoted himself to 
historical studies of the Italian republics and of the French people. 
In 1819 he was invited,apparently on the Suggestion of Malthus,to con- 
tribute an article on "Political Economy" to the Edinburgh Encyclopae- 
dia in which he revisea his opinions based on Smith and turned critical 
toward the Classical System. He published subsequently his article as 
a book under the title New Principles of Political Economy (Nouvaaux 
Principes d'^conomie politique). 

a. Sismondis Theory of Overproduction: 

(1) The tendency toward overexpansion: in Order to employ capital 
prof itably,production must be expanded continuously, The demand 
of workers for the gooda produced does not absorb the entire 
Output, because wages are kept as low as possible and the appli- 
cation of machines tends to create unemployment. Since neither 
capital nor labor can be withdrawn from production,fixed capital 
will be used continuously and the workers will accept longer 
hours and lower wages. 

(2) The possible but not feasible countertendency: would be an in- 
crease of luxury consumption on the part of the capitalists. This 
would tend to reestablish equilibrium. Instead, capital becomes 
concentrated in fewers hands and intens ifies the urge for more 
production which must result in commercial crises. 

b, Sismondi* s Remedy of the Tendency toward Overproduction; 
The government would have to initiate two basic reforms: 

(a) reunion of labor and property:revival of the economic existence 
of independent and propertied proaucers : the small farmers and 
artisans. 

(b) control of industrial progre3s:brake on the introduction of 
labor saving inventions. 



II. The Classical Thesis - The Impossibility of Overproduction and OveraccumUr- 
lation the Long Run:Say and Ricardo. 

1. Say* 8 Refutation of the Possibility of General Overproduction: 

a. Say' 8 "Law of the Markets" ("Theorie des debouch^es") : in the version 
given it by James Mill states that each supply creates its own de- 
mand. 

b. Overproduction in one partioular field:caases deficiencies in other 
fields. This short-run particular overproduction would be corrected 
through the price mechanism. 



Eco 3 

j 
. ( ' .. - ' 

2. Ricardo' 8 Refutation of tha Possibility of Overaccumulation; 

a. Accuinulation of capitaliln accordance with bis general theory, Ricardo 



definad accumulation as 
duetive consumption". 



increpsäd demand for proüuctive labor or "pro- 



b. 



The correction of oiveraccunnilation ("too much saving"): if accumula- 
tion of capital - identical with "saving" - would proceed too rapidly, 
then the demand for productiye labor would exceed its supply,wagep 
would increase too fast and profits would decline to the point wh< 
the incentive for accumulation would disappear. 



where 



c. 



The possibility of pnrticular overaccumulation: following Say, Ricardo 
maintained that overaccumulation would occur in one fiela only ana 
that capital would then move into more profitable occupations. 



i II 






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riushing, N.y, 



Division of the Social Sciences 



Pa^e #1 



Economic 8 3 



DEVELOPMENT OF ECONO>aC THOUCST 



'U 



M ''^' Y 



I. The Arietotelian Her i tage 

A. Aristotle and Ancient Greek Economic Thought: 

Bell, J.F., A HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOÜGHT, pp. 26-^4 

Hajiey, L.H,, HISTORY OF ECO'TOMIC THOUGHT, ^th ed., pp. 56-72 

Heimann, E,, HISTORY OF ECONOMIC DOCTRDTES, -pp. 22-2/f 

Roll, E., A HISTORY OF ECON(»^IC THOUGHT, pp. 12-28 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, SODSCS READUTGS IN ECOFOMIC THOUGHT, 

pp. 1-14 
Soudek, J., ARISTOTLE'S THBORY OF EXCHANGE. Proceedings of the 

American Philosophical Society, vol. 96, n.l, pp. 45-75 

B, ST. Thomas Aquinae and the Schoolmen; 

Bell, op, cit., pp, 60-74 

Haney, op, cit,, pp. 9I-IO8 

Roll, ap. cit., pp. 33-48 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit,, pp. 15-21 

Spiegel, H.W., THE DEVEL0PM3NT OF ECOinTOMIC THOJGHT, pp. l6-30 

II. Mer cant i 1 i sm 

A, Bodin and the Controveray on Inflation: 

Bell, op. cit., pp. 100-102 
Heimann, op. cit., pp. 29-30 
Roll, op. cit., pp. 45-57 

B, The English Mercantilists - Interest Rate and Foreign Trade: 

Bell, op. Qit., pp, 77-89 

Saney, op. cit,, pp« Ulrrl45 

Heimann, op. cit., pp. 24—36 

Roll, op, cit., pp. 57-84 

Newman, Gay er, Spencer, op, cit,, pp, 24-37, 43-48 

Spiegel, op, cit,, pp. 31-41 

Keynes, J,M,, THE GBNEP.AL THEORY OF EMPLOYMEWT,pp. 333-371 

III. The Foiinders of Political Economy 

A, The Political Philosophers - Petty, Locke, Htime 

Bell, op. cit., pp. 89-96 

Heimann, op, cit., pp, 3^^-40; 44-47 

Roll, op. cit., pp, 85-124 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit., pp. 6O-67; 86-90 



l.i«A.. 



Divis Ion of the Social Sciences 

B, The Systematizers - Cantillon, Steaart: 



Page #2 
Economic 8 3 



"1 







Bell, op. cit., pp. l(y*-106;90 

Heimann, op. cit., pp. kO^k^ 

Roll, op. cit., pp. 124-132 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit,, pp. 68-85; 49-52 

Spiegel, op. cit., pp. 42-60 

0, The Physiocrats - An Analysis of Circulation: 

Bell, op. cit., pp. 121-144 

Gide, Ch. and Rist. Gh., A HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT, 2nd ed., 

pp. 21-68 
Haney, op. cit., pp. 171-206 
Heimann, op. cit., pp. 52-63 
Hewman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit,, pp. 93-116 
Spiegel, op. cit., pp. 83-109 



IV, The Classical System 



A. Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations: 

Bell, op. cit., pp. 147-191 

Gide and Rist, op. cit., pp. 68-133 

Haney, op. cit., pp. 171-244 

Heimann, op. cit., pp. 63-8O 

Roll, op. cit,, pp. 148-183 

Ne\snnan, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit., pp, 

Spiegel, op, citi, pp. 113-143 

B, Two Disciples - Malthus and Say 



117-156 



r'" 



Bell, op. cit., pp. I92-2OI; 283-289 
Gide and Rist. op. cit., pp. 135-153; 118-130 
Heimann, op. cit.. pp. 84-90; 107-110 
Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit,, pp, 170-177 
Spiegel, op. cit., pp. 1^^157 

C, David Ricardo - Value and Distri'bution; 

Bell, op, cit,, pp. 215-245 

Gide and Rist, op. cit., pp. 153-182 

Haney, op. cit,, pp, 283-310 

Heimann, op. cit., pp. 92-106 

Roll, op. cit., pp. 183-200 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit., pp. 191-211 

Spiegel, op. cit., pp. I58-I83 

D, A Controversy on Economic Crises - Ricardo and Say versus 
Malthas and Sismondi: 

Bell, op. cit., pp. 285-286; 211-212 

Gide and Rist, op. cit., pp. I3O-I33 

Heimann, op. cit., pp. 110-112; I28-I3O 

Roll, op. cit., pp. 200-201; 215-226 

Newman, Gayer, SDencer, op. cit., pp. 157-164; 177-190; 274-286 



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Division of the Social Sciences 



Page #3 
Economics 3 



D. A Controfversy on Economic Crises - Ricardo and Say versus 
Malthus and Sismondi: (continaed) 

Keynes, J.M., ESSAYS IN BIOGRAPHT, pp. 95-l'*9 

E, J, St. Hill - LiTjeralism and Political Economyt 

Bell, op, cit., pp, 256-278 

Gide and Rist, op. cit., pp. 35^378 

Haney, op, cit,, pp. ^3-if75 

Heimann, op. cit,, pp, 119-123 

Roll, op. cit., pp. 387-^03 

Newman, Gayer, Spencer, op. cit., pp. 226-233 

Spiegel, op. cit., pp. 201-225 



v 




QUEENS COLLEGE 
Flußhing, N.Y. 



i> 



Division of the Social Sciences 



DE^/ELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT 



Reading AssigniLents 



I. The Aristotelian Heritage. 

A. Aristotle anci in-ir.fiiit Greek Scononic Thought: 



h: 



Economic s 3 



Roll, E., K :ii"fT.)PY CF ECONOMIC TIIJJGHT, pp. 12-. 28 or 
Neff, F.A. , ECONOKIC D X'TrUNEf:, pp. 15-30 
Haney, L.IL , HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGin?, ^tli edition, pp< 
Heimann, E., IIISTOKY OF ECONOMIC DOCTHINES, pp. 22-2U 

B. Thoaa^ Aquinas and the Schoolnen: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 33-^8 or 
Neff, op.cit. pp. 38- '+8 
Haney, op.cit., pp, 91-i08 



56-72 



1 



(o 




II. Mercantilism, 

A. Bodin and the Controversy on Inflation: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. i<-9-57 or 
Neff, op.cit.,pp. h^'^S 
Heimann, op.cit., xjp. 29-30 

B. The English Mercantilists - Interest Rate and ForeignTrade: 



Roll, op.cit., pp. 57-84 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 58-60 
Haney, op.cit., 111-145 
Heimann, op.cit.,i:p. 2k-'^^ 



36 



III. The Founders of Political i^conomy. 

A. The Political Philo sopl-iors - Petty, Locke, Hume 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 85-124 or 
Neff, op.cit. ,pp. 78-83; 87-91 
Heimann, op.cit., pp. 36-40; 44-47 



B. 



The Systematizerß - Cantillon, Steuart 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 124-132 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 84-87; 91-94 
Heimann, op.cit., pp. 40-44 



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III. Continued 






C. The Physiocrats - An Analysis of Circulation 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 132-1^+2 or 

Neff, op. cit., pp. 67-77 

Gide, Ch. and Rist, Ch., A HISTORY 0? ECONOMIC DOCTRIKES, 2nd edition, 

pp. 21-68 
Haney , op . c i t . , n , > . 171 _206 
He imaiin , op . r. :. l . . ^'. c „ 5 2-63 



H^^ 



IV. The Classical Sy uteri. 

A. Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 148-183 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 95' -123 
Gide and Rist, op.cit^ ^p, 68-133 
Haney, op.clt.,pp. 17^-244 
Heirnann, op.cit., pp. 63-8O 

B. Two Discipleß - Meilthus and Say: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 207-211; 348-35^4- or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 143-Iii9; I7I-I76 
Gide and Rist, op.cit., pp. 135-I53; 118-130 
Haney, op.cit., pp. 257-271; 273-279 
Heimann, op.cit., pp. 84--90; 107-110 

C. David Ricardo - Value and Distribution: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 183-200 or 

Neff, op.cit., pp. 157-170 

Gide and Rist, op.cit., pp. 153-182 

Haney, op.cit., pp. 283-310 

Ee imann , op . c i t . , pp . 92- IO6 

D. A Controversy on Machines - Say, Ricardo, Sismondi: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 202-20i^; 252-258 or 

Neff, op.cit., pp. 231-2^2 

Gide and Rist, op.cit., pp. 19^-196 

Haney, op.cit., pp. 395-398 , 

E. A Controversy on Economic Crises - Ricardo and Say versus Malthus and 

Sismondi: 
Roll, op.cit., pp. 200-201; 215-226 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 176-177 
Gide and Rist, op.cit., pp. 130-133 
Heimann, op.ciü., pp. 110-112; 128-130 



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IV. Continued 

P. The Ricardians - James Mill, Mc Culloch: 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 363-369 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 177-183 

G. J. St. Mill - Liberalism and Political Economy; 

Roll, op.cit., pp. 387-^03 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 299-328 
Gide and Rist, op.cit., pp. 35^-378 
Haney, op.cit., pp. kk^-k'J'^ 
Heimann, op.cit., pp. 119-123 



V. Towards Modern Economic s. 

Roll, op.cit., pp. ^4-0^-^11 or 
Neff, op.cit., pp. 329-3^3 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 



General Works: 



Bonar, J., Philosophy and Political Economy in Some of Thoir Historical Rela- 

tions . 
Stark, W., The History of Economics in Its Relation to Social Development. 
Zweig, F., Economic Ideas, A Study in Historical Perspective. 

Selected Readings and Leading Works in Special Fields 



I. The Aristotelian Heritage. 



i\ 



A. Aristotle and Ancient Greek Economics. 

Monroe, A.E., Early Economic Thought, pp. 3-29 
Trever, A.A., A History of Greek Economic Thought. 

B. Thomas Aquinas and the Schoolmen; 

Monroe, op.cit., pp. 53-77, 81-102 . .^^ 

Beer, M., Early British Economics, pp. 15-59 (t^^JL^^Ö-^*^ --^ i 

Beer, M., An Inquiry into Physiocracv, pp. 27-75^^3^*-»'/; »^'•'''^^i ^^'"-^31 J) 

O'Brien, G.A.T., An Essay on Mediaeval Economic Thinking. 

Tawney, R.H. , Religion and the Rise of Capitalism (Pelican Books), pp. 

39-5^; 61-115 

Peck, H,W. , Economic Thought and Its Institutional Background, pp. 21- 
30 



/ 



f HW ^P K II ) ! I. 



h. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTINUED 



II. Mercantilism. 

A. Bodln and the Controversy on Influation: 

Kapp, K.W., Readings in Economics, ^■p.3k-h6 

Monroe, op.cit., pp. 123-1^6 • 

B. The English Mercantilists: 

Abbot, L.D., Masterworks of Economics, pp. 11-37 

Monroe, op.cit., pp. 17I-I97 

Beer, Early British Economics, pp. 60-157 

Heckscher, E.F., Mercantilism 

Johnson, E.A.J. , Predecessors of Adara Smith, pp. 19-89 

Keynes, J.M. , The General Theory of Employment, pp. 333-371 

Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations, Modern Library ed., pp. 398-^19 

Viner, J., Studies in the Theory of International Trade, chapters, 1, 2, 

Peck, op.cit., pp. 31-^8 



O 



III. The Founders of Political Economy 

A. The Political Philosophers - Petty, Locke, Hume: 

Kapp, op.cit., pp. 66-96 

Monroe, op.cit., pp. 201-220, 311-33Ö, 2^^7-277 
Beer, Early British Economics, pp. 158-2^4-2 
Johnson, op.cit., pp. 93-23^ 

B. The Systematizers: 

Higgs, H. and Jevons, W.S., An Essay on the Nature of Commerce in Gen- 
eral. 

C. The Physiocrats: 

Monroe, op.cit., pp. 3^-3^8; 351-375 

Beer, An laquiry into Physiocracy, pp. 13-26, 73-189 

Higgs, H., The Physiocrats. 

Smith, A., The Wealth of Nations, pp. 627-652 



IV. The Classical System 

Bowley, M., Nassau Senior and Classical Economics. 

Cannan, E. , A History of the Theories of Produclion and Distribution in 

English Political Economy frora I776 to l8i^8. 
Stark, W., The Ideal Foundations of Economic Thought, pp. I-50 
Peck, op.cit., pp. 75-188 



\\ 



^ 



:.V'.»;'. 



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTirJUED 



5. 



-J 



IV. The Classical System Continued: 



A. Adam Smith: 



Abbot, L-D., op.cit., pp. 63-I89 

Clark, J.M. and others, Adam Smith, I776-I926 

Catherwood, B.F., Basic Theories of Distribution, pp. 20- 5Ö 

Ginzberg, E., The House of Adam Sraith 

Haidane, R.B., Life of Adam Smith 

Rae, J., Life of Adam Sraith. 

B. Two Disciples - Malthus and Say: 

Abbot, op.cit., pp. 191-270 
Catherwood, op.cit., pp. 59-9^ 
Halevy, op.cit., pp. 225-2^^-8 
Bonar, J, , Malthus and Eis Work 

C. David Ricardo: 



1 



Abbot, op.cit., pp. 271-3^+2 

Catherwood, op.cit., pp. 95-139 

Halevy, op.cit., pp. 264-282, 318-3^2 

Hollander, J.H., David Ricardo 

Marshall, A., Principles of Political Economy, Appendix I 



D. A Controversy on Machines: 

Ricardo, D., The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, eh. 3I 

E. A Controversy on Economic Crises: 

Keynes, J.W. , Essays in Biography, pp. 95-1^9 

F. J. St. riill: 



iji 



Abbott, op.cit., pp. 379-^51 

Catherwood, op.cit., pp. 177-236 

Davenport, H.J. , Value and Distribution, pp. 107-120, hk-Q^ 

Bain, A., J. St. Mill 

Mill, J. St.,Autobiography. 






■MMMMMiaM»*. 



I M ■ »1 iiiarwi 



«■• I ■ *i» *■ 




JU Vision of the Social Scionces 



QUEENS COlIiSGE 
Flushing, N. Y, 



8/13/44 



Economics 3 



I. 



o 



III, 




rBVSLOPIffiM! OP ECONOMIC TKOUGHT 

The Course of Study 

( Starred rcferences aro required ) 

The Aristütelian Hori taget 

A, Annient Greece: 

*Holl, E., A HISTORY OF BCONOlvIIC THOUGHT, pp. 15 - 28 
♦Monroe, A. E, , EARLY ECONOHIC THOUGHT, pp. 3 - 29 er 
Laistncr, M, L, W. , G-RSBK ECONOMICS, pp. '5.* - i^7 
Llar::, K., CAPITAL, Modern Library ed., pp. 68 - 69 
Trovcr, A. A, , A HISTORY OF GRSBK ECONOMC THOUGHT. 



B. 



Tho Middlö Agos; 



n' 



*.cloll, op. cit., pp, 33 - 48 

"ilonroc, op. cit., pp. 53 - 77, 81 - 102 

Pock,. H. W,, ECONOMIC THjUGHT AITD ITS INSTITUTJONAii 3ACKGP.0UND, pp. 21-30 
Dompsey, B. W, . INTEKfcST AND USURY, pp. 114 - 185 
0«Brien, G. A, T. , AN ESSAY ON MBDI/ßVAL ECONOMIC THIMKING 



II, Mercantilism! 



^.0 c^^ . ! :i'^-<4-i, -, 



\ • o 



i-»k* I iÄ« ( S*-?* 



♦Roll, op. cit., piD, 49 - 84 or 

♦Scott, W. A,, TnE^DEVELOEL'IENT 07 BCONOIvUCS, pp, 7-26 

*Honroe, op. cit,, pp.l23 - 146, l"^! - 197 - •;-.. i 

♦Smith, A., THE WEALTK OF NATIONS, Modern Library ed., pp. "S^^^^^il^B 

fKeynes, J. M. , THE Gi^.lIEÄAL T.iEOKY OF SIvPLOYViENT , pp. 333 - 371 

Pcck, op. cit,, pp, 31 - y^ 

Heckscher, E. F, , I/IERCANTILISM. 

Johnson, S. A, J,, PEEiaiCBSSORS OF ADAl^ 3HITH, pp. 19 - 89 
- Small, A. W,, THE OA^ffiRALISTS. 
> Vinor, J, , STUDIES IN THE TIISOHY OF I NTERMT I ONAL TZUIE, Chs, 1-2 

The Foundors of "Political Economy': 

A, The Political Philosophers; 

♦Roll, op. cit,, p^. 85 - 132 

♦Monroe, op. cit.. pp. 201 - 2.^, 311 - 338, 247 - 277 

Johnson, op, cit,, pp» 93 - 234 

Bonar, J,, PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICAL EOCNOIiT, pp. 59-129 



B. 



The Physiocratst 

♦Roll, op-, cit,, op, 132 - 147 or 

♦Gide, C. and Rist, C,, HISTORY OF ECONOMIC D0CTRIN3S, pp, 1 . 

nionroo, op. cit,, pp. 341 - 348, 351 - 375 

Swcozy, P, M,, THE TKSORy Oi' CAPIT^ILIST DblVELOPMEiMT , pp, 365 

Beer, M,, M' INQUIRY INTO PHYSIOCÜACY. 

Higgs, H., THE PT-IYSIOCRilTS. 
♦Siidth, op» cit,, pp, 627 - 652 



50 
. 374 



^, 



y 



M 



v: 



' S 



'««. 



• 
1 


, ■ •'-^ ■ . 



lY. Tho Classical Systom: 

1, Adam Smith *^ ^ — ^*' 




' , '■? , U - ■»• ^ •) I • -j - , iT ' • « • < ^ ' , < **i* • M y . 



vr -<f- ••.-■■', i 



*Rüll, op. cit., pv. 148 - 183 or 

♦Gide and Hirt, op. cit., pp. 50 .. 102 or 

*Sco-r,t, op, cit., pp. €1 - b9 

*Smith, A., THE ^.TSALTH 07 N^VTIONS, pp, 1. - 176, 259 - 355 

pGck, op. cit, T>p, 75 --96 

CTarV. J. M. ot al,. AlLU'i SHITH. 1775 - 1926 
GinzTD3rg, 35., TIE H0US3 0? AILU: SHITE 
Rao, J., II35E 0? ALAi: SillTK 



2, 



> 1 i I ■> 



b^Dii , i':»«!-^. J.'^', I »•^-. ^^Sh 



3. 



Hicardo: 

*Roll, op. oit., pp. 133 - 207 or 

♦Scott, CT. cit., p-o. 105 - 124 or j 

!fc.i" =). :^: -^li'cipus ü? poLlTiciL roo-o;;: a:t3 taution. Even 

Pock, wp. '-u'-, ., '\:-j:>^ 97 .- 188 ^^J 

Holländer, J. H., mvID RICAPcIX) 

Malthus: 

♦Roll, op. cit., pp. 207 - 211, 215 - 226 
♦G-idG and Rist, op.. cit., pp, 120 - 137 
♦Pattcrson, op, cit., pp. 128 - 176 

Malthus, R., ESSAY ON POPULiVTION 
^onar, J. , MALTHUS AND HIS WORK 



Koynos, J. M. , ESSAYS IN BiPjJOGRAPHY, pp. 95 - 149 



V# ThG Liboralist School: 



*Roll, op. cit., pp. 347 - 403 or 

♦&idG and Rist, op. cit., pp. 322 - 376 or 

♦Scott, op. cit., pp. 137 - 184 

♦Patterson, op. cit., pp. 415 - 45, 446 - 466, 219 - 322 
Peck, op. cit., po. 188 - 223 
Mill, J. St.. PRINCIPLSS OP POLITICAL ECONOin" 
Bowley, M., MSSAU SENIOR AND CLASSICAL ECONOMICS 
Davonport, H. J., VALUE AND DISTRIBUTION, pp. 107 - 120, 44 - 83 
Halevy, E., THE GROWTH OP PHILOSOPHICAL R/üDICALISM 

Norraano, T. J., THE SPIRIT OP AI,fflRI CIN ECONOMICS, pp. 33 - 52 



VI, Romanticism and tho Historical School; 

♦Roll, op. cit., pp. 226 - 248, 331 - 347 
♦GidG and Rist, op. cit., pp. 264 - 290, i 



or 



^ , op. cit., pp. 264 - 290, 379 - 407 or 

♦Scott, op. cit., pp. 187 - 211, 212 - 230 
♦Pattcrson, op. cit., pp. 381 - 413, 481 - 544 ^^^^ 

Peck, op, cit., pp. 260 - 273 



■I 



'.• ■ :' .' 







Tellhac, 3., PIÖHEE3S OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC THOUGET. 



.'( r^i 




I 



•% V 



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K 



t\ 



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^ 



'^'i 



Lt 







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VII. 



./ 



Social! sm and Marxism: 
1# Socialism: 



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i^>J^ LoC'^ , ^ 



- r C i 



>^.v^*.^ 



i • li 



*Holl, op. cit., pp. 248 - 270 or 

*Gido and Rist, op. cit,, pp. 170 - 198, 290 - 321 

♦Pattorson, op. cit., pp. 548 - 559, 592 - 607 

Pock, op, cit., pp. 325 - 363 

Laidler, H. W., A HISTORY OF SOCIALIST THOUGHT, pp. 54 - 148, 215 

Beer, M., A HISTORY OF BRITISH SOCIilLISM 



- 440 



2, Marxism; 



y> , ^ *i'.. ^-.,. 1 3. -i »« ■» ^7 ~ / . » X • i I 



: l- 



C i.6i'- «-f 



*Roll, op. cit., pp, 271 - 324 

Marx, K., CAPITAL, Modern Library od. 

Robinson, J., AN ESSAY ON iviAHXIAlJ ECONOMICS. 

Swoezy, P. M, , THE THEORY OJ CAPITALIST DSVELOPLENT, pp, 11 



- 186 



lV<<v', 



VIII, Towards Modorn Econoraica: 



♦Roll, op. cit., pp, 404 - 411 

*&ide and Rist, op. cit., pp. 517 - 544 

*Scott, op. cit., pp. 291 - 326 




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